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Full text of "Creative Computing Magazine (September 1981) Volume 07 Number 09"

creative computing 



September 1981, Vol 7 No 9, $2.50 




TO PERSONAL COMPUTERS, 
VIDEO & ELECTRONIC GAMES, 
AND CONSUMER ELECTRONICS 



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Frustrating isn't it! No matter how 
much you speed up your program 
it still seems to take forever to save 
data onto a cassette. Wouldn't it 
be great if someone could design a 
mass storage system with the speed 
of a disk, but at half the cost? 
Exatron did, the Exatron Stringy 
Floppy (ESF) . 

Totally self-contained, the ESF 
is an extremely fast, reliable, and 
economical alternative to cassette 
or disk storage of programs or 
data. All of the ESF's operations 
are under the computer's control, 
with no buttons, switches, knobs or 
levers to adjust or forget. 

The ESF uses a miniature tape 
cartridge, about the size of a busi- 
ness card, called a wafer. The 
transport mechanism uses a direct 
drive motor with only one moving 
part. Designed to read and write 



digital data only, the ESF suffers 
from none of the drawbacks of 
cassettes - without the expense of 
disks. 

Several versions of the ESF are 
available, for the TRS-80, Apple, 
PET, OSI and an RS 232 unit. 
Even the slowest of the units is 15 
times faster than a cassette, and all 
are as reliable as disk drives - in 
fact a lot of users say they are more 
reliable! 




excellence in electronics 

exatron 



To get further information about 
the ESF give Exatron a call on 
their Hot Line 800-538 8559 
(inside California 408-737 7111). 

If you can't wait any longer then 
take advantage of their 30 day 
money-back guarantee, you've 
nothing to lose but time! 

181 Commercial Street 
Sunnyvale, CA 94086 




TRS-80, Apple and PET are trademarks of Tandy, Apple and Commodore respectively 
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Mountain Computer 
put it all together 

for you. 



K 




The CPS Multifunction Card 

Three cards in one! The Mountain Computer CPS MultiFunction Card provides all the capabilities of a serial interface, parallel 
output interface and real-time clock/calendar— all on one card— occupying only one slot in your Apple II®. Serial and Parallel 
output may be used simultaneously from CPS. CPS is configured from a set-up program on diskette which sets the parameters 
(such as baud rate, etc.) for all functions contained on the card and is stored in CMOS RAM on the card. Once you have 
configured your card, you need never set it up again. You may also change parameters from the keyboard with control 
commands. All function set-ups stored on-board are battery powered for up to two years. "Phantom slot" capability permits 
assigning each of the functions of CPS to different slots in your Apple without the card actually being in those slots! For 
example, insert CPS in slot #4 and set it up so that is simulates a parallel interface in slot #1 and a clock in slot #7 and leave the 
serial port assigned to slot #4. CPS's on-board intelligence lets it function in a wide variety of configurations, thereby providing 
software compatibility with most existing programs. "We've put it all together for you"— for these reasons and many more! 
Drop by your Apple dealer and see for yourself how our CPS MultiFunction Card can expand the capabilities of your Apple and 
save you a great deal of money as well! 



Calendar/Clock 

• One second to 99 years 

• Battery backed-up (2 years) 

• Two AA standard alkaline batteries 
for back-up ( provided ) 

• Compatible with MCI Apple 
Clock™ time access programs 



Parallel Output 

• Features auto-line feed, Apple 
tabbing, line length, delay after 
carriage return, lower to upper 
case conversion 

• Centronics standard — 
reconfigurable to other standards 

• Status bit handshaking 



£i Mountain Computer 

IK INCORPORATED* 



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(408) 438-6650 TWX: 910 598-4504 



SPECIAL 

INTRODUCTORY 

PRICE 

$239. 



Serial Interface 

• Features auto-line feed, trans- 
parent terminal mode, Apple 
tabbing, line length, delay after 
carriage return, local echo of 
output characters, simultaneous 
serial/parallel output, lower to 
upper case conversion, discarding 
of extraneous LFs from serial input 

• Uses the powerful 2651 serial 
PCI chip 

• 16 selectable internal baud rates— 
50to19.2Kbaud 

• Half/Full duplex terminal operation 

• I/O interface conforms to RS-232C 

• Asynchronous/Synchronous 
operation 



'"Apple Clock was the trademark of Mountain Computer Inc "Apple and Apple II are registered trademarks of Apple Computer Inc. 

CIRCLE 191 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




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Model I 
Model HI 



Products that set Precedents. 



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CBASIC II CP/M aV 
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issue 



in this issue... in this i 



BUYER'S GUIDE - WINTER 1 982 



l 



Q Editorial Staples 

Editors & Advertisers 

COMPUTERS 
"J 2 Which Computer Is For You Staples 

-I g What Can You Buy for Under $1000? Doll 

A dozen computers from which to choose 

38 APF Imagination Machine II Ahl 

43 Commodore VIC-20 Ahl 

C-l LNW-80 Blank 

** Better than the real thing? 

54 Xerox Enters The Personal Computer Market Gray 

CO HP-83 Lubar 

Workbench wonder 

65 N£ C PC-8001 Lubar 

PERIPHERALS 

63 So You Want to Buy a Prlnter Blank 

76 So You Want to Buv a Monitor Blank 

84 So You Want More Memory Kubeck 

86 So You Want to Buy a Music Synthesizer Lubar 

89 Plck * Choose Tubb 

116 p,otters: Large and Small Warren 

1 30 Strobe Model 100 Graphics Plotter Hart 

1 38 New Products Staples 

1 A A Z-80 Softcard from Microsoft Carpenter 

CP/M for Apple 

-1 AQ Type n Talk from Votrax McComb 

Low cost voice synthesis 

SOFTWARE 
152 a Tale of Three DOSes Kimmel 

1 60 Apple Disk Utilities Lubar 

1 66 Comparison of Basics Staff 

Subscribers: Important! 

See notice on page 10. 
Products on the cover: See page 4. 



1 68 Buying Game Software Lubar 

Spending bucks for bits 

*| 7 6 Olympic Decathlon Blank 

Award-winning game program 

180 Arcade Games for TRS-80 Linzmayer 

1 84 Games for the TRS-80 Color Computer Blank 

1 90 Program Modules for the Tl 99/4 Linderholm 

1 96 CP/M Database Management Systems Hart 

212 Guide to Equipment and Software Reviews 

OOf) Book Reviews Gray 

^^ v The top ten 

226 An Unusual Computer Kit Mannering 

OTHER CONSUMER ELECTRONICS 

232 Home Computer vs. Video Game Staff 

236 New Games for Atari VCS Ahl 

242 Electronic Games Round-up Goodman, etal. 

272 Electronic Learning Aids Goodman 

276 Video Products for Computer Users Heiss 

284 BSR System X-10 Ahl 

286 Night Sentry Ahl 

288 Electronic Telephones and Accessories Gussow 

294 Electronic Music in Small Packages Gray 

298 The Microprocessor as Domestic Servant Blood 

M1MMW 

September, 1981 ■TTlFl 

Volume 7, Number 9 |^y^| 

Creative Computing magazine is published monthly by Creative Computing, P.O 
Box 789-M, Morristown, NJ 07960 (Editorial office 39 East Hanover Ave , Morris 
Plains, NJ 07950 Phone: (201) 540-0445.) 

Domestic Subscriptions: 12 issues $20; 24 issues $37; 36 issues $53 Send 
subscription orders or change of address (P.O. Form 3575) to Creative Computing. 
P.O. Box 789-M, Morristown, NJ 07960 Call 800-631-8112 toll-free (in New 
Jersey call 201-540-0445) to order a subscription (to be charged only to a bank 
card). 

Second class postage paid at Richmond, VA 23228 

Copyright ©1981 by Creative Computing. All rights reserved Reproduction pro- 
hibited Printed in USA 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



r 



staff 



r~ 



Publisher/Editor-in-Chief 



David H. Ahl 



Editorial Director 
Editor 

Associate Editor 
Managing Editor 
Contributing Editors 




Editorial Assistant 
Secretary 



George Blank 

Elizabeth Staples 

David Lubar 

Peter Fee 

Dale Archibald 

Charles Carpenter 

Thomas W. Dwyer 

Stephen B. Gray 

Glenn Hart 

Stephen Kimmel 

Harold Novick 

Peter Payack 

Alvin Toffler 

C. Barry Townsend 

Gregory Yob 

Karl Zinn 

Andrew Brill 

Elizabeth Magin 



Production Manager 
Art Director 
Artists 



Typesetters 



Laura MacKenzie 

Sue Gendzwil 

Diana Negri 

Chris DeMilia 

Joanne Fogarty 

Glen McFall 

Jean Ann Vokoun 
Maureen Welsh 



Advertising Sales 



Marketing 



Rick Burden 

Charles Coffin 

Renee Fox Christman 

Jeff Horchler 

Earl Lyon 
Laura Conboy 



Creative Computing Press 
Managing Editor 



Edward Stone 



Software Development 



Software Production 



William Kubeck 

Kerry Shetline 

Owen Linderholm 

Eric Wolcott 

Neil Radick 

Bill Rogalsky 

Rita Gerner 

Heather Everitt 



Operations Manager 

Personnel & Finance 
Bookkeeping 
Retail Marketing 

Circulation 



Office Assistants 



Order Processing 



Shipping & Receiving 



William L. Baumann 

Patricia Kennedy 

Ethel Fisher 

Jennifer Burr 
Laura Gibbons 

Frances Miskovich 

Dorothy Staples 

Moira Fenton 

Carol Vita 

Sandy Riesebeck 

Elsie Graff 

Rosemary Bender 

Linda McCatharn 

Diane Feller 

Mary McNeice 

Jim Zecchin 

Ralph Loveys 

Gail Harris 

Linda Blank 

Mark Smith 

Ronald Thorburn 

Karen Brown 

Russell Thorburn 

Mark Elio 

Scott McLeod 

Nick Ninni 

Mark Archambault 

Mike Gribbon 

Ronald Antonaccio 



advertising sales 



Advertising Coordinator 

Renee Christman 
Creative Computing 
P.O. Box 789-M 
Morristown, NJ 07960 
(201)540-0445 

Western States 

Jules E. Thompson, Inc. 

1 290 Howard Ave., Suite 303 

Burlingame, CA 94010 

(415)348-8222 

In Texas call (713) 731-2605 

Southern California 

Jules E. Thompson, Inc. 

2560 Via Tejon 

Palos Verdes Estates, CA 90274 

(213)378-8361 

Mid-Atlantic, Northeast 

CEL Associates, Inc. 
27 Adams Street 
Braintree, MA 02184 
(617)848-9306 

Midwest 

Ted Rickard 
435 Locust Rd. 
Wilmette, IL 60091 
(312)251-2541 

New York Metropolitan Area 

Nelson & Miller Associates, Inc. 
55 Scenic Dr. 

Hastings-on-Hudson, NY 10706 
(914)478-0491 

Southeast 

Paul McGinnisCo. 
60 East 42nd St. 
New York, NY 10017 
(212)490-1021 



r 



on the covep 



Electronic Games. Top row: Alien Attack 
(Coleco), Bank Shot (Parker Bros.), Lexor 
(Selchow & Righter). Middle row: Football 
(Bambino), Space Invader (Entex), Race 
N' Chase (Bambino). Bottom Row: Reflex 
(Parker Bros.), Supersonic Mastermind 
(Invicta), Dark Tower (Milton Bradley), 
Scrabble Sensor (Selchow & Righter). 

Electronic Chess Sets. Micro Chess 
(Novag), Mini Chess Challenger (Fidelity), 
Executive Chess (SciSys). 

Electronic Backgammon - Omar I 
(Tryom). 

Personal Computers. Radio Shack TRS- 
80 Model I, Commodore VIC-20, Atari 
800, Sinclair ZX80, Apple II Plus. 

Video Games. Atari Video Computer 
System, Cartridges from Atari, Activision 
and Sears. 



^ 



foreign customers 

Foreign subscribers in countries listed below 
may elect to subscribe with our local agents using 
local currency. Of course, subscriptions may also 
be entered directly to Creative Computing (USA) 
in U.S. dollars (bank draft or credit card). All foreign 
subscriptions must be prepaid. 

Many foreign agents stock Creative Computing 
magazines, books, and software. However, please 
inquire directly to the agent before placing an 
order. Again, all Creative Computing products may 
be ordered direct from the USA— be sure to allow 
for foreign shipping and handling. 



CANADA 


Surface 


Air 


1-year 


C$29 


n/a 


2-year 


55 


n/a 


3-year 


80 


n/a 


AUSTRALIA 


$A 


M 


1 -year 


28 


52 


2-year 


54 


101 


3-year 


78 


150 


ELECTRONIC CONCEPTS PTY., LTC 




Attn: Rudi Hoess 






Ground Floor 55 Clarence St. 






Sydney. NSW 2000, Australia 






ENGLAND 


£ 


£ 


1-year 


12.50 


21.00 


2-year 


24.00 


41 00 


3-year 


34.50 


61 00 


CREATIVE COMPUTING 






Attn: Hazel Gordon 






27 Andrew Close 






Stoke Golding, Nuneaton CV12 6EL 




FRANCE 


F 


F 


1 -year 


120 


201 


2-year 


229 


395 


3-year 


332 


588 


SYBEX EUROPE 






14/18 Rue Planchat 






75020 Paris. France 






GERMANY 


dm 


dm 


1-year 


52 


86 


2-year 


98 


168 


3-year 


141 


250 


HOFACKER-VERLAG 






Ing. W Hofacker 






8 Munchen 75 






Postfach 437, West Germany 






HOLLAND, BELGIUM 




f 


1-year 




119 


2-year 




231 


3-year 




332 


2XF COMPUTERCOLLECTIEF 






Attn: F. de Vreeze 






Amstel 312A 






1017 AP AMSTERDAM, Holland 






ITALY 


IL 


IL 


1-year 


34.000 


52,000 


2-year 


53,000 


72,000 


3-year 


72.000 


87,500 


ADVEICOS.R.L. 






Via Emilia Ovest, 129 






43016 San Pancrazio (Parma) Italy 






Attn: Giulio Bertellini 






JAPAN 


Y 


Y 


1 -year 


6,900 


1 1 .800 


2-year 


13.300 


23,100 


3-year 


19.300 


34,400 


ASCII PUBLISHING 






Aoyama Building 5F 






5-16-1 Minami Aoyama, Minato-Ku 






Tokyo 107, Japan 






PHILIPPINES 


P 


P 


1-year 


214 


363 


2-year 


413 


716 


3-year 


596 


1059 



INTEGRATED COMPUTER SYSTEMS, INC 
Suite 205, Limketkai Bldg , Ortigas Ave 
Greenhills P.O Box 483. San Juan 
Metro Manila 31 13, Philippines 



SWEDEN 


Kr 


Kr 


1-year 


123 


206 


2-year 


236 


405 


3-year 


340 


603 


HOBBY DATA 






Attn: Jan Nilsson 






Fack 






S-200 1 2 Malmo 2, Sweden 






OTHER COUNTRIES 


US$ 


us$ 


1-year 


29 


50 


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55 


97 


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88 


143 


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INTERSYSTEMS 

formerly ITHACA AUDIO 

The new Series II CPU Board features a 4 MHz 
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slot actively terminated motherboard, with 25 
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COMPLETE SYSTEM with InterSystem 64K 
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64K Double or Quad Density units available. Uses 
two Z-80 CPU's. Commercial-type terminal with 
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Over 350 kilobytes of storage (twice that with quad 
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standard. Expandable with optional S-100 
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w/64K Double Density, List $3495 $2869 
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Only $3644 for a complete 64K Disk System 

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DB 8 1 64 - 64K RAM SYSTEM WITH 
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FOB. shipping point. All prices subject to change and all 
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are for prepaid orders Credit card and COD. 2% higher. 
C.O.D. may require deposit. 



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NEW! DOUBLE DENSITY 
CONTROLLER BOARD 

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16 FDC Controller. List $595 OUR PRICE $505 
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1618 James Street, Syracuse, NY 13203 
(315) 422-4467 TWX 710 541 0431 



CIRCLE 157 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



\tw\s\ . . . editorial . . . edit cms 



Editors and Advertisers 
The Faust Syndrome 



Betsy Staples 



A reader came to our booth at a recent computer show and 
expressed concern that we were selling our editorial souls for 
advertising dollars. We assured him that nothing could be 
further from the truth. In fact, we said our primary allegiance 
has always been to our readers, and we work hard to maintain 
the editorial independence that allows us to fulfill that com- 
mitment. 

Our critic cited the fact that advertisements for products 
being reviewed in Creative Computing are often found on the 
pages near the evaluations. His conclusion was that the 
advertisers had linked their agreement to place the ads with a 
requirement that we publish a favorable review of the product 
in the same issue. 

While we suspect that such deals may be made by other 
publications, we have never had to resort to this technique to 
attract advertisers. The actual sequence of events leading to 
the appearance of an ad near a review is as follows: First we 
accept the review for publication, then we notify the 
manufacturer of the product that it will appear and tell him in 
which issue we plan to use it. Some manufacturers elect to 
place advertising in the issue; others do not. The review 
appears as scheduled, regardless of the manufacturer's deci- 
sion. 

We feel that it is a courtesy to both the reader and the 
manufacturer to provide the manufacturer with the opportunity 
to present ordering information and additional facts about 
the product being reviewed or other similar products. Anything 
that simplifies the ordering process is a service for both. 

The manufacturer, by the way, does not see the evaluation 
before it appears in print. The only exception to this rule 
occurs when we publish a very negative or critical piece to 
which we feel it is only fair to allow the manufacturer to 
respond at the time the article appears. 

Which brings us to another point: negative evaluations. We 
do occasionally receive a totally negative evaluation of a 
product. We usually don't bother to publish these, not because 
we fear the wrath of the manufacturer, who may or may not 



be an advertiser, but because we would rather use our valuable 
editorial space to tell people about products that will increase 
the usefulness of their computers. 

Of course, most products do have shortcomings, and we 
are not reluctant to be candid in presenting them. But if a 
product is so bad that the reviewer can't find anything good 
to say about it, then its reputation will probably have killed it 
by the time a review could appear in these pages, and no 
purpose will have been served by printing it. 

The exception to this policy is in a comparative review 
where we compare several products of the same type. In this 
instance, if one is clearly inferior, we will take a few paragraphs 
to say so. (See "Of Cabbages and Kings" by Stephen Kimmel 
in the August issue of Creative Computing.) 

The final concern of our critic was the appearance of ads 
for other Creative Computing products in the magazine. In 
response to this we explained that Creative Computing Press, 
Creative Computing Software, Microsystems and SYNC are 
separate divisions of the parent company, Ahl Computing 
Inc. They have separate accounting systems, and their respective 
managers are free to place advertising wherever they feel it 
will get the best response. Their accounts are cross-charged 
for ads placed in Creative Computing, and their profitability 
is affected by the results. 

As for editorial coverage of the products sold by other 
divisions, in an effort not to appear self-serving, we usually 
cover them only when writing about a group of similar 
products— educational simulations, for example. And if they 
fail to measure up, we're honest enough to let you know 
where the problems lie. (See "Of Cabbages and Kings" in the 
August issue.) 

The point of all this is to assure you, the reader, that we will 
not compromise the integrity of our editorial coverage. We 
know that many of you have come to depend on us for 
unbiased information as you consider the purchase of hardware 
and software, and we want you to know that we value your 
confidence and will do our best to continue to deserve it. □ 



6 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 






You've Waited For! 

Level- 10 ,N ' th< company that 
brought you Dragon Fire now 
presents the Kavcs of Karkhan M . 

The Warrioi the Huntress the 
Wizard the CI I and ttie Dwarl sur- 
vived their adventure through 
Salmadon s lali and are read) 
foi their newest challenge a 
Frightening Journey through the 
Ka\ es of Kelt Khan. 

In Dragon Fire the) fought 
Salmadon to seek great wealth. 



Th^ii newest mission is to save 
mankind I 

• Can the) replace the jewel ot 
Maldamere before his un- 
speakable evil overcomes them? 

• Thrill to subterranean hazards 
like crumbling walls decaying 
stairs falling boulders d\id fear- 
some night creatures 

• You are one ol the adventurers, 
You choose a group oi c t usadei s 
to travel the treacherous paths 
a\m\ pitfalls ol Karkhan with you. 

• None oi the group < ^n Journe) 
through the dark and drear) 
c a\ erns without you. 



The Wizard has managed to ton 
tain Maldamere s spirit foi a 
short time. You must wetul youi 
wa> through the Kaves as qutck- 
I) as possible before Maldamere 
consumes the Wizard. Youi sole 
purpose is to place a magical 
stone o\^ the bier ol Maldamere 
at the top ol N H . Karkhan. 

Kaves of Karkhan is just as 
challenging as Dragon Fire, its 
animation Hi-Res 3-D graphics 
,\no\ time constraints ^o\o[ extra ex 
citement. Even it you've nevei 
played Dragon Fire you II enjo> the 
Kaves ol Karkhan from Level- io a 
dl\ islon ol DAK1N5. 

t\.n ■ 

tvn < - - h.ui .'. 

- 





^^^^^ 











A DIVISION OF DAKIN5 CORPORATE*. 
CIRCLE 251 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Reddy Chirra improves his vision 



with an Apple. 

Reddy is an optical engineer who's 
used to working for big companies and using 
big mainframes. 

But when he started his own consulting 
business, he soon learned how costly main- 



frame time can be. So he bought himself a 
48K Apple II Personal Computer. 

And, like thousands of other engineers 



rj**» 





■ 1 




and scientists, quickly learned the pleasures 

on shared time ^ and hav- 



of cutting d 




fdata 



ing his own tamper- p 

His Apple can handle 
formulas with up to 80 vari- 
ables and test parameters on 
250 different optical glasses. 




He can even use BASIC, 
FORTRAN, Pascal and Assembly languages. 

And Apple's HI-RES graphics come in 



handy for design. 

Reddy looked at other microcomputers, 
but chose Apple for its in-depth documenta- 
tion, reliability and expandability. 

You can get up to 64K RAM in an 

Apple ILUp tol28KRAM in our newApple III. 
And there's a whole family of compatible 
peripherals, including an IEEE-488 bus for 
laboratory instrument control. 

Visit your authorized Apple dealer to 
find out how for an Apple can go with 

scientific/technical applications. 

Itll change the way you see things. 

The personal computet: 




apple 



rbr the dealer nearest you, call (800) 538-9696. In California, call (800) 662-9238. Or write: Apple Computer Inc., 10260 Bandley Dr., Cupertino, CA 95014. 

CIRCLE 106 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



What can you honestly 

expect from an interactive 

data terminal that costs only 

$369?- 

\p - 



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**«*. 



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1 
















Well, to begin with, color graphics. 

|F RCA's VP-3301 has unique color-locking circuitry that gives 
you sharp, jitter-free color graphics and rainbow-free characters. 

Plus much more: Microprocessor control. Resident and 
programmable character set. Reverse video. State-of-the-art 
LSI video control. 20 and 40 character formats. RS232C and 
20 mA current loop. Six baud rates. Eight data formats. ASCII 
encoding. Light-touch flexible-membrane key switches for 
reliability and long life. CMOS circuitry and a spill-proof, dust- 
proof keyboard for hostile environments. 

The VP-3301 can be used with a 525-line color or monochrome 

monitor or a standard TV set through an RF modulator.** It 

serves a wide variety of industrial, educational, business and 

individual applications including communication with time 

sharing and data base networks such as those provided by 

Dow Jones News /Retrieval Service, CompuServe and Source. 

All this— for the low price of $369. And it's made by RCA. So 

get the whole story about the surprising VP-3301 today. Write 

RCA Microcomputer Marketing, New Holland Avenue, 

Lancaster, PA 17604. Order toll-free: 800-233-0094. 



** Model VP-3303 with built-in RF modulator- $38 9. 
'Suggested user price. Monitor and modem not included. 




~\ 





Dear 
Subscriber : 



"What's this?" you say. "A Buyer's Guide? 
I didn't order this." 

If you examine the cover closely, you 
will see that this is your September issue 
of Creative Computing, but since it is a 
little out of the ordinary, we thought we'd 
better explain. 

As we mentioned last month, the Octo- 
ber issue of Creative will be distributed 
nationally on newsstands for the first time. 
This means that our circulation should 
increase substantially, allowing us to attract 
more advertisers and produce a better 
magazine for you. 

It also means that in order to produce a 
magazine with a cover date that newsstand 
operators will consider current, we have 
had to "take a tuck" In our production 
schedule. In essence, we have had to 
produce the August, September and Octo- 
ber issues of Creative Computing in the 
time it usually takes to prepare two 
issues. 

This Buyer's Guide is sent to you as 
your September issue, and in early Septem- 
ber, you should receive your October issue, 
which will have the educational emphasis 
we used to carry in September. Thereafter, 
your copy of Creative will arrive about 
the second week of the month preceding 
the month printed on the cover, i.e., you 
should receive your January 1982 issue 
around the tenth of December. 

Buyer's Guides purchased in computer 
stores or newsstands, carry a Winter 1982 
cover date and will be on sale for the 
entire pre-Christmas buying period. 

At present, we plan to publish two or 
three Buyer's Guides per year, each with 
a different emphasis. They will be distri- 
buted primarily through retail outlets, but 
will also be available by mail through our 
regular ordering channels. Watch these 
pages for announcements of the topics to 
be covered. 

We have covered a wide range of 
product categories in this issue, and hope 
you will find more than one of interest. 
Please let us know what you think of this, 
our first Buyer's Guide.— Betsy Staples 




CIRCLE 244 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



c w. . . dateline : tcmcwc w. . . 6 



UNDER $1000 COMPUTER FROM XEROX 



David H. Ahl 



Hot on the heels of the unveiling of the Star at NCC and 820 small business 
computer in June, Xerox is quietly moving toward announcing an even lower-end machine. 
Internally, called Sunrise, it is based on the Z80 mpu, has 16K of memory (expandable to 
256K), 64K ROM, an 80 character by 25 line display, color graphics, RS-232 interface and 
RF modulator. Target price is $995. 

Industry sources feel, as we do, that the price is not a breakthrough and that 
software availability will determine the success or failure of the unit. 

DEC LOW-END ENTRY TOO? 

Despite Ken 01 sen's 1977 presentation to the World Future Society in which he 
declared he could see no possible reason to have a computer in the home, DEC (Digital 
Equipment Corp.) seems to be on the verge of introducing a low-end product. Ken 01 sen, 
founder and president of the giant Maynard, MA. based minicomputer manufacturer may have 
changed his mind when his daughter begged for a computer at home. 

The new unit is rumored to be based on the venerable PDP-8 in yet another guise. 
The PDP-8 has been around since 1967 and thus is probably the longest-lived computer 
family ever manufacturered. I have no details on this new product; can anyone help? 

ZILOG ADDS BASIC TO Z80 MPU 

While some "people in the know" ridicule Basic as archaic and a dead end language, 
Zilog seems to feel otherwise. Makers of the Z80 mpu used in the TRS-80 and other 
computers, Zilog has announced the Z8671 which executes Basic directly. It is similar to 
the Z80 but has a Basic interpreter masked onto the 2K-byte internal read-only memory of 
the chip. Price is under $25. 

"YOU'LL BE GLAD TO KNOW" DEPARTMENT 

Four computer magazines (two personal, two professional) recently ran big (6-page) 
articles about radiation dangers from video terminals. We chose not to. I think we were 

riqht. 

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently reviewed all the studies and 
data collected on video terminals. Some of these studies were conducted by the FDA's 
Bureau of Radiological Health which is responsible for assuring the safety of radiation 
emitting products and by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration which conducts 
research on workplace hazards. 

Their conclusions: "Video display terminals emit little harmful radiation and 
generally pose fewer risks than such commonplace items as TV sets, fluorescent lights and 

space heaters." 

There. Three paraqraphs. That's all the subject is worth. I hope you agree. 

GOT SOME INFO? 

Judging from your calls and letters, this page seems to be popular. I put it 
together by "keeping my ear to the ground." However, I'm happy for input. Facts 
preferred. Rumors accepted. Gossip rejected. Written notes (nothing fancy) strongly 
preferred to phonecalls. Sources kept confidential unless you wish otherwise. Let me 
hear from you. 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



11 



r 



•\ 



Which Computer Is For You? 



Betsy Staples 



"Which computer should I buy?" The 
first time I heard someone ask this question 
I was all ears: how would my new co- 
workers at Creative Computing, who knew 
all about these little computers, answer? 
Three years later, I have become accus- 
tomed to the question, and equally accus- 
tomed to the answer, which hasn't changed: 
"It depends on what you want to do with 
it." 

Sometimes, the questioner, trying to 
brush aside what he feels is an evasive 
answer, will persist: "But which computer 
do you use at Creative Computing?" 

"Well," we reply "we have quite a few 
TRS-80s (Models I and III), a bunch of 
Apples, several Ataris, a couple of PETs, 
a Sorcerer, a TI 99/4, a TRS-80 Color 
Computer, a VIC-20, an LNW 80, an H- 
89, an Altair, an Imsai 8080, a Sol 20, a 
PDP-1 1/34, an IBM System 34 and dozens 
of Sinclairs, not to mention a miscellaneous 
assortment of others on short term loan 
for evaluation." 

"But which one do you useT' comes 
the exasperated response. 

"It depends on what we want to do," 
we say calmly, completing the first lap of 
the vicious circle. 

And it really does .... If you are 
considering the purchase of a computer, 
the first thing you must do is decide what 
you want to do with it. 

If you are motivated by a desire to 
improve the efficiency of your small 
business, for example, your criteria will 
develop differently than if you are an 
artist or musician looking for a new medium 
through which to express yourself. 

If you are an engineer, your needs will 
differ from those of a professional writer. 
An elementary school teacher will have 
different requirements from a high school 
physics teacher, and a person who just 



wants to find out what personal computing 
is all about will have a different approach 
from a professional programmer looking 
for something to do on a busman's 
holiday. 

Once you have decided on the primary 
use to which you want to put your com- 
puter, you might also want to consider 
possible secondary uses. Will another 
member of the family want to use the 
machine, which you have purchased to 
keep track of a general ledger, for word 
processing? Will the children be dis- 
appointed if they can't play games on it? 

First the Software 

Now, armed with a clear idea of exactly 
what you want to accomplish with your 
computer, you can begin to investigate 
the software available to help you accom- 
plish it. As our publisher is fond of saying, 
"hardware without software might as well 
be a boat anchor," and since there are 
many things less expensive than computers 
that can be used for boat anchors, it is 
important to know what software is avail- 
able. 

If you find the software you want, the 
choice of hardware will probably follow 
very logically and painlesly. For example, 
we purchased our PDP-1 1/34 because the 
software we wanted to handle our subscrip- 
tion fulfillment was written for that 
machine. When we decided to computerize 
the rest of our internal accounting func- 
tions, we told ourselves we wanted hard- 
ware that would be compatible with the 
11/34, of which we had become quite 
fond. 

It soon became apparent that the crea- 
tion of software for the internal accounting 
would have to be a custom job, so we 
consulted several software houses, only 
one of which presented a comprehensive 



proposal at a relatively reasonable price. 
Although the proposed system would do 
everything we needed, we were forced to 
abandon our dreams of compatibility, 
because the software was for an IBM 
System 34. 

In the same manner, on a slightly smaller 
scale, a consulting engineer of our acquain- 
tance recently purchased three TRS-80 
Model Ills for his business solely on the 
strength of an air conditioning design 
package offered by the Carrier Corporation 
for that machine. He needed to design air 
conditioning systems and he found the 
software to do it. The decision to buy the 
TRS-80 was made for him. He has since 
discovered word processing, and we've 
heard rumors about draftsmen becoming 
engrossed in Adventures during lunch 
hours, but these are secondary uses which 
played no part in his decision to buy. 

Of course, if you are a programmer 
with sufficient experience to write your 
own software, you can skip this step and 
proceed with the purchase of the hard- 
ware. 

Then the Hardware 

Perhaps you have found the perfect 
software, it is available for only one 
machine and you are satisfied. Great. But 
what if there are several packages that 
meet your needs, and each is written for a 
different computer? Or what if the manu- 
facturer sells the same super package for 
several machines? 

Obviously, the field from which you 
will choose has been narrowed, but there 
are still some things to consider. 

Lower Case 

If you plan to use your computer for 
word processing, you will probably want 
both upper and lower case characters. 



12 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



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I 



Atari graphics and sound stand in 
^ a class by themselves." 

David D. Thornburg 

Compute Magazine, November I December 

1980 



"Its superiority lies in three areas: draw- 
ing fancy pictures (in color), playing 
music, and printing English characters 
onto the screen. Though the Apple can 

do all these things, . 

Atari does them better." 

Russell Walter 

"Underground XJUU ot ng\r 

Guide to Buying a ▼ ▼ 11*11 tUl 

Computer' SLTC SZX 

Published 1980, ^ 

SCELB1 Publications COIllpUtC 



What computer people 

are saying about 
Computers for people. 



The Atari machine is the most extraordi- 
nary computer graphics box ever made..!' 

Ted Nelson 

Creative Computing Magazine, June 1980 

"...so well packaged that it is the first per- 
sonal computer I've used that I'm willing 
to set up in the living room." 
Ken Skier, OnComputing, Inc. Summer 1980 

" . .well constructed, 
sleekly designed and 
user-friendly — expect 

iter Deoole reliable equipment, 

1*^ *^ and strong maintenance 

? aDOUt ^ anc j software support. 

for people. Videoplay _ 

December, 1980 



To find out about the ATARI® 800™ Computer 

first hand, ask your local computer dealer 

for a hands-on demonstration. 

Or call, 800-538-8547 (In California 800-672-1404) 



wmmmm 




ATARI 



Computers for people: 

For further information write: Atari Inc., Computer Division, 1196 Borregas Avenue, Sunnyvale, CA 94086 

CIRCLE 1 14 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Cl*»l. ATARI In. 

A Warner Communications Company C?} 



Dept. C-31 






Which Computer?, continued... 

Some computers have both, some have 
only upper case. Some of the ones that 
have only upper case can be modified to 
include lower case. Some of these modifi- 
cations are easier to use than others. 

If you want to do word processing, you 
will need a printer, and will want to ask 
which printers work with which computers, 
what features they offer and how much 
they cost. 



Graphics and Sound 

Color, animation and sound may be 
superfluous on a computer purchased for 
word processing, but they can be useful, 
if not indispensable, for games and certain 
educational uses. They can also enhance 
charts and graphs created in the office. 

Most of the popular computers available 
today have at least some graphics capa- 
bilities built in, but some go far beyond 
the basics. Graphics tablets, graphics 
printers and plotters to increase flexibility 
of input and output are available for some 
machines. 

Some computers have sound capabilities, 
while others are mute. Sound can greatly 
enhance game playing, but doesn't add 
much to bookkeeping functions. 

There are also music synthesizers avail- 
able for some computers, and if you are 
musically inclined, you might want to make 
this one of your secondary criteria. 

Expansion Options 

If you are like most people who buy 
computers, you will soon outgrow the first 
system you buy. You will want more 
memory, a disk drive or two, a printer, or 
one of the hundreds of other peripherals 
on the market. 

The time to consider expansion options 
is before you make the initial purchase. 
Once you have a particular machine, the 
growth of your system is limited by the 
provisions its manufacturer has made for 
expansion. On some computers, peripherals 
can be attached simply by plugging in a 
cable. On others, you may have to purchase 
an expensive interface before you can 
think of adding so much as a joystick. 

You may be able to buy peripherals 
from several manufacturers or you may 
be limited to purchasing them only from 
the maker of the machine. 

Service 

What will you do if it breaks? Will you 
be able to take it back to the store from 
which you purchased it, will you have to 
send it back to the manufacturer, or will 
you be forced to find an independent 
person or company to repair it? 

The personal computer industry is 
growing rapidly, and the number of service 
centers has not always kept pace with the 
proliferation of machines in the home 
and office. 



Once you become dependent upon your 
computer, you will not want to be parted 
from it for long. Whether you are sending 
it for modification or repair, you will want 
fast, reliable service, so investigate the 
availability of service before you need it. 



Price 

The computers we use at Creative 
Computing range in price from $99.95 to 
$50,000. Obviously, the build-it-yourself 
ZX80 could not do the job of one of the 
minis, but the System 34 would be just as 
inappropriate for use in our Community 
Education Center. So a higher price tag 
does not automatically designate a better 
computer. 

For certain applications, the low-end 
computers can do just as good a job as 
their more expensive relatives. For others 
they will be found woefully inadequate. 
Neither should you spend more than you 
can afford just because a certain computer 
has many features. If those features are 
not applicable to your use, you may never 
need them. 



A higher price tag 

does not automatically 

designate a 

better computer. 



There are always trade-offs when it 
comes to price. We could have equipped 
our Education Center with one of the 
higher priced, multi-featured personal 
computers, but we would have had to 
settle for far fewer of them. We decided, 
instead, that, in this case the opportunity 
for hands-on experience was more impor- 
tant than exposure to special features, so 
we bought a larger number of low-end 
computers so that each student could have 
one. 

You may decide you would rather have 
a lower priced computer with a disk drive 
than a higher priced one with a cassette 
recorder. Or, you may need the extra 
features of the higher priced machine and 
be willing to put up with the inconvenience 
of the recorder to get them. 

Where to Buy 

Having decided what you are going to 
do with your computer, what software 
can do the job, and what computer you 
want to buy, you are faced with deciding 
where to buy it. Should you go back to 



your local ComputerLand, Radio Shack 
or independent computer store where you 
have already spent several hours playing 
with the equipment and asking questions? 
Or should you take advantage of some of 
the excellent discounts offered by mail 
order firms? 

This is not an easy question to answer. 
If you are clever at such things and can 
install and repair the machine yourself, 
or don't mind taking your chances on 
getting it fixed when the time comes, then 
mail order may be a good alternative for 
you. By shopping carefully, you can often 
save a substantial amount of money on 
hardware purchases. 

If, however, your system will be com- 
posed of components from several hard- 
ware manufacturers which have to be put 
together or you are likely to need fast 
service on your system, you would do 
well to consider paying a little more for 
your computer in order have ready access 
to the knowledgeable folks at your local 
computer store. 

Where to Find the Information 

"This is all well and good," you say, 
"but where can I find all this information 
on everything from software to service?" 

Obviously computer stores are a good 
source of information about the brands 
they sell, user's groups can list the advan- 
tages of the computer owned by their 
members, and friends can tell you the 
pros and cons of their machines in a 
relatively unbiased manner. 

Having exhausted those sources, how- 
ever, you may still find yourself hungry 
for information. Magazines are probably 
the best source of up-to-date, unbiased 
evaluations of the products on the market. 
If the current issue doesn't mention the 
product you are looking for, get an index 
and look for it among the back issues. 

Some magazines are devoted to a specific 
computer; others are of more general 
interest. Both can be useful in investigating 
the applications and products available 
to the prospective computer owner. 

Evaluations by current users list the 
good and bad features of the product, 
describe some of the best uses for it and 
evaluate the documentation. If the writer 
has had any problems with repair or 
installation, he will also include the details 
of obtaining service. Evaluations of this 
sort can be extremely valuable to the 
prospective purchaser. 

And don't overlook the advertisements 
and new product announcements. They 
often contain enough information to allow 
you to decide whether to consider the 
product further. 

Which computer should you buy? If 
you do your homework as outlined above, 
you should have very little trouble decid- 
ing. □ 



14 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



THE BACKBONE 
OF YOUR SYSTEM 



The Heath/Zenith 19 Smart Video Terminal gives 
you all the important professional features, all for under 
$700 * You get the flexibility you need for high-speed 
data entry, editing, inquiry and transaction process- 
ing. It's designed to be the backbone of your system 
with heavy-duty features that withstand the rigors 
of daily use. 

Standard RS-232C interfacing makes the 19 com- 
patible with DEC VT-52 and most computer systems. 
And with the 19, you get the friendly advice and 
expert service that makes Heath/Zenith a strong 
partner for you. 



Pick the store nearest you from the list on page 00. And 
stop in today for a demonstration of the Heath/Zenith 
19 Smart Video Terminal. If you can't get to a store, 
send $1 .00 for the latest Heathkit® Catalog and the 
new Zenith Data Systems Catalog of assembled com- 
mercial computers. Write Heath Co., Dept. 355-806, 
Benton Harbor, Ml 49022. 

HEATH/ZENITH 

Your strong partner 



Completely ad- 
dressable blinking 
cursor lets you 
edit anywhere on 
screen. 



Reverse video by 
character lets you 
emphasize words, 
phrases or paragraphs. 



High resolution CRT 
gives you sharp, easy- 
to-read image, reduces 
eye-strain. 



Complete ASCII 
character set includ 
ing upper case, 
lower case with 
descenders, and 
special graphic 
symbols. 



80 character by 24 
line format, plus 25th 
line for operator mes 
sages and prompts. 

Professional 
quality keyboard, 
standard type- 
writer layout, 72 
keys, including 
12 special function 
keys. 



Z-80 microprocessor- 
control makes the Heath/ 
Zenith 19 capable of 
multitude of high-speed 
functions. It's the only 
terminal with ROM 
source code readily 
available. 




Insert and delete 
character or line plus 
erase to end of line 
and end of screen 
make the 19 ideal 
for sophisticated 
editors like WORD- 
STAR. 

Cursor and 
special functions 
are accessible 
by keyboard or 
computer, using 
either DEC VT-52 
or ANSI Standard 
protocols. 



Keypad in 
calculator format 
permits fast, 
easy entry of 
numeric data. 



Mn kit form, ROB. Benton Harbor, Ml. Also available completely assembled 
at $995. Prices and specifications are subject to change without notice. 



355-816 





Printers 

ANADEXDP9000 1195 00 

ANADEXDP9001 1195 00 

ANADEX DP 9500 1295 00 

ANADEX DP 9501 1295.00 

C-ITOH 25 CPS PARALLEL 1440.00 

C-ITOH 25 CPS SERIAL 1495 00 

C-ITOH 45 CPS PARALLEL 1770 00 

C-ITOH 40 CPS SERIAL 1870 00 

EPSON MX-80 $CALL 

EPSON MX-80 F/T $CALL 

EPSONMX-100F/T $CALL 

IDS-445G PAPER TIGER 795 00 

IDS-460G PAPER TIGER 1149 00 

IDS-560G PAPER TIGER 1495 00 

INFOSCRIBE 500 9X9. 150 CPS 

(TI-810 REPLACEMENT) 1495 00 

MALIBU 165 PARALLEL PRINTER 1995 00 

MALIBU 165A PARALLEL PRINTER (APPLE) 1995 00 

MALIBU 200 DUAL MODE 2995 00 

NEC SPINWRITER 5510 SERIAL RO 2595 00 

NEC SPINWRITER 5530 PARALLEL RO 2595 00 

NEC SPINWRITER 5500 D SELLUM OPTION 2795 00 

NEC SPINWRITER 3500 SELLUM OPTION 2195 00 



OKIDATA MICROLINE 80 399.00 

OKIDATA MICROLINE 82 57900 

OKIDATA MICROLINE 83 795.00 

Diskettes 

MD 525-01.10,16 26.50 

MD 550-01.10.16 44.50 

MD 577-01.10.16 34.8O 

MD 557-01.10.16 45 60 

FD 32 OR 34 -9000 30.00 

FD 32 OR 34 -8000 45.60 

FD 34-4001 48.60 



Diskette 
storage 

5y<i" PLASTIC LIBRARY CASE 2.50 

8" PLASTIC LIBRARY CASE 3.50 

PLASTIC STORAGE BINDER WITH INSERTS 9.95 



PROTECTOR 5%" 24.95 

PROTECTOR 8" 29.95 



Modems 

NOVATION CAT ACOUSTIC MODEM 145.00 

NOVATION D-CAT DIRECT CONNECT MODEM .... 155.00 
NOVATION AUTO-CAT AUTO ANSWER MODEM . . . 229.00 

UDS 103LP DIRECT CONNECT MODEM 175.00 

D.C. HAYES MICROMODEM (APPLE) 299.00 

D.C. HAYES 100 MODEM (S-100) 319.00 

LEXICON LX-11 MODEM 125.00 



Apple 
hardware 

VERSA WRITER DIGITIZER 219.00 

ABT APPLE KEYPAD 119.00 

MICROSOFT Z-80S0FTCARD 259.00 

MICROSOFT RAMCARD 170.00 



16 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



ANDROMEDA 16K CARD 170.00 

VIDEX 80 X 24 VIDEO CARD 299.00 

VIDEX KEYBOARD ENHANCER 99.00 

M & R SUPERTERM 80 X 24 VIDEO BOARD 305.00 

NEC 12" GREEN MONITOR 219.00 

SANYO 12" MONITOR (B & W) 230.00 

SANYO 12" MONITOR (GREEN) 240.00 

SANYO 9" MONITOR (B & W) 179.00 

TEECO 12" HIGH RES GREEN MONITOR 179.00 

SSM AIO BOARD (INTERFACE) A&T 165.00 

SSM AIO BOARD (INTERFACE) KIT 135.00 



Mountain 
hardware 

CPS MULTIFUNCTION BOARD 229.00 

SUPERTALKER SD200 259.00 

ROMPLUS WITH KEYBOARD FILTER 179.00 

ROMPLUS W/O KEYBOARD FILTER 130.00 

KEYBOARD FILTER ROM 49.00 

COPYROM 49.00 

MUSIC SYSTEM 459.00 

ROMWRITER 149.00 

APPLE CLOCK 239.00 

A/D + D/A (DIGITAL TO ANALOG/A TO D) 299.00 

EXPANSION CHASSIS 575.00 

California 
Computer 
Systems 

S-100 BOARDS 

2200A MAINFRAME 349.00 

2032A32K STATIC RAM 599.00 

2065C 64K DYNAMIC RAM 499.00 

2422 FLOPPY DISK CONTROLLER & CP/M 339.00 

2710 FOUR SERIAL I/O 245.00 

2718 2 SERIAL/2 PARALLEL I/O 265.00 

2720 FOUR PARALLEL I/O 189.00 

2810 Z-80 CPU 249.00 

APPLE BOARDS 

7710A/D ASYNCHRONOUS SERIAL INTERFACE . . . 139.00 

7712A SYNCHRONOUS SERIAL INTERFACE 149.00 

7424A CALENDAR/CLOCK 99.00 

7728A CENTRONICS PRINTER INTERFACE 99.00 

7720A PARALLEL INTERFACE STD FIRMWARE .... 99.00 



SD Systems 

S-100 BOARDS 

VERSAFLOPPY I A&T 289.00 

VERSAFLOPPY I KIT 229.00 

VERSAFLOPPY II A&T 389.00 

VERSAFLOPPY II KIT 329.00 

SBC 200 (Z80 CPU) A&T 369.00 

SBC 200 (Z80 CPU) KIT 299.00 

EXPANDO RAM II KIT (OK) 220.00 

MEMORY (NEC 4116) 19.95 



TRS-80 Mod I 

hardware 

PERCOM DATA SEPARATOR 27.00 

PERCOM DOUBLER (DOUBLE DENSITY ADAPTER) . 169.00 
DOUBLE ZAP II/80 (CONVERTS ND/80 TODD.) .. 45.95 

MPI 40 TRACK DISK DRIVE (B-51) 299.00 

SHUGART 40 TRACK DISK DRIVE (400L) 299.00 

MPI 80 TRACK DISK DRIVE (B-91) 429.00 

TANDON 80 TRACK DISK DRIVE 429.00 

TANDON 40 TRACK DISK DRIVE 299.00 

LNW DOUBLER WITH DOSPLUS 3.3D 159.00 

PERCOM SPEAK-2ME-2 64.95 

TRS-80 

software 

LAZY WRITER 125.00 

PROSOFT NEWSCRIPT 99.00 

SPECIAL DELIVERY (MAIL LIST PROG) 119.00 

X-TRA SPECIAL DELIVERY (MAIL LIST PROG) .... 199.00 

TRACKCESS 24.95 

OMNITERM SMART TERMINAL PKG 89.95 

MICROSOFT BASIC COMPILER FOR MOD I 165.00 

NEWDOS 80 2.0 MOD I, III 139.00 



Apple 
software 

MAGIC WINDOW WORDPROCESSOR STD APPLE . . 89.00 
MAGIC WAND 

(REQUIRES Z80 SOFTCARD & 80 COL) 275.00 

WORDSTAR-APPLE 

(REQUIRES Z80 SC & 80 COL) 259.00 

MAILMERGE-APPLE (REQUIRES WORD STAR) .. 90.00 
MICROSOFT FORTRAN 

(REQUIRES Z80 SOFTCARD) 165.00 

MICROSOFT COBOL (REQUIRES Z80 SOFTCARD) . 550.00 




DB MASTER 3.0 229.00 

VISICALC 16 SECTOR 179.00 

CCA DATA BASE MANAGER 99.00 

A-STAT COMPREHENSIVE STATISTICS PKG 119.00 



CP/M 

software 

MICROSOFT BASIC-80 299.00 

MICROSOFT BASIC COMPILER 319.00 

MICROSOFT FORTRAN-80 399.00 

PEACHTREE SYSTEMS CALL 

MAGIC WAND (REQUIRES CP/M) 275.00 

WORD STAR (REQUIRES CP/M) 310.00 

MAILMERGE (REQUIRES WORD STAR) 100.00 

SPELLGUARD 239.00 

CP/M (PICKLES & TROUT) 175.00 

Terminals 

TELEVIDE0 912C 745.00 

TELEVIDE0 920C 835.00 

TELEVIDEO 950C 955.00 

VOLKER-CRAIG VC 4404 695.00 

ZENITH 219 799.00 



Corvus 

S-100, APPLE OR TRS-80 MOD I, II 

5 MB 3095.00 

10 MB . . 4495.00 

20 MB 5395.00 

MIRROR BACK-UP 700.00 



Supplies 

We stock a complete line of ribbons, printwheels 
& NEC thimbles— call for your needs. 



We built a reputation on our 
prices and your satisfaction. 

We guarantee everything we sell for 30 days. If anything 
is wrong, just return the item and well make it right. 
And, of course, we'll pay the shipping charges. 

We accept Visa and Master Card on all orders. COD 
accepted up to $300.00. We also accept school pur- 
chase orders. 

Please add $2.00 for standard UPS shipping and 
handling on orders under 50 pounds, delivered in the 
continental U.S. Call us for shipping charges on items 
that weigh more than 50 pounds. Foreign, FPO and APO 
orders please add 15% for shipping. California res- 
idents add 6% sales tax. 



(213)883 

31245 La Baya Drive, Westlake Village, California 91362 




The prices quoted are only valid for stock on hand and all prices are subject to change without notice. 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



17 



CIRCLE 159 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



A Dozen Computers from Which to Choose 



What Can You Buy for 
Under $1000? 



David M. Doll 



Who would have guessed as recently as 
ten years ago that you could ever purchase 
a computer for under $1000? Well, now 
you can not only purchase one in that 
range, you have quite a selection from 
which to choose. Here we describe twelve 
computers which range in price from 
$199.95 to just over $1000. 

An effort has been made to compile a 
useful reference guide to help the pro- 
spective buyer in shopping for the machine 
which will provide the power, possibilities, 
and price that will make a specific machine 
the best personal choice. While some of 
these machines are marketed as home 
entertainment devices (electronic games 
as the modern equivalent of bread and 
circuses), the focus here will be on hard- 
ware as a computing machine. 

While efforts have been made to consider 
the impact of some of the configurations 
in domestic settings, the ultimate and/or 
transitory configurations are beyond the 
scope of this review. The size of the initial 
computer may be most material in estab- 
lishing just how personal it can be. A unit 
that is installed using the family TV as a 
CRT is likely to become the family com- 
puter with all that that implies. While the 
prospect of the entire family becoming 
computer literate is appealing, one cannot 
rule out the thought that eager fingers 
may be sticky as well. 

Sinclair ZX80 

The Sinclair ZX80 is compact enough 
to slip easily into a brief case or tote bag. 
Since the ZX80 weighs only 12 oz., it 
could be comfortably backpacked should 
Sinclair develop a solar pack as well as a 
tiny flat screen TV to serve as CRT. It is 
a computer that can be portaged or 
commuted with and still offer formidable 
power and a broad range of software pro- 
grams. 

David M. Doll, 1111 Arthur Ave., Racine, WI 
53405. 



The ZX80 uses Sinclair's own Z80A 
microprocessor chip for its CPU. The basic 
configuration comes with 5K of memory 
including Basic in residence. The ZX80 
has a built in VHF RF modulator and 
socket for an audio cassette recorder. 
Sinclair currently offers an 8K ROM 
extended Basic chip for an additional $39.95 
and a 16K RAM expansion module for 
$99.95. The expansion module which plugs 
into the back of the ZX80 is about the 
size of two audio cassettes and adds little 
to the size and weight of the console. 




Sinclair ZX80 with 8K Basic and 16K RAM. 

The 128-page ZX80 Operating Manual 
is a course in Basic programming. A 
compact printer for the ZX80 will be 
available later this year at under $100. 
Using a compact audio cassette recorder 
and an available TV, the total Sinclair 
ZX80 configuration can be set up on a 
card table (or a spatial equivalent). 

The Sinclair ZX80 uses a pressure 
sensitive keyboard that is rugged enough 
to stand up to life in a briefcase and can 
be wiped clean— a boon to those who 
combine intake with input. With a list 
price of $199.95, the ZX80 makes it feasible 
to provide a "personal" computer for each 
member of the family (given the statistically 
average family membership) and still stay 
under the $1,000 mark. 

SYNC is a bimonthly magazine devoted 
to applications for the ZX80. Packaged 
software, including games, is available so 
that the ZX80 can be said to seriously 



compete with the other machines in the 
admittedly broad classification of personal 
computer. 

VIC-20 

The Commodore VIC-20 is the first 
full-featured color computer introduced 
at under $300. The acronym VIC stands 
for Video Interface Computer and estab- 
lishes the design as one which is intended 
to use any color TV set or monitor as a 
CRT. The combined memory of the VIC- 
20 is 21K with expandability to 32K 
possible. The VIC-20 uses a standard 
typewriter keyboard with special screen 
editing keys and PET graphics (66 keys). 

The Commodore 6502 microprocessor 
chip serves as the CPU for the VIC-20. 
The three tone generators (with a five 
octave range) and the sound generator 
which uses the TV speaker suggest an 
obvious effort by Commodore's designers 
to bridge the market with appeal to the 
educational community, the game players, 
and the serious, but impecunious, computer 
amateur. 

You could justify the cost of a VIC as 
domestic economy if there is a Space 
Invaders junkie in your household. (Think 
of all the quarters you would save.) 
However, this machine clearly reflects the 
serious and proficient heritage which the 
VIC shares with Commodore's PET. The 




Commodore VIC-20. 



18 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Games from BIG FIVE will turn your computer into a 

TRS-80 HOME ARCADE 



SUPER 
NOVA® 



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GALAXY 
INVASION® 



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(♦( 0^ 1^. &* fTi t™t (% 

* * * 



ATTACK 
FORCE® 



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COSMIC 
FIGHTER® 



METEOR 
MISSION II® 



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NEW 
JOYSTICKS! 



If you and your TRS-80 have longed for a fast-paced arcade-type game that is 
truly a challenge, then SUPER NOVA is what you've been waiting for. In this 
two player machine-language game, large asteroids float ominously around the 
screen. Suddenly your ship appears and you must destroy the asteroids before 
they destroy you! (But watch out because big asteroids break apart into little 
ones.) The controls that your ship will respond to are thrust, rotate, hyperspace, 
and fire. All right! You've done it! You've cleared away all the asteroids! But what 
is that saucer with the laser doing? Quick! You must destroy him fast because that 
guy's accurate! As reviewed in May 1981 Byte magazine. 

The sound of the klaxon is calling you! Cruel and crafty invaders have been 
spotted in battle formation warping toward Earth at an incredible speed. Suddenly, 
your ship materializes just below the huge flock of invaders. Quickly and skillfully 
you shift right and left as you carefully fire your lasers at them. But watch out! A 
few are breaking out of the convoy and flying straight at you! As the whine of their 
engines gets louder, you place your finger on the fire button knowing all too well 
that this shot must connect — or your mission will be permanently over! With 
sound effects! 

Your TRS-80 screen has been transformed into a maze-like playfield for this 
game. As your ship appears on the bottom of the screen, eight alien ramships 
appear on the top. All of them are traveling at flank speed directly at you! Quickly 
and boldly you move toward them and fire missiles to destroy them. But the more 
aliens you destroy, the faster the remaining ones become. If you get too good you 
must endure the wrath of the keeper of the mazefield: the menacing "Flagship". 
You must destroy him fast because, as you will find out, that guy's accurate! With 
sound effects! 

With thousands of stars whizzing by you, your SPACE DESTROYER ship 
comes out of hyperspace directly under a convoy of aliens. Almost effortlessly, 
you skillfully destroy every last one. But before you can congratulate yourself, 
another set appears. These seem to be slightly more intelligent than the first set. 
Quickly you eliminate all of them, too. But your fuel supply is rapidly diminishing. 
You must still destroy two more sets before you can dock with your space station. 
All right! The space station is now on your scanners! Oh no! Intruders have 
overtaken the station! You must skillfully fire your neutron lasers to eliminate the 
intruders from the station before your engines run out of fuel and explode! With 
sound! 

As you look down on your space viewer you can see the stranded astronauts 
that are crying out for you to rescue them. But first you must maneuver your 
shuttle down through the asteroids & meteors before you can reach them. Great! 
You've got one! But now can you get back to the space station to save your fellow 
shipmate or will you crash and kill both of you? You can fire your lasers to destroy 
the asteroids, but watch out, because there could be an alien FLAGSHIP lurking 
behind! Includes sound effects! 

For $39.95 it's now possible to have the famous ATARI joystick interfaced 
with your Model 1 . All of our tapes are now completely compatible with the 
joystick. Packaged with complete instructions, you can even use it with your own 
programs! If your old tapes do not say "Joystick Version" on them and you wish 
to exchange them for new Joystick versions, enclose $2 and your old tape. (Call 
or write for info on Mod 3 joysticks.) 



C SCFDC H ^CYKSi I 



«■■ a 



P.O. Box 9078-185 Van NuysXA 91409 (213)782-6861 



Prices per game: Level 2, 16K Cassette Mod 1/Mod 3 — $15.95 
Level 2, 32K Diskette Mod 1/Mod 3— $19.95 
10% discount for 2 items, 15% for 3 or more (excludes upgrades). 
Please add $1 .50 per order for postage & handling, Calif, residents add 6% sales tax. 
Outside USA please add S3. 00 per order for postage & handling. 
We accept checks, money orders, and MC/Visa orders ($2.00 extra for COD). 



All games 1980 by Bill Hogue & Jeff Konyu. 

Programs are written in machine language for high quality graphics. 

Disk versions are self-booting and compatible with Mod 1 and Mod 3 disk systems. 

High scores are automatically saved after each game on disk versions. 

TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corp. 

Dealers: All games now available in full color packaging, please inquire. 



Under $1000, continued... 

VIC uses built-in Basic and 6502 machine 
language. The graphics resolution is 176 
x 184 with a display capability of 22 x 23 
characters. The color options include eight 
character colors, eight border colors, and 
16 screen colors. 

The I/O ports offer opportunities to 
add a modem, RAM and ROM cartridges, 
a cassette recorder, disk drive, or printer, 
and paddle, joystick, or light pen. 

At seven pounds shipping weight 
including the power supply, the VIC is 
still within the briefcase class but a bit 
heavy for backpacking. The physical 
dimensions are approximately 16 M by 10" 
by 3" so that reasonably compact config- 
urations are possible. 

The VIC is a very new entry into a 
growing market, but Commodore seems 
to have given careful thought to the design 
and to software and peripheral options. 
Moreover, initial sales of the VIC in Japan 
suggest that it will attract devoted fans in 
the U.S. market as well. 

TRS-80 Color Computer 

Radio Shack's TRS-80 Color Computer 
is the latest entry from the world's largest 
producer of personal computers. The 
console is available with a total of 12K at 
$399. Extended Basic is available either 
as an add-on for $99 or together with a 



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Radio Shack TRS-80 Color Computer. 

16K memory for $599. Certainly, there is 
something to be said for the opportunity 
to provide the family with a "game" 
computer and then add the range of 
peripherals and options as the budget 
permits and one's needs dictate. 

The TRS-80 uses 6809-2 microprocessor 
chip for its CPU. It can be programmed 
in Basic and will accept machine language 
commands. As might be expected from 
Radio Shack, the I/O ports accept a wide 
range of devices and include edge con- 
nectors for plug-in ROMs, software serial 
ports, two joystick ports which can be 
adapted for other peripherals, and a 1500 
baud cassette port. 



The Color Computer has 64 x 32 reso- 
lution which can be expanded to 256 x 
192, and the screen display offers up to 
32 x 16 characters. It will accept a serial 
printer and a disk drive will be available 
in the future. The TRS-80 incorporates a 
full size keyboard with 53 keys. 

The Color Computer has a built-in RF 
Modulator. If one wishes. Radio Shack 
offers a TRS-80 13" Color Video Receiver 
for use as a CRT for $399. The Color 
Computer is a very recent addition to the 
field of personal computers but one can 
anticipate that Radio Shack will offer its 
not inconsiderable marketing skills and 
support to make it a serious contender. 
Radio Shack already mentions the future 
availability of printers and telephone 
modems. Certainly, no one seriously in 
the market for a personal computer would 
ignore this very personable machine preg- 
nant with possibilities. 



APF Imagination Machine 

The APF Imagination Machine is avail- 
able either as the APF IM-I which is 
designed to combine the MP100 TV game 
with an APF computer console, or as the 
IM-I I Personal/Business Computer which 
includes two mini floppy disk drives. With 
a list price of $1599, the APF IM-II 
stretches the specified $1,000 for personal 
computers, but we will consider it along 
with its lower priced sibling. 

The APF Imagination machine console 
uses a Motorola 6800 chip as its micro- 
processor. The initial configuration pro- 
vides 8K of memory which can be 
expanded as in the IM-II to 41K with 27K 
of RAM and 14K of ROM. The 39 lb. 
weight of the Imagination Machine includes 
a built-in cassette recorder as well as a 
full-sized typewriter style keyboard with 
53 keys. The dimensions are roughly 24" 
by 14" by 3" which is beginning to strain 
the average briefcase. 

The Imagination Machine is program- 
mable in either Basic or machine language 
and is expected to accept Level II Microsoft 
Basic software momentarily. 




CO MPUTER CENT ER 

SUPER SELECTION & 
DISCOUNT PRICES 



ATARI 



-7/r/f/rffrmuiiniiiiiiiiiniiiuwHWUuuuumi 



I ATMdOO 




ATARI 
800 

$ 775. 




ATARI / / ! ATAH40C 

400 / / ' c^>- 

'349. JHHKBKS 

* — ^^ — r 

16K RAM $90. 

810 DISK DRIVE 489. 

410 RECORDER 70. 

850 INTERFACE 160. 



CROMEMCO 




CS-O/D 

SYSTEM ZERO 
W/64K. 16FDC 

*2399. 



Z-2H HARD DISK SYSTEM $7899. 

CS-3 SYSTEM THREE 6399. 

CS-2 SYSTEM TWO 3799 

DDF ADD ON 5-1/4" DUAL DRIVE . . . 1099. 

APPLE II PLUS (48K) $1200. 

DISK II W/3.3 CONTROLLER 575. 

DISK II W/O CONTROLLER 499. 



APPLE 



HEWLETT-PACKARD 



HP-85 

$ 2750. 



HP-83 $1915. 

16KRAM 260. 

5-1/4" DUAL MASTER DISK DRIVE . . . 2125. 

HP-IB INTERFACE 340. 

ROM DRAWER 39. 

MASS STORAGE ROM 122. 

VISICALC (TM) PLUS 180. 



? p 5Pr? maxell 

HHINTtHb PI OPPY D|c;k 




MX-80 $499 

ATARI CABLE 25. 

TRS-80 MODEL I CABLE . . .35. 

APPLE INTERFACE 

& CABLE 100. 



MO 1 
MD2 
F0-1 . 



$45. 
.65. 
.65. 



APF Imagination Machine I. 
20 



COMPUTER CENTER 
DigiByte Systems Corp. 

31 East 31 Street 

New York, New York 10016 

(212) 889-8130 



CIRCLE 121 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

CREATIVE COMPUTING 



COMPUTER CENTER 

31Ea.,31.,S,ree» • New YorK, N.Y,. (212,889-8130 | 480 Lexing.on Avenue .. *£^^l™%r t f™ 




(between Madison & Park Avenues) 



(American Brands Bldg. 



presenting the LARGEST SELECTION OF SOFTWARE EVER ASSEMBLED 



for ATARI® • APPLE® • PET® • TRS-80® and other Microcomputers 

at SUPER DISCOUNT PRICES! 



ATARI 

SPACE INVADERS (AT) 17 95 

ASSEMBLER DEBUG (AT) 53 95 

BASKETBALL (AT) 35 95 

VIDEO EASEL-LIFE (AT) 35 95 

SUPER BREAKOUT (AT) 35 95 

MUSIC COMPOSER (AT) 53.95 

COMPUTER CHESS (AT) 35 95 

3-D TIC TAC TOE (AT) 35 95 

STAR RAIDERS (AT) 35 95 

PADDLES (AT) 17.95 

JOYSTICKS (AT) 



17 95 



(AP.T) 35 95 

(AP.T) 35.95 

(AP.T) 35.95 

17 95 
1795 



ADVENTURE INTERNATIONAL 

□ ADVENTURE #0 (T) 

□ ADVENTURE (1.2.3) [D] 
D ADVENTURE (4.5.6) [D] 
D ADVENTURE (7.8.9) [D] 
D ADVENTURE (specify 1-10) (AP.T. AT) 

□ PROJECT OMEGA (T) 

D PROJECT OMEGA (T) [D] 22.50 

□ PLANETOIDS [D] (AP) 17 95 

D MEAN CHECKERS MACHINE (T) 17.95 

□ DR. CHIPS (T) 17.95 

□ KID-VENTURE 1 (AP.T) 17.95 

D LUNAR LANDER (T) 17.95 

□ MOUNTAIN SHOOT (AT) .8.95 

□ SLAG (T) 17 95 

□ STAR TREK 3.5 (AT.T) 17 95 

□ STAR TREK 3.5 [D] (T) 17.95 

□ SUNDAY GOLF (AT) .8-95 

□ ZOSSED IN SPACE (T) 17.95 

D SILVER FLASH (T) 17.95 

D SILVER FLASH [D] (T) 17.95 

D MISSILE ATTACK (T) 17 95 

D STAR SCOUT (T) 17.95 

D GALACTIC EMPIRE (AT) 17 95 

AVAL0N HILL 

□ MIDWAY (P.T.AP) J3.50 

D NUKE WAR (P.T.AP) 1350 

□ PLANET MINERS (P.T.AP) 13.50 

D CONVOY RAIDER (P.T.AP) 13.50 

D B1 BOMBER (P.T.AP) 1350 

D LORDS OF KARMA (P.T.AP) 18.00 

□ CONFLICT 2500 (AP.AT.P.T) 13.50 

□ COMPUTER ACQUIRE (AP.P.T) 18.00 

ACORN SOFTWARE 

D ATERM (T) 17 95 

□ SYSTEM SAVERS (T) 13-55 

D DISASSEMBLER (T) 13.55 

D DISK/TAPE UTILITY (T) 1795 

□ STAR TREK SIMULATION (T) .8.95 

D GAMMON CHALLENGER (T) 13.55 

D PIGSKIN (T) 13-55 

D ULTRA TREK (T) 1355 

D SPACE WAR (T) 8 95 

D WARP/LANDER (T) -8 95 

D BASKETBALL [D] (T) 18 95 

□ BASKETBALL (T) 3 55 

D DUEL-N-DROIDS [D] (T) 1895 

D DUEL-N-DROIDS (T) 13.55 

□ INVADERS FROM SPACE (T) . . . 13.55 

D INVADERS FROM SPACE [D] (T) 18 95 

□ PIGSKIN [D] (T) 18 95 

□ PINBALL (T) 13 55 

D PINBALL [Dl (T) ... 18 95 

D SUPERSCRIPT [D] (T) 28 95 

D EVEREST EXPLORER (T) 13-55 

D EVEREST EXPLORER [D] (T) 18 95 

EPYX-AUTOMATED SIMULATIONS 

D TUESDAY QUARTERBACK [D] (AP) 26.95 

D STAR WARRIOR [CD] (AP.T) 35 95 

DTHREEPACK [D) (AP.P.T)..-.. ^5 00 

□ STARFLEET ORION [CD] (AP.T) 22.50 

If you don't see it 
listed, write... 
we probably have 
it in stock! 




Check program desired- 
Complete ordering information 
and mail entire ad. 
Immediate Shipments from stock. 



KEY: 

AT-Atari 

AP-Apple 

P-Pet 

T-TRS-80 

C-Cassette 

D-on Disc. 

If not marked-Cassette 

ATARI is a trademark of ATARI INC. 

APPLE Is a trademark of APPLE COMPUTER. INC 

TRS-80 is a trademark of TANDY CORP 

PET is a trademark of COMMODORE BUSINESS MACHINES 

^ Prices subject to change without notice 




EPYX-AUTOMATED SIMULATIONS 

STARFLEET ORION [C] (PI... 22.50 

INVASION ORION [CD] (AP.T) 22.50 

INVASION ORION [C] (PAT).. 22.50 

TEMPLE OF APSHAI [D] (AP.T) 35 95 

TEMPLE OF APSHAI [C] (P.T) 35 95 

DATESTONES OF RYN [DC] (APT) 19.95 

DATESTONES OF RYN [C] (P.AP).. .-995 

MORLOC TOWER [CD] (APT) 19 95 

MORLOC TOWER [C] (PAP) 19 95 

RESCUE AT RIGEL [CD] (AP J) 26.95 

RESCUE AT RIGEL [C] (P AT) 26.95 

HELLFIRE WARRIOR [D] (AP.T) 35 95 

HELLFIRE WARRIOR [C] (P) 35.95 

BIG FIVE SOFTWARE 

ATTACK FORCE (T) JJ-30 

GALAXY INVASION (T) JJ-30 

METEOR MISSION II (T) 4 30 

SUPER NOVA (T) JJ-30 

COSMIC FIGHTER (T) 14.30 

CRYSTAL COMPUTER 

I SUMER (AP.AT.P.T) ID]......... 16 00 

I GALACTIC QUEST (AP.AT J) [D].... 25.00 

I IMPERIAL WALKER (AT) [D] 25 00 

I SANDS OF MARS (AP.AT) [D] 32 00 

I LASARWARS (AP.AT) [D] 25.00 

MED SYSTEMS 

] DEATH MAZE 5000 (AP) [D] 15 30 

) DEATH MAZE 5000 (T) 

] LABYRINTH (T) 

] RATS REVENGE (T) 

] REALITY ENDS (T) 

CALIF. PACIFIC 

1 a-D GRAPHICS (AP) [D] 

(AP) [D] 



11.65 
11.65 
.8 95 



AKALAPETHOIDS 
APPLE (AP) [D] . 
FENDER BENDER (AP) 
RASTER BLASTER (AP) 
BUDGE S SPACE ALBUM 



3150 

26 95 

[D] 22.50 

[D] 26 95 

(AP) ID].... 35.95 
BUDGES TRILOGY (AP) [D] 26.95 

MICRO LAB 

CROWN OF ARITHIAN (AP) [D] 3150 

DATA FACTORY (AP) [D] 130 00 

MINI FACT (AP) [D] 65 95 

DOGFIGHT (AP) [D] 26 95 

MAD VENTURE (AP) [D] 22 50 

PERSONAL SOFTWARE 

CCAMGMT [D] (P.AT) .90.00 

DESK TOP PLAN II [D] (AP) 175.00 

MONTY MONOPOLY [D] (AP) .31 00 

VISICALC [D] (AT.P.AP) 170 00 

ZORK (T) [D] -35.95 

VISIDEX (AP) [D] 70 00 

VISIPLOT (AP) [D] 162 00 

VISITERM (AP) [D] 135 00 

VISITREND (AP) [D] 210 00 

QUALITY SOFTWARE 

3D TIC TAC TOE (T) JJ.55 

6502 DISASSEMBLER (AT) 10.55 

ATARI ASSEMBLER (AT) . . 22.50 

ASTEROIDS IN SPACE [D] (AP) 795 

BATTLESHIP COMMANDER (AP) 13.55 

BATTLESHIP COMMANDER [D] (AP) . . .17 95 

FASTGAMMON [D] (AP.T) 22.50 

FASTGAMMON (AP.T.AT) 1 7.95 

FRACAS ADVENTURE [D] (AP) 22 50 

QS LIGHT PEN (T) 

SKETCH 80 (T) 

FORTH (AT) [D] 

STRATEGIC SIMULATIONS 

COMPUTER AMBUSH [D] (API ...... .51.50 

COMPUTER BISMARCK [D] (AP.T) .. .51 50 
COMPUTER BISMARCK (T) 42.00 



1795 
1355 
7200 



□ 
□ 
□ 
□ 
D 
□ 
D 
□ 
□ 

□ 
D 
D 
D 
D 
□ 

D 

□ 
D 
□ 
D 

n 
a 

D 

□ 
□ 
□ 

D 
D 

□ 
a 

D 

a 

a 

D 
D 
D 

a 

D 

a 



STRATEGIC SIMULATIONS 

COMPUTER CONFLICT [D] (AP) 35 00 

COMPUTER NAPOLEONICS [D] (AP) .... 51 .50 
COMPUTER QUARTERBACK [D] (AP) . . .35.00 

COMPUTER AIR COMBAT [D] (AP) 51.50 

WARP FACTOR (D) (AP) 35.00 

CARTELS & CUTHROATS [D] (AP)...5 1.50 
OPERATION APOCALYPSE [D] (AP) . . . .51. 50 
TORPEDOFIRE [D] (AP) 5150 

SUB-LOGIC 

3D GRAPHICS (AP) 45.00 

3D GRAPHICS [D] (AP) 53 00 

A-2 FS1 FLIGHT SIMULATOR (AP) 22.00 

A-2FS1 FLIGHT [D] (AP) 29 00 

T80-FS1 FLIGHT SIMULATOR (T) 22.00 

3D GRAPHICS (T) 26.50 

MICROSOFT SOFTWARE 

ADVENTURE [D] (AP.T) 25.50 

ASSEMBLY DEVELOPMENT [D] (T) ..80.00 

BASIC COMPILER [D] (T) 175.00 

EDITOR/ASSEMBLER (T) 25.50 

FORTRAN COMPILER [D] (T) 80.00 

LEVEL III BASIC (T) 44.00 

MuMATH [D] (T) 64 00 

OLYMPIC DECATHALON [D] (T.AP) 20.00 

OLYMPIC DECATHALON (T) 20.00 

TYPING TUTOR (AP.T) 1355 

TYPING TUTOR [D] (AP) .17.95 

Z-80 SOFTCARD [D] (AP) 280.00 

16k RAM BOARD (AP) 165.00 

ON LINE SYSTEMS 

[D] (AP) 17.95 

[D] (AP) 22.50 

[D] (AP.AT) 29 00 

[D] (AP) 36 00 

D] (AP) 26 95 

[D] (AP) 22.50 

[D] (AP) 26.95 

] (AP) 81.00 

(AP) 22 50 



HI RES ADVEN #0 
HI RES ADVEN #1 
HI RES ADVEN #2 
HI-RES FOOTBALL 
HI-RES SOCCER [ 
HI-RES CRIBBAGE 
MISSILE DEFENSE 
SUPERSCRIBE [D 
SABOTAGE [D] 



SIRIUS SOFTWARE 

STAR CRUSIER (AP) [D] 22.50 

BOTH BARRELS (AP) [D] 22.50 

CYBER STRIKE (AP) [D] 36 00 

PHANTOM FIVE (AP) [D] 26.95 

SPACE EGGS (AP) [D] 26.95 

ORBITRON (AP) [D] 26.95 

BR0DERBUND SOFTWARE 

GALACTIC EMPIRE (AP) [D] 22.50 

GALACTIC TRADER (AP) [D] 22.50 

GALACTIC REVOLUTION (AP) [D] ...22.50 

GALACTIC TRIOLOGY (T) [D] 35.95 

TAWALAS REDOUBT (AP) [D] 26.95 

HYPER HEAD ON (AP) [D] 22.50 

GALAXY WARS (AP) [D] 22.50 

ALIEN RAIN (AP) [D] 22.50 

TANK COMMAND (AP) [D] 13.55 

GOLDEN MOUNTAIN (AP) [D] 17.95 

SNOGGLE [D] (AP) 22.50 

BOTTOM SHELF 

ANALYSIS PAD [D] (T) 90.00 

CHECKBOOK III [D] (T) 44 50 

CHECK REGISTER [D] (T) 67 00 

LIBRARY 100 (T) 44.50 

HEAD CLEANER [D] (AP.T) 17.00 

SYNERGISTIC SOFTWARE 

DUNGEON & WILDERNESS [D] (AP) . . . .29.00 

DUNGEON [D] (AP) 15.75 

ODYSSEY [D] (AP) 27 00 

WILDERNESS [D] (AP) 18.00 

PROGRAM LINE EDITOR [D] (AP) ... .36.00 

THE LINGQUIST (AP) [D] 36.00 

HIGHER GRAPHICS II (AP) [D] 31.00 

HIGHERTEXTII (AP) [D] 31.00 



Ship the above programs as checked to: 
Mr /Mrs _ 



Address 
City _ 
State _ 



Zip 



Number of Programs Ordered — 

Amount of order - 

N.Y. residents add Sales Tax 

Add shipping anywhere in the US . 

Total amount enclosed 

Charge my: D Master Charge 



2.00 



□ Visa 



have a 



Name of Computer 



Signature 



with 



K memory Card No 



Expires 



CREAT. COMP. SEPT. 1981 Personal Checks please allow 3 weeks 



Mail to: 



DIGIBYTE SYSTEMS CORP 

31 East 31st Street, New York, N.Y. 10016 
Phone: (212)889-6975 



/ 



CIRCLE 121 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Under $1000, continued... 



The IM-I and IM-II will interface with 
regular TV sets with the addition of an 
RF modulator or one can use the 
APFTVM-10 CRT. 

The Imagination Machine equipped with 
the MP1000 TV game may appear frivolous 
to a casual observer, but a detailed exam- 
ination of the MPA-10 computer console 
and the associated peripherals will establish 
the Imagination Machine as a serious 
personal computer with a growing range 
of software packages available from more 
than one source. 

TI99/4 

Texas Instruments designates their 99/4 
and 99/4A consoles as "home computers" 
which is a useful designation for domestic 
machines that are designed for a wide 
range of educational, entertainment, and 
management programs and uses. 

The Texas Instrument 99/4A differs 
from the 99/4 in that it has a more 
typewriter-like keyboard and a more 
modest price tag. The TI 99/4 lists for 
$649.95 while the TI 99/4A lists for $525. 
These machines both use the 9900 16-bit 
microprocessor chip. The 99/4 and 99/4A 
come with 26K of internal ROM and 16K 
of RAM. The total memory capacity can 
be expanded to 72K. 




Texas Instruments 99/4A with peripherals. 

In addition to the supplied sound gen- 
erator which offers three tones and a noise 
generator with a frequency range from 
110Hz to beyond 40,000Hz. Texas Instru- 
ments also makes available a solid state 
speech synthesizer with 372 English words 
built-in and almost endless possibilities 
using TI's phoneme stringing technique. 

Using the now optional TI 10" color 
monitor, one can get 24 x 32 characters 
with 192 x 256 resolution. These crisp 
visuals are available in a total of 16 colors. 
The monitor lists for $375, but an RF 
modulator listed at $49.95, now permits 
use of a regular TV set. The 99/4 and the 
99/4A share dimensions of 10" by 15" by 
2.5 M (give or take a few centimeters) and 
weigh under 5 lbs. 

The range of I/O ports available make 
it clear that Texas Instruments is focusing 
on the computer aspects of this product, 
making provisions for an RS-232 interface, 
printer, disk system, and telephone modem 
among others. 

The 99/4 and 99/4A use TI extended 
Basic and can use TI Logo with the addition 



of Memory Expansion and Disk Memory 
System. TI issues a User's Newsletter and 
99 er is a bimonthly magazine recently 
introduced for users of the 99/4. There 
are also growing numbers of user groups 
as well as growing software support. The 
Texas Instrument 99/4 and 99/4A are 
very congenial computers for general 
consumers and have potential for serious 
computing as well. 

Intellivision 

Intellivision from Mattel Electronics 
began life as a formidable video game 
master component which was designed to 
accept a broad range of game cartridges. 




Mattel Intellivision. 

Now Mattel has scheduled release of a 
Keyboard Component with built-in cassette 
drive to form a promising combination 
with growing potential as a computer. 

The Intellivision CPU is in the Master 
Component and uses a GI 16-bit micro- 
processor. The resident memory in the 
Master Keyboard combination includes 
7K of ROM and 16K of RAM. As might 
be expected, the graphics resolution is a 
respectable 160 x 192 with 24 lines of 40 
characters. There are 16 colors from which 
to choose and the system comes complete 
with an RF modulator for interfacing with 
domestic color TV sets. 

Intellivision incorporates a 60-key type- 
writer-like keyboard with upper and lower 
case and specialized computer control keys. 
The Master Component and Keyboard 
Component combination includes parallel 
peripheral expansion ports plus access to 
the CPU bus. It would be an understate- 
ment to say that Mattel Electronics has 
not rushed headlong into the home com- 
puter market. They have, in fact, slipped 
delivery of the keyboard component about 
four times in the past two years. However, 
there is reason to suspect that the intro- 
duction of the Keyboard Component will 
be followed by a printer, voice synthesizer, 
and telephone modem. 

At this point, Mattel Electronics promises 
a Basic computer language cartridge. The 
prospect of more and more peripherals is 
tempting, especially when the appeal of 
the broad range of games is considered as 
well. However, Mattel is very careful to 
note that there is no guarantee of the 
introduction of additional peripherals. 



Currently, one must regard Intellivision 
as an extremely promising combination 
with considerable potential as a home 
computer. The current price of the Master 
Component is expected to sell at around 
$700. One must be impressed with the 
marketing power and acumen of Mattel 
Electronics. Yet, such enormous corpora- 
tions as RCA have retreated from the 
personal computer market so one might 
do well to ponder before committing to 
the current format of Intellivision as one's 
personal computer choice. 

Atari 400/800 

The Atari personal computer systems 
fit nicely into the lower middle and upper 
levels of under $1 ,000 price format of this 
survey. While the console of either the 
Atari 400 or 800 could be stowed away in 
a large briefcase, the ever-expanding range 
of peripherals suggt s that the owner of 
either the 400 or 800 will be devoting 
increasing time, space, and funds to a 
complex configuration. 

The Atari 400 and 800 share several 
features including the use of the 6502 
microprocessor chip in the CPU. Both 
have built-in RF modulators and 57-key 




Atari 800. 

alphanumeric keyboard (plus four special 
function keys). The keyboard handles 
upper and lower case. The 400 offers a 
flat, touch sensitive keyboard panel which 
is most attractive in domestic settings since 
it is child and spill proof. On the Atari 
800, the keyboard uses a full stroke 
typewriter format which allow one's touch 
typing skills full range. 

It would be churlish not to note that 
Atari offers a rich range of video games 
which can be played using either the 400 
or 800. Both consoles provide four inde- 
pendent sound synthesizers with an internal 
speaker. The Atari 400 is very much a 
computer with 10K of ROM and 8 or 16K 
of RAM. It is equipped to handle Basic, 
Assembler, and Pilot. 

The Atari 800 can extend its RAM to 
48K, and accepts all Atari programs and 
peripherals. It can control up to four disk 
drives and a variety of printers. A cursory 
look at the interface provisions of'the 800 
makes it clear that it is designed for non- 
technical types who do not want to sacri- 
fice any options. 



22 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




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How will it meet the demands of an increasingly complex world 9 

As technology advances at an incredible pace, business, industry, 
government and communications demand greater human precision and 
skill 

The m ic roc i re uited community of the future will bean information metropolis 
Its classrooms will be responsible for equiping students with core skills in 
mathematics, science, language, and computer operations — and will do so 
with ease and efficiency 

Professionals in the field of instructional design have developed "Learning 
Environments" which coordinate space, work surfaces, group and private 
interactions, audio/visual presentations, printed material, and electronic 
media Within that integrated classroom, instructional software will turn the 
microcomputer into a powerful teaching tool 

Why Computer Mediated Instruction 9 The microcomputer personalizes 
learning; it frames learning within an individualized situation It combines 
vital immediate feedback with infinite patience Its screen displays capture 
attention. The learner advances at his or her own pace And software systems 
in mathematics and language arts can be tailored with ease to individual 
classroom settings 



'['[III f-> rpir fi 

111 • ') ,/ -111 11 






n 



COMPU-READ 3.0 a series of 

instructional software modules build 
learners' skills by strengthening the 
perceptual processes essential to 
competent reading Suitable for all ages 

48K A; 12 or 3 3 

4«K Atari Bask Disk $29 '< 

COMPU-MATH Three self-contained 
systems in elementary math meet the 
instructional needs of both school and 
consumer ARITHMETIC SKILLS teaches the 
primary or remedial learner basic skills in 
counting, addition, subtraction, multipli- 
cation, and division FRACTIONS provides 
definition and instruction in common and 
lowest denominators, additions, subtrac 
tion, multiplication, and division 
DECIMALS works with conversion, addition, 
subtraction, rounding off, multiplication, 
division, and percontag< 

4RK. Applesoft DOS 3 2 

apithmftk SKILLS $49 95 FRACTIONS DECIMA 

$39 



ALGEBRA 1 A powerful computer 
mediated instructional system develops 
fundamental skills in introductoryalgebra, 
supports adjunct or stand-alone learning 
in the home or classroom, and encour- 
ages the learner to experiment with a 
variety of learning styles" ALGEBRA 1's 
flow-charted information maps mark the 
learners progress and recommend a 
sequence to follow through the system's 
learning units 
48K Applesoft DOS 3 3 

COMPU-SPELL An elaborate instruc- 
tional system teaches spelling by refusing 
to allow learners to fail The system 
accommodates one to sixty individual 
learners and can be easily adjusted to 
particular environments by a learning 
manager" (a teacher or parent; Use Ed 
Ware data diskettes or build your own 

4BK A| 529 95 

Data Di 7. 8. qi lull 

al) 



lu-Wai o publishes tl ulation utilities STATISTIC SOLVI METRI-VERT p< 

which builds visual skills; and INTERACTIVE FANTASIES Intellectual gan VORK WIN DM > thf y. IER 

CIRCLE 164 OH READER SERVICE CARD 




CZD 



THF. SCIENCE OF LEARNING 




lines* 



Edu Ware Services, Inc. 22222 Sherman Way, Suite 203 Canoga Park. C A 91 303 



(213) 346 6783 



Under $1000, continued... 



Tomorrow's 
Software . . . 
Today! 



UCSD 

P-SYSTEM 



: ORTRAN 



Pascal 



BASIC 



LISP 



Portable 
Powerful 
Professional 

FOR PROGRAMMERS 

•Operating system with interpreter, 
screen and character editors, filer, 
assemblers, utilities and compilers. 

•PFAS(TM)- Keyed - ISAM in 6K user 
memory 

FOR ENGINEERS, CONTRACTORS 

•Milestone^)- Organic Software's 
answer to PERT. Critical path 
modeling. 

• FORTRAN — ANSI '77 Subset 

FOR DOCTORS, CLINICS 

•MEDOFFICE(™>-The complete 
office system for the professional. 

•DATE BOOK(TM)_ Appointment 
scheduling for your micro. 

FOR SMALL BUSINESS 

•GL, AR, AP, Payroll Packages 
•Word Processing 

FOR EDUCATORS, RESEARCHERS 

•INTELLECT-UL(TM)_ a full range 
LISP interpreter for A. I. applications 

•mlNDEX(™) -Text database system 
for bibliographies, contracts, 
abstracts, etc. 

And Much More — 

READY TO RUN ON 

DECLSI-11* 
TRS-80 Model ll§ 

PCD SYSTEMS 
P. 0. Box 143 
Penn Yan, NY 14527 
315-536-3734 

Itm Digital Equipment 
STM of Tandy Corp. 
•TMU. of California 



With a list price of $399 the Atari 400 is 
nicely placed in terms of domestic budgets. 
With the full 48K of RAM, the Atari 800 
lists for $1080 and offers an immediate 
range of options and support programs 
which some of the current competition is 
still developing. 

TRS-80 Model III 

The TRS-80 Model III is an improved 
version of the Model I. Unlike the Model 
I, which has separate keyboard and video 
display units connected by cables, the 
Model III is completely enclosed in a 
plastic case. Other improvements include 
contoured keys, lower case and special 
characters. 

The unit you can purchase for under 
$1000-$999, to be exact -includes 16K 
of memory and Level III Basic. It can be 
expanded to include two disk drives, 48K 
of memory, and an RS-232 interface board, 
which opens the door for a host of per- 
ipherals. 

The cassette interface on the Model 
III runs three times faster than the Model 
I, but also accepts tapes recorded for the 
Model I, and with a few exceptions most 
of the programs written for the Model I 
will run on the Model III. A program on 
disk must be converted using a conversion 
utility. 

The standard 64 characters per line 
combine with lower case to give the Model 
III the potential to be an inexpensive 
word processor. A line printer and one of 
many word processing programs will com- 
plete the system. The TRS-80 Disk Oper- 
ating System is one of the best on any 
microcomputer, with over three dozen 
commands for controlling system functions 
and file management, including a Help 
command to give a summary of each DOS 
command. The Model III operating system 
is on floppy disk so that any changes or 
improvements can be easily distributed 
by Radio Shack. 

The Model III does not offer state-of- 
the-art graphics or color, but it does have 
many features in its favor, not the least of 
which are the vast quantity of software 
already written for the Model I and the 
nationwide support network of Radio 
Shack stores and Computer Centers. 




NEC PC-8001A 

The NEC PC-8001A microcomputer is 
petite enough to fit under the personal 
computer umbrella, but to display its crisp 
graphics with their high resolution, 160 x 
100 matrix and choice of 20 or 25 lines of 
36 to 80 characters, a monitor is required. 
This clearly puts the NEC PC-8001A out 
of the tuck-it-in-your-briefcase class. 




TRS-80 Model III. 



NEC PC-8001A. 

The NEC PC-8001A uses a PO780c-l 
microprocessor chip which is compatible 
with a Z80A. The standard memory 
configuration includes 24K of ROM and 
32K of RAM. The addition of a PC-8012 
I/O unit makes 64K of RAM available. 
The typewriter-style keyboard has 82 keys 
including function keys and a numeric 
keypad. It allows high speed typing for 
word processing and other professional 
uses. 

One might have minor problems in 
establishing a warm personal relationship 
with a machine designated as the PC- 
8001A. However, NEC has been at pains 
to make the considerable power of this 
machine readily accessible to consumers 
(albeit well-heeled consumers). Moreover, 
the PC-8001A can run with Microsoft N- 
Basic, Fortran, Cobol, Pascal, and APL. 

The list price of the NEC PC-8001A is 
$1295 and the addition of a JB-1201M(A) 
monochrome monitor adds $285 to the 
price. While many personal computers 
are such that one can start with packaged 
games and expand to computer applications 
and configurations, the NEC begins as a 
computer which can grow to cover a wide 
range of professional tasks, word process- 
ing, and much more. 

With eight colors and a 248-symbol 
character set to mix with graphics, it is 
hard to resist the addition of the NEC JC- 
1202-DH(A) color monitor which displays 
the crisp visuals in all their precision. 
NEC's PC-8023A printer will print the full 
character set bidirectionally at 100 char- 
acters per second. 

As Japan's most popular computer, the 
NEC has already accumulated an impress- 



CIRCLE 291 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



26 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



ive range of available software and has 
been at pains to provide suitable orientation 
manuals for the non-technical minded 
computer beginner as well. 

Apple II Plus 

The Apple II Plus points out the broad 
range of applications now available for 
personal computers while leaving consid- 
erable untapped potential. It is clear that 
still more may be coaxed out of the 6502 
microprocessor chip which serves as the 
CPU in the Apple II Plus. 

While the 18" by 4.5" by 15.5" console 
is compact enough to be portable, the 1 1 
lb. weight of the console makes the Apple 
II Plus a bit heavy for frequent portage. 
The availability of plug-in memory elements 
allows expansion of RAM in 16K incre- 
ments up to 64K. Language memory is 
organized in 2K blocks of ROM with up 
to 12K possible. 

The Apple language library ranges from 
Applesoft Basic to Apple Pascal, Apple 
Pilot, and Apple Fortran. Apple provides 
a full range of peripherals including a 
graphics tablet, printers, and joysticks. 
Apple interface cards make it possible to 
exchange data with other computers, 
printers, and accessories. 

It could be plausibly argued that the 
range of hardware and software options 
permits one maximum flexibility in person- 
alizing one's personal computer. If you 
are not entirely happy with a given Apple 
feature or option, the features you seek 
may be available through interface or the 
growing range of software developed by 
Apple users. 

In the text mode, Apple offers 24 lines 
of 40 characters with resolution of 140 x 
192 in color or 280 x 192 in black and 
white. Apple provides a portable 12" black 
and white monitor that will display 40 
characters per line with the Apple II 
Plus. 

The $1530 price tag for the Apple II 
Plus bends the $1 ,000 price frame consid- 
erably. But if one acknowledges that 
personal computing is a way of life, such 
a substantial initial investment may be 
deemed reasonable if not economical. 






#17 software 

ULTIMATE SOFTWARE PLAN 



We'll match any advertised price 
on any item that we carry. And if 
you find a lower price on what you 
bought within 30 days of buying 
it, just show us the ad and we'll 
refund the difference. 
It's that simple. 



Combine our price protection 
with the availability of full profes- 
sional support and our automatic 
update service and you have the 
Ultimate Software Plan. 

It's a convenient, uncomplicated, 
logical way to get your software. 




iX (New items or new prices) 

CP/M users: specify disk systems and formats. Most formats available. 



CP/M 



ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE 

Medical(PAS-3) $849/$40 

Dental (PAS-3) $849/$40 

ASYST DESIGN 

Prof Time Billing $549/$40 

s General Subroutine $269/$40 

s Application Utilities $439/$40 

COMPLETE BUS. SYSTEMS 

Creator $269/$25 

Reporter $169/$20 

Both $399/$45 

COMPUTER CONTROL 

Fabs(B-tree) $159/$ 20 

UltraSortll $159/$25 

COMPUTER PATHWAYS 

Pearl (level 1) $ 99/$25 

Pearl (level 2) $299/$40 

Pearl (level 3) $549/$50 

DIGITAL RESEARCH 

CP/M 2 2 

NorthStar $149/$25 

TRS-80 Model II (P+T)$159/$35 

Micropolis $169/$25 

Cromemco $189/$25 

PL/l-80 $459/$35 

^ BT-80 $179/$30 

Mac $ 85/$ 15 

Sid $ 65/$15 

Z-Sid $ 90/$ 15 

Tex $ 90/$ 15 

DeSDOol $ 50/$ 10 

DMA. 

Ascom $149/$ 15 

DMA-DOS $179/$35 

CBS $369/$45 

Formula $539/$45 

GRAHAM-DORIAN 

General Ledger 
Acct Receivable 
Acct Payable 
Job Costing 

Payroll II 

Inventory II 

Payroll 

Inventory 

Cash Register 
Apartment Mgt 
Surveying 
Medical 
Dental 



MICROSOFT 

Basic-80 $289/$30 

Basic Compiler $329/$30 

Fortran-80 $349/$30 

Cobol-80 $574/$30 

M-Sort $124/$30 

Macro-80 $144/$20 

Edit-80 $ 847$20 

MuSimp/MuMath $224/$25 

MuLisp-80 $174/$20 

ORGANIC SOFTWARE 

^TextWriter III $111/$25 

DateBook II $269/$25 

^Milestone $269/$30 

OSBORNE 

General Ledger $ 59/$20 

Acct Rec/Acct Pay $ 59/$ 20 

Payroll w/Cost $ 59/$20 

All 3 $129/$60 

All 3 + CBASIC-2 $199/$75 

PEACHTREE" 

General Ledger $399/$40 

Acct Receivable $399/$40 

Acct Payable $399/$40 

Payroll $399/$40 

Inventory $399/$40 

Surveyor. . $399/$40 

Property Mgt $7997$ 40 

CPA Client Write-up $799/$40 
Mailing Address $349/$40 

SOFTWARE WORKS 

Adapt (CDOS to CP/M) $ 69/$na 
Ratfor $ 86/$na 

SOHO GROUP 

MatchMaker $ 97/$20 

Worksheet $177/$20 



s 
s 



PASCAL 

Pascal/MT+ $429/$30 

Pascal/Z $349/$30 

Pascal/UCSD 4 $429/$50 

Pascal/M $189/$ 20 

WORD PROCESSING 

WordSearch $ 1 79/$50 

SpellGua'd $229/$25 

VTS/80 $259/$65 

Magic Wand $289/$45 

Spell Binder $349/$45 

OTHER GOODIES 

The Last One $549/$95 

SuperCalc $269/$50 

Target $189/$30 

BSTAM $149/$15 

BSTMS $149/$15 

Tiny C $ 89/$50 

Tiny C Compiler $229/$50 

CBASIC-2 $ 98/$20 

Nevada Cobol $129/$25 

MicroStat $224/$25 

Vedit $105/$ 15 

MmiModel $449/$50 

StatPak $449/$40 

Micro B+ $229/$20 

Raid $224/$35 

String/80 $ 84/$20 

String/80 (source) $279/$na 



APPLE II 



INFO UNLIMITED 

EasyWriter $224 

Datadex $349 

Other less 15% 



$729/$40 
$729/$40 
$729/$40 
$729/$40 
$729/$40 
$729/$40 
$493/$40 
$493/$40 
$493/$40 
$493/$40 
$729/$40 
$729/$40 
$729/$40 

$269/$25 
$469/$35 

MICRO DATA BASE SYSTEMS 

HDBS $269/$35 

MDBS $795/$40 

^DRSorQRSorRTL $269/$10 
MDBSPKG $1295/$60 

MICROPRO 

WordStar $319/$60 

Customization Notes $ 89/$na 

Mail-Merge $109/$25 

WordStar/ Mail-Merge $419/$85 

DataStar $249/$60 

WordMaster $119/$40 

SuperSort I $199/$40 



STRUCTURED SYSTEMS 

GLor ARor APorPay $599/$40 

Inventory Control $599/$40 

Analyst $199/$25 

Letteright $179/$25 

QSort $ 89/$20 



SUPERSOFT 

Diagnostic I 

Diagnostic II 

Disk Doctor 

Forth (8080 or Z80) 

Fortran 

Fortran w/Ratfor 

Other 



$ 49/$20 
$ 84/$20 
$ 84/$20 
$149/$30 
$219/$30 
$289/$35 
less 10% 



MICRO-AP 

S-Basic 
Selector IV 



TCS 

GLor ARor APorPay 
All 4 

UNICORN 

S Mince 
^ Scribble 
>s Both 
Amethyst 

WHITESMITHS 

C Compiler 
Pascal (incl "C '*) 



DATA BASE 

FMS-80 

dBASE II 
Condor 

Condor II 

Access/80 $749/$ 50 



$ 79/$25 
$269/$99 

$149/$25 
$149/$25 
$249/$50 
$299/$75 



$600/$30 
$850/$45 

$649/$45 
$629/$50 
$599/$30 
$899/$50 



MICROSOFT 

Softcard (Z-80 CP/M) $259 

Fortran $179 

Cobol $499 

MICROPRO 

Wordstar $269 

MailMerge $ 99 

Wordstar/MailMerge $349 
SuperSort I. . $159 

PERSONAL SOFTWARE 

Visicalc3 3 $159 

CCA Data Mgr $ 84 

Desktop/Plan II $159 

Visiterm $129 

Visidex $159 

Visiplot $149 

Visitrend/Visiplot $229 

Zork $ 34 

PEACHTREE" 

General Ledger 
Acct Receivable 
Acct Payable 
Payroll 
Inventory 



OTHER GOODIES 

dBASE II 

VU #3 (use w/Visicalc) 
Super-Text II 

Data Factory 

DB Master 
OEM (complete 

accting) 

Charles Mann 

STC 



$224/$40 
$224/$40 
$224/$40 
$224/$40 
$224/$40 

$329/$50 
$ 79 
$127 
$129 
$184 

$399 
less 1 5% 
less 1 5% 



Apple II Plus. 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



ORDERS ONLY-CALL TOLL FREE VISA • MASTERCHARGE 

1-800-854-2003 ext 823 • Calif. 1-800-522-1500 ext. 823 

Overseas-add $10 plus additional postage • Add $2 50 postage and handling per each item • California 

residents add 6% sales tax • Allow 2 weeks on checks. COD ok • Prices subject to change without notice 

All items subject to availability • R— Mfgs Trademark. 

THE DISCOUNT SOFTWARE GROUP 

6520 Selma Ave. Suite 309 • Los Angeles. Ca. 90028 • (213) 666-7677 

Intl TELEX 499-0032 BVHL Attn: DiscSoft • USA TELEX 194-634 BVHL Attn: DiscSoft • 

TWX 910-321-3597 BVHL Attn: DiscSoft 



27 



CIRCLE 131 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



(j^S^; 



<^w&?>& 



^^^^^^^^^^ 



COLLEGE BOARDS 81/82 



for TRS-80 NORTHSTAR 
PET, APPLE OSI 



1M 



The best way to sharpen your skills for the College Boards is to work on actual 
examinations. Each of these program sets confronts the user with a virtually limitless series of 
questions and answers. Each program is based on past exams and presents material of the 
same level of difficulty and in the same form used in the College Board examination. Scoring 
is provided in accordance with the formula used by College Boards. 

S.A.T., P.S.A.T., N.M.S.Q.T., set includes 25 programs covering Vocabulary, Word Relationships, 
Reading Comprehension, Sentence Completion, and Mathematics. Price $149.95 

EDUCATOR EDITION - S.A.T., P.S.A.T includes all of the above programs plus detailed 
solutions and explanations for each problem plus drill exercises. S.A.T. set includes 25 
programs. $229.95 

Owners of our initial College Board series can upgrade their package to the College Board 
81-82 specs, including the all new reading comprehension, sentence completion plus 
expanded vocabulary and mathematics sections for $69.95. 



According to an independent controlled study, S.A. T. scores, in both 
verbal and mathematics sections, showed a mean increase of more than 70 
points when used independently by students. 



GRADUATE RECORD EXAMINATION set includes 28 programs covering Vocabulary, Word Relationships, Reading 
Comprehension, Sentence Completion, Mathematics, Logical Diagrams, Analytical Reasoning. $199.95 

EDUCATOR EDITION - Graduate Record Exam Set includes 28 programs. $289.95. 

Available in November LS.A.T. and G.M.A.T. preparatory series. Please call for information. 

COMPETENCY EXAM PREPARATION SERIES 

This comprehensive set of programs consists of simulated exam modules, a thorough diagnostic package, and a 
complete set of instructional programs. It is designed to teach concepts and operations, provide drill and practice and 
assess achievement levels through pre and post testing. The Competency Exam Preparation Series provides a structured, 
sequential, curriculum encompassing mathematical, reading and writing instruction. 

Based on our extensive field studies and the proven results of our successful tutorial methods, this program package 
represents the state of the art in educational instruction. 

The C.E.P.S. program is designed for individual student use or use in a classroom setting. Programs provide optional 
printer capability covering worksheet generation and performance monitoring. C.E.P.S. are available in two software 
formats. 

National Proficiency Series $1,299.00 

N.Y.S. Regents Competency Test, Preparation Series $1,299.00 

If desired, separate Mathematics and Verbal packages are available for $799.00 ea. A Spanish language version of the 
Mathematics Instruction Package is available at no extra charge. 



Krell Software 



OTVt 



Send $2 00 for complete Catalogue. 
$5.00 Coupon inc luded in Catalogue. 

PROGRAMS AVAILABLE FOR 
TRS-80. APPLE II & PET 
(unless otherwise indicated) 
D disk or □ cassette (please specif 

All programs require 16K TRS-80 programs require LEVEL ll BASIC APPLE programs require APPLESOFT BASIC 



Send check or money order to 
21 Milbrook Drive, Stony Brook, NY 11790 

(516) 751-5139 

NY State Residents Add Sales Tan 



^&&C&^&!^^ 



ODYSSEY IN TIME 




ALL TIME SUPER STAR BASEBALL 
& SUPER STAR BASEBALL 



411 IIMI 


SUPf ISTAR R4MRAII 




1 mm mwiwimi 


Sample 


linrup 




Samplr linrup 








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1) Rnkpi 


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Performance is based on the interaction of 
actual batting and pitching data. Came can 
be played by one or two players with the 
computer acting as a second player when 
desired. Players select rosters and lineups and 
exercise strategic choices including hit and 
run, base stealing, pinch hitting, intentional 
walk, etc. Highly realistic, there are two 
versions, ALL TIME SUPER STAR BASEBALL, 
and SUPER STAR BASEBALL featuring players 
of the present decade. Each includes about SO 
players allowing nearly an infinite number of 
roster and lineup possibilities. 
•Both Came* $24.95 



This spectacular adventure game adds 
a new dimension of excitement and 
complexity to Time Traveler. Players 
must now compete with the powerful 
and treacherous adversary in their exact- 
ing quest for victory. 

To succeed they must vanquish this 
adversary in combat that rages across 24 
time periods. 

Odyssey In Time includes all the chal- 
lenges of Time Traveler plus 10 additional 
eras, including those of Alexander the 
Great, Emperor Asoka of India, Attilla 
the Hun, and Ghengis Khan. Each game 
is unique, and may be interupted and 
saved for later play. 

available for APPLE & TR-80, 32K - $39.95 



TIME TRAVELER 

Confronts players with complex decision situations and 
the demand for real time action. Using the Time Machine, 
players must face a challenging series of environments that 
include; The Athens of Pericles, Imperial Rome, 
Nebuchadnezzar's Babylon, Ikhnaton 's Egypt, Jerusalem at 
the time of the crucifixion, The Crusades, Machiavelli's 
Italy, The French Revolution, The American Revolution, 
and The English Civil War. Deal with Hitler's Third Reich, 
Vikings, etc. At the start of each game players may choose a 
level of difficulty . . . the more difficult, the greater the time 
pressure. To succeed you must build alliances and struggle 
with the ruling powers. Each game is unique. 

$24.95 





ISAAC NEWTON 

Perhaps the most fascinating and valuable ed- 
ucational game ever devised — ISAAC NEWTON 
challenges the players to assemble evidence and 
discern the underlying "Laws of Nature" that have 
produced this evidence. ISAAC NEWTON is an 
inductive game that allows players to intervene 
actively by proposing experiments to determine if 
new data conform to the "Laws of Nature" in 
question. Players may set the level of difficulty 
from simple to fiendishly complex. 

In a classroom setting the instructor may elect to 
choose "Laws of Nature" in accordance with the 
complete instruction manual provided. 
For insight into some of the basic principles underlying 
ISAAC NEWTON see GODEL, ESCHER, BACH by Douglas 
R. Hofstadler, Chapter XIX and Martin Gardner's MATHE- 
MATICAL GAMEScolumn in Scientific American, October, 
1977 and June, 1959. $24.95. 



SWORD OF ZEDEK 

Fight to overthrow Ra, The Master of Evil. In this 
incredible adventure game, you must confront a host of 
creatures, natural and supernatural. To liberate the King- 
dom, alliances must be forged and treasures sought. 
Treachery, deceit and witchcraft must be faced in your 
struggles as you encounter wolves, dwarves, elves, dragons, 
bears, owls, ores, giant bats, trolls, etc. Each of the twelve 
treasures will enhance your power, by making yor invisible, 
invulnerable, more eloquent, more skillful in combat, etc., 
etc., as you explore the realms of geography both on the 
surface and underground. Dungeons, temples, castles, 
mountains, etc., are all a part of the fantastic world of Ra. 
Each game is unique in this spectacular and complex world 
of fantasy. 

$24.95 



Send $2 00 for complete Catalogue 
$5.00 Coupon included in Catalogue. 

PROGRAMS AVAILABLE FOR 

TRS-80, APPLE II & PET 

(unless otherwise indicated) 

D disk or D cassette (please specify) 

All programs require 16K/TRS-80 programs require LEVEL II BASIC/APPLE programs require APPLESOFT BASIC 




Kt^ell Software Corp. 

Send check or money order to 
21 Milbrook Drive, Stony Brook, NY 11790 

(516) 751-5139 



NY State Residents Add Sales Tax 



CIRCLE 219 ON READER SERVICE CARD 






BASF "FLEXYDISK"... ^ 

Superior Quality data \ 
storage medium. 
Certified and guaranteed 
100% error free. \ 

SINGLE SIDED-SINGLE DENSITY 

5Va" or 8" Diskettes 10/ $24 

5 1 /4" or 8" Vinyl Storage Pages 10/ $5 

MAXELL- DISKETTES 
The best quality 
diskette money can buy. 
Approved by Shugart 

and IBM. 

Sold only in boxes of 10 

5", 1 side $3.30 

8", 1-side $3.90 

5", 2-side $4.25 

8", 2-side $5.60 

ALL MAXELL DISKETTES ARE DOUBLE DENSITY 

LIBRARY CASE... r"""T 

3-ring binder album. L> I 

Protects your valuable 

programs on disks 

Fully enclosed and 

protected on all sides. 

Similar to Kas-sette storage box. 

Library 3-Ring Binder $6.50 

5V4" Mini Kas - sette/10 $2.49 

8" Kas-sette/10 $2.99 

DISKETTE DRIVE HEAD CLEANING KITS —- ~— g 
Prevent head crashes and -^^^ 

insure efficient, error- 
free operation. 

5V4" or 8" $19.50 

SFD CASSETTES 

C-10 Cassettes 10/$7 

(All cassettes include box & labels) 

Get 8 cassettes,C-10 sonic and 
Cassette/8 library album for 

only $8.00 

(As illustrated) 






HARDHOLE 
Reinforcing ring of 
tough mylar protects 
disk from damage 

5 1 /4" Applicator $3 

8" Applicator $4 




5Va" Hardholes $6 
50/8" Hardholes $8 



VISA • MASTERCHARGE • MONEY ORDERS 
CERTIFIED CHECK • FOR PERSONAL CHECKS 
ALLOW TWO WEEKS • C.O.D. REQUIRES A 10% 

DEPOSIT • CAL. RES. ADD 6% SALES TAX 

MIN $2 SHIPPING & HANDLING • MINIMUM 

ORDER $10 • SATISFACTION GUARANTEED 

OR FULL REFUND 

Write for our free catalog 



PRODUCTS 

8868 Clairemont Mesa Blvd 
San Diego, CA 92123 

Toll Free 

1-800-854-1555 

For Orders Only 
For information or California orders 

1714) 2G8-3537 



Under $1000, continued... 

OSI Challenger IP 

The Ohio Scientific Challenger IP is a 
compact and businesslike machine that 
will interface with joysticks for interludes 
of frivolity or cut-throat gamesmanship. 
However, it makes no bones about being 
a computer machine first and foremost. 
The Challenger IP uses a 6502 micropro- 
cessor chip for its CPU. The IP comes 
with 18K of memory in its standard 
configuration which can be expanded to 
32K. 

The Challenger format which includes 
a disk drive, C1PMF, offers 30K initially 
which can be expanded to 62K. Both 
models allow for a very generous mix of 
I/O devices with up to 48 lines including 
modems, printers, security, and 10 keypad 
interfaces. The Challenger 1 uses OSI 
6502 Basic from Microsoft. This high level 
Basic in ROM is equivalent to some of 
the optional Basics on other personal com- 
puters. 



Ohio Scientific Challenger IP. 

While one might miss the panache and 
glossy marketing that makes many personal 
computers catch the eye, the Challenger 
focuses on performance, reliability, and 
sensible pricing. Yet the IP offers a wide 
range of video gaming with crisp graphics 
possibilities for recreation. The Challenger 
IP has an effect resolution of 256 x 256 
with character display of 24 x 24 or 1 2 x 
48. Sound, music and voice synthesis are 
possible via a digital-to-analog converter. 

The rear panel of the Challenger IP is 
representative of the sensible, functional, 
and straightforward design of the Chal- 
lenger line. The video and cassette jacks 
are grouped on the left. There is a rotary 
switch located in the center for selecting 
cassette, printer, and modem. There is a 
user accessible fuse and an AC switch on 
the right. 

The Challenger IP began life as an 
uncased superboard and the latest version 
offers a standard computer-style, 53-key 
keyboard with upper and lower case and 
user programmability. The $479 suggested 
list price for the IP can be increased to 
$ 1 279 price for the C 1 PMF with dual disk 
drives and other attractive options. 



Hitachi MB-6890 

The Hitachi MB-6890 Basic Master Level 
3 was discreetly displayed by Hitachi at 
the summer Consumer Electronics Show 
in a nicely organized desk which accom- 
modated the monitor, cassette, and printer 
as well as the keyboard console. 

The Hitachi personal computer uses 
the new 6809 microprocessor as its MPU. 
It provides 24K of ROM with Basic and 





Hitachi MB-6890. 

Monitor. The initial supply of 32K of RAM 
can be expanded to 62K on board. 

The graphics displayed at the CES were 
dazzling with 640 x 200 dot resolution and 
seven colors. The system includes a built- 
in light pen and the graphics can be keyed 
through the 59 ASCII type keys with five 
function keys, 23 numeric and cursor 
control keys, and upper and lower case. 

The current I/O configuration includes 
a built-in 600 baud cassette, a parallel 
built-in printer with Anphenol connector, 
the aforementioned light-pen, and six card 
edge connectors for expansion. Plans for 
the introduction of mini floppy and 
standard floppy disk drives, IEEE-488 and 
RS-232C interfaces, sound generator, 
general I/O and Assembler/Editor are 
projected with the support of solid Japanese 
Market sales to provide incentive. 

One of the inescapable problems in 
shopping for a personal computer in a 
period of high technology and fluid markets 
is the constant introduction of new, more 
powerful and exciting hardware. The 
Hitachi personal computer Basic Master 
Level 3 may serve as a harbinger of the 
newest generation of personal computers. 
It is an impressive machine with a projected 
price of $1500 that pushes the upper limits 
of our $1,000 guideline rather severely, 
but is certainly worthy of considera- 
tion. □ 



"A computer analysis reveals that children 
in grades 3 to 9 see the word money 
more often than love, war more often 
than peace and car more often than 
family. " 

American Heritage World 
Frequency Book 



CIRCLE 104 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



30 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



With the Hayes direct-connect 
Micromodem lll M your Apple II can 
communicate by phone with the 
outside world. You can access in- 
formation networks like 

The Source for a variety 
of business and personal 
applications, exchange -_:_ 
programs with friends TTllffl 

anywhere in North ^^ 

America, and MlC ^ 

even use your 
Apple II when 
you're away 
from your home 

or office. 

Dependable. The 

Micromodem II is so dependable 

it comes with a two-year limited 



warranty. That's another reason 
why it's the largest selling direct- 
connect modem for Apple II 

computers. 

Programmable. 

Automatic dialing 
and answering? 
Of course! We in- 
~ ypler elude programs on 
— -• •*- disk that dial phone 
■ i numbers for you, 

send messages whileyou're 
> away, and much more! 
Complete. You 
, get everything 
you need to com- 
municate with other Bell 
103 compatible modems at 1 10 
or 300 baud. The serial interface 



is built-in, and we even include our 
FCC-approved Microcoupler T " 
that plugs directly into any modu- 
lar telephone jack in the U.S. - 
you don t even need the phone' 

S-100, too. The Hayes 
Micromodem 100 gives S-100 
microcomputers all the advan- 
tages of our Micromodem II! 

Put the outside world inside 
your computer with a data com- 
munications system from Hayes. 
Available at computer stores na- 
tionwide-call 
or write for the 
i location near- 
est you. And 
don't settle for anything less 
than Hayes. 



The Hayes Micromodem II 
opens up your Apple II to the outside world. 




HayeS MiCrOCOmpUter PrOClUCtS InC. 5835 Peachtree Corners East, Norcross, Georgia 30092 (404) 449-8791 

Micromodem II. Micromodem 100 and Microcoupler are trademarks of Hayes Microcomputer Products Inc. 

? TM Apple Computer Inc. Micromodem II can also be used with the Bell & Howell computer. © 1981 Hayes Microcomputer Products Inc. 

CIRCLE 153 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



TWELVE STRONG 
HEATH/ZENITH YOUR 



Pick a strong partner 

A computer purchase is the beginning of a long term 
partnership between you and the people you buy from. 
Your ongoing need for software and accessories re- 
quires a partner who will stand by you with a growing 
line of products. And nowhere will you find a more com- 
plete line of hardware, software and accessories than 
at your Heathkit Electronic Center. Here are twelve 
strong reasons to make Heath/Zenith your partner. 

1. The A 1 1- In-One Computer 

The heart of the Heath/Zenith line is the stand-alone 
89 Computer. It's a complete system with built-in 5 1 /4-inch 
floppy disk drive, professional keyboard and keypad, 
smart video terminal, two Z80 microprocessors, and 
two RS-232C serial I/O ports. It comes with 16K RAM, 
expandable to 64K. 

2. Peripherals 

These include the popular Heath Zenith 
^^^^~\ 19 Smart Video Terminal, loaded with 
^^^H I professional features. And the 14 Line 
^^^^M^k Printer, priced as low as $495. Other 

^ printer brands are on display, 
^ ™ including high- 

speed, typewriter- 
quality printers. 




3. Software 

Word processing, includes reliable, easy-to-use 
Zenith Electronic Typing and powerful, full-featured 
WORDSTAR. 

Small Business Programs, feature General Ledger and 
Inventory Control. 

HUG, Heath Users' Group, offers members a library of 
over 500 low-cost programs for home, work or play. 

4. Programming Languages 



mm 



For your own custom programs, 
Microsoft languages are 
available in BASIC (compiler 
and interpreter), FORTRAN 
and COBOL. 



5. Operating Systems 

Three versatile systems give you the capability to per- 
form your specific tasks. 

CP/M by Digital Research makes your system com- 
patible with thousands of popular CP/M programs. 

UCSD P-System with Pascal is a complete program 
development and execution environment. 

HDOS, Heath Disk Operating System gives you a 
sophisticated, flexible environment for program 
construction, storage and editing. 



S 



6. Utility Software 

Expand the performance range of your computer with 
a broad selection of utility tools, including the best of 
Digital Research and the complete line of innovative 
Softstuff products. 

7. Disk Systems 

The 8-inch Heath /Zenith 47 
Dual Disk System adds over 2 
megabytes of storage to your 

89 Computer. Diskettes are 
^^ standard IBM 3740 format, double-sided, 

I double-density. 

j The 5V4>inch 87 Dual Disk System adds 
^Hl 200K bytes of storage to your 89. Both 
^™1 disk systems feature read/write protec- 
tion and easy plug-in adaptability. 










8. Self-Study Courses 

Learn at your own pace 

with Programming \ 

Courses that teach you 

to write and run your own 

programs in Assembly, 

BASIC, Pascal or 

COBOL. 

A course on Computer Concepts 
for Small Business gives you 
the understanding to eval- 
uate the ways a computer 
can benefit your business. 

Personal Computing is a 
complete introduction to 
the fundamentals for the 
novice. Every Heathkit/ 
Zenith course is pro- 
fessionally designed 
for easy, step-by- 
step learning. 




All Heath /Zenith 
Computer Products 
are available completely 
assembled and tested for 
commercial use. Or in easy 
to-build, money-saving kits 




REASONS TO MAKE 









9. Expansion Options 

Communicate with the outside world through a Three- 
port El A RS-232C Serial Interface. 
Expand RAM to 64K with easy-to-install expansion 
chips. 

10. Accessories 

Your Heathkit Electronic Center has the 

latest in modems, black-and-white and 
color video monitors, computer furniture 
and a full line of supplies, accessories, books 
and parts. 

11. Service 

No one stands by you like Heath/Zenith 
We help you get your system up and 
running smoothly. Service is avail- 
able from trained technicians, 
over the phone or at one of 56 
Heathkit Electronic Centers. 

12. Value *^ 

Your money buys you more because 
Heath/Zenith prices are among the industry's most 
competitive. Make your own comparison and find out 
how much you can save. 

Complete, integrated computer hardware and soft- 
ware, designed to serve you and to grow with you 
- that's what to look for in a strong partner. And 
with Heath/Zenith you get it all under 
|^^^ one roof. 

Ail at your 
Heathkit Electronic 
Center 

Pick the store nearest you 
from the list at right. And 
stop in today for a demon- 
stration of the Heath/Zenith 
89 Computer System. If you 
can't get to a store, send 
$1.00 for the latest Heathkit® 
Catalog and the new Zenith 
Data Systems Catalog of 
assembled commercial 
computers. Write to 

Heath Co., Dept. 335-814, 
Benton Harbor, Ml 49022. 



Visit Your Heathkit Electronic Center* 

where Heath /Zenith Products are displayed, sold and serviced. 



PHOENIX, AZ 

2727 W.Indian School Rd. 
602-279-6247 

ANAHEIM, CA 

330 E. Ball Rd. 
714-776-9420 

CAMPBELL, CA 

2350 S. BascomAve. 
408-377-8920 

ELCERRIT0.CA 
6000 Potrero Ave. 
415-236-8870 

LA MESA, CA 

8363 Center Dr. 
714-461-0110 

LOS ANGELES, CA 

2309 S. Flower St. 
213-749-0261 

POMONA, CA 

1555 N. Orange Grove Ave. 
714-623-3543 

REDWOOD CITY, CA 

2001 Middlefield Rd. 
415-365-8155 

SACRAMENTO, CA 

1860 Fulton Ave. 
916-486-1575 

WOODLAND HILLS, CA 

22504 Ventura Blvd. 
213-883-0531 

DENVER, CO 

5940 W. 38th Ave. 
303-422-3408 

AVON.CT 

395 W. Main St. (Rt. 44) 
203-678-0323 

HIALEAH, FL 

4705 W. 16th Ave. 
305-823-2280 

PLANTATION, FL 

7173 W.Broward Blvd. 
305-791-7300 

TAMPA, FL 

4019 W. Hillsborough Ave. 
813-886-2541 

ATLANTA, GA 

5285RoswellRd. 
404-252-4341 

CHICAGO.IL 

3462-66 W.Devon Ave. 
312-583-3920 

DOWNERS GROVE, IL 

224 0gden Ave. 
312-852-1304 



INDIANAPOLIS, 

2112 E. 62nd St. 
317-257-4321 



IN 



MISSION, KS 

5960 Lamar Ave. 
913-362-4486 

LOUISVILLE, KY 

12401 ShelbyvilleRd. 
502-245-7811 

KENNER.LA 

1900 Veterans 
Memorial Hwy. 
504-467-6321 

BALTIMORE, MD 

1713E. Joppa Rd. 

301-661-4446 

ROCKVILLE, MD 

5542 Nicholson Lane 
301-881-5420 

PEABODY, MA 

242AndoverSt. 
617-531-9330 

WELLESLEY, MA 

165 Worcester Ave. 
617-237-1510 

DETROIT, Ml 

18645 W. Eight Mile Rd. 
313-535-6480 

E. DETROIT, Ml 

18149 E. Eight Mile Rd. 
313-772-0416 

HOPKINS, MN 

101 Shady Oak Rd. 
612^938-6371 

ST. PAUL, MN 

1645 White Bear Ave. 
612-778-1211 

BRIDGETON.MO 

3794McKelveyRd. 
314-291-1850 

OMAHA, NE 

9207 Maple St. 
402-391-2071 

ASBURY PARK, NJ 

1013 State Hwy. 35 
201-775-1231 

FAIR LAWN, N J 

35-07 Broadway (Rt. 4) 
201-791-6935 
AMHERST, NY 
3476 Sheridan Dr. 
716-835-3090 

JERICHO, L.I. NY 

15 Jericho Turnpike 
516-334-8181 

ROCHESTER, NY 

937 Jefferson Rd 
716-424-2560 

N.WHITE PLAINS, NY 

7 Reservoir Rd. 
914-761-7690 



I! 



CLEVELAND, OH 

28100 Chagrin Blvd. 
216-292-7553 
COLUMBUS, OH 

2500 Morse Rd. 
614-475-7200 

TOLEDO, OH 

48 S. Byrne Rd. 
419-537-1887 

W00DLAWN.0H 

10133 Springfield Pike 
513-771-8850 

OKLAHOMA CITY, OK 

2727 Northwest 

Expressway 

405-848-7593 

FRAZER.PA 

630 Lancaster Pike 

Rt.30) 

15-647-5555 

PHILADELPHIA, PA 

6318 Roosevelt Blvd. 
215-288-0180 

PITTSBURGH, PA 

3482 Wm. Penn Hwy 
412-824-3564 

WARWICK, Rl 

558 Greenwich Ave. 
401-738-5150 

DALLAS, TX 

2715 Ross Ave 
214-826-4053 

HOUSTON, TX 

1704 W. Loop N. 
713-869-5263 

SAN ANTONIO, TX 

7111 Blanco Road 
512-341-8876 

MIDVALE.UT 

58 East 7200 South 
801-566-4626 

ALEXANDRIA, VA 

6201 Richmond Hwy. 
703-765-5515 

VIRGINIA BEACH, VA 

1055 Independence Blvd. 
804-460-0997 

SEATTLE, WA 

505 8th Ave. N. 
206-682-2172 

TUKWILA.WA 
15439 53rd Ave. S. 
206-246-5358 

MILWAUKEE, Wl 

5215 W. Fond du Lac 
414-873-8250 



•Units of Veritechnology 
Electronics Corporation in 
the U.S. 



Prices and specifications subject to change without notice. 



HEATH /ZENITH 



Your strong partner 



A Dozen Computers: 





OS I Challenger 1P 


TRS-80 Model III 


TRS-80 

Color Computer 


Commodore 
VIC-20 




Price 


$479 


$999 


$399 


$299.95 




CPU/MPU 


6502 


Z-80 


6809-2 


6502A 




ROM 


10K 


12K 


8K 


16K 




RAM 


8K 


16K 


4K 


5K 




Maximum 
RAM 


32K 


48K 


32K 


32K 




Keyboard 


53-key Standard 


65-key 


53-key Standard 


Full Typewriter 




Languages 


Basic 


Basic 


Basic, Extended 
Basic 


Basic, 6502 machine 
language 




Screen 
Display 


24x24 or 
12x48 


1 6x64 


32x16 


22x23 




Graphic 
Resolution 


256x256 pixels 


128x48 pixels 


64x32 up to 
256x192 pixels 


176x184 pixels 




Color 


No 


No 


Yes 


Yes 




Sound 


Digital-to- Analog 


Through cassette 
port with ext. amp. 


256 tones 


1 Sound Generator 




Game 
Controls 


Optional 


No 


Yes 


Optional 






34 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 





A Comparison Chart 








NECPC-8001A 


Tl 99/4A 


Apple II Plus 


Atari 400 


Atari 800 








$1295 


$525 


$1530 


$389 


$789 


1 






PO 780C-1 
(Z-80A compatible) 


9900 Family 
16-bit 


6502 


6502 


6502 








24K 


26K 


16K 


10K 


10K 








32K 


16K 


16K 


8K 


16K 








48K 


72K 


64K 


32K 


48K 


I 






82-key 


Standard 

(99/4-calculator 

type) 


Standard 


57-key 
Touch-sensitive 


57-key 
Standard 








Basic, Fortran, 
Pascal, A PL 


Basic, Extended 
Basic 


Basic, Pascal, 
Pilot, 6502 


Basic, Pilot, 
Assembler 


Basic, Pilot, 
Assembler 








20 or 25x36, 
40, 72, or 80 


24x32 


24x40 


24x40 


24x40 








160x100 pixels 


192x256 pixels 


280x192 pixels 


320x192 pixels 


320x192 pixels 








Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 








Yes 


5 octaves, 
3 tones and 
white noise 


Built-in speaker 


4 synthesizers, 
4 octaves 


4 synthesizers, 
4 octaves 








No 


Optional 


Optional 


Optional 


Optional 






Hi / ^f / O / *o / 






CREATIVE COMPUTING 35 



A Dozen Computers, continued... 



Sinclair ZX80 



Mattel 

Intellivision 



APF Imagination 
Machine I 



Hitachi 

MB -6 8 90 



Price 



$199.95 



Master Component- 

$300 

Keyboard Component- 

$700 



$599 



$1500 



CPU/MPU 



Z80A 



Gl 16-bit 



6800 



6809 



ROM 



4K 



7K 



10K 



24K 



RAM 



1K 



16K 



9K 



32K 



Maximum 
RAM 



16K 



64K 



32K 



66K 



Keyboard 



40-key 
Touch-sensitive 



60-key 
Standard 



53-key 
Standard 



59-key ASCII 
Standard 



Languages 



Basic 



Basic 



Basic and Machine 
Language 



Extended 
Basic 



Screen 
Display 



23x32 



24x40 



32x16 



25x40 or 80 



Graphic 
Resolution 



64x46 pixels 



160x192 pixels 



128x192 pixels 



640x200 pixels 



Color 



No 



Yes 



Yes 



Yes 



Sound 



No 



3 voices 



1 voice 



Yes 



Game 
Controls 



No 



Yes 



Yes 




Optional 

















Bit Pit 



you robots age all. ajl/ke / 
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36 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 





Ti 





IH I) N T II N GTC N C € /H IP It T II N G 





B 






PROGRAMS LISTED BELOW ARE ON DISK: 




Ti 



Ti 



Ti 






Ti 



Ti 

Ti 




Ti 





B 


B 


B 



HI-RES Soc- S29 95no* $25.39 

Informer II 549 95 now $42.99 

Wurst of Huntington Computing $19.99 

BP| ... 15% OFF LIST 

AppieOids 529 9d now $25.39 

Epson M-80 w/card & cable $575.00 

Autobahn 529 95 now $25.39 

Mt Comp Multi-Function Card ! u! 

Gobbler 



On-Lme Compiler 

VU#3 (Revised) 

Battler Cruiser Action 

Ultima 

Gorgon 

Super Stellar Trek 

Word Star 

Mail Merge 

Super Sort 



S24 95no* $21.19 
15% OFF LIST 
15% OFF LIST 



Savage Island II (disk) 

Zork 

Howardsoft Real Estate Analyzer 
Super Disk Copy-Sensible 

The Landlord 

Nibble Express 

All Nibble Software 

All Creative Computing 
All Programma 



$20 95 now 
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Dymarc Surge Suppressor 
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$33.99 

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$289.00 

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now 



now 
now 



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$17.99 

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now 
now 



Gamma Goblins $29 95 

DB Master $229 00 

The Data Factory $1 50 00 

Mission Asteroid $19.95 now 

Wizardry $39.95 now 

Bright Pen $49.95 now 

Star Mines $29.95 now 

PFS (Personal Filing System) $95.00 now 

PFS: Report $95.00 now 

Warp Factor $39.95 now 

Microsoft Adventure $29.95 now 

Compu-Math: Arithmetic $49.95 now 

Modifiable Database II $150.00 now 

TG Game Paddles $39.95 

TG Joy Stick $59.95 

The Wizard & The Princess $32.95 now 

Flight Simulator (disk) $34.95 now 

Odyssey $29.95 now 

Sargon II $34.95 now 

Program Line Editor $40.00 now 

Space Eggs $29.95 now 

Videx 80-Col. Board $350.00 now 

3D Super Graphics $39.95 now 

Compu-Math I or II $40.00 now 

HI-RES Cribbage $24.95 now 

Lords of Karma (cassette) $20.00 now 

Apple PIE & Formatter (Reg $129.95) Special $99.91 

The Book of Software $19.95 now $17.99 

Versa Writer Expansion Pac-I $39.95 now $33.99 

Apple II Users Guide $14.95 now $12.0 

Oh Shoot! $19.99 



Pascal Programmer ... $125 00 now 

NEC 12 Green/Black S260 now 

VERBATIM DISKS (Datalife w/hub rings - unmarked) Ten for 

Spanish Hangman $29 95 now 

Dragon s Eye $24 95 now 

Computer Acquire $20 00 now 

Twala s Last Redoubt $29 95 now 

Snoggle $24 95 now 

DC. Hayes Modem $379 00 now 

Data Capture 4.0 $60.00 now 

Clock Time Teaching Program $29 95 now 

Alien Rain $24 95 now 

Alien Typhoon $24 95 now 

Raster Blaster : . $29 95 now 



$127.49 
$33.99 
$50.99 
$28.99 
$29.50 
$25. SO 
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$25.39 
$199. OO 
$35.99 
$34 ea. 
$21.99 
$14.99 



Serendipity Statistics or Gradebook $169.00 now 

ABM (Muse) $24.95 now 

Computer Conflict $39.95 now 

Computer Air Combat $59.95 now 

The Temple of Apshai $39 95 now 

Super-Text II $150.00 now 

Request $225.00 now 

Thinker $495.00 now 

Super Kram $175.00 now 

Savage Island I (disk) $20 95 now 



$143.59 

$22.49 

$35.99 

$52.99 

$33.95 

$118.99 

$191.19 

$420.69 

$148.69 

$17.79 



$ 

$33 
$129.99 

$25. 

$649 

$11.99 

15% OFF LIST 

1 5% OFF LIST 

15% OFF LIST 

Robot Wars 15% OFF LIST 

Cranston Mannor 1 ** OFF LIST 

Hayden AS Compiler $200 00 now $169.99 

Beneath Apple DOS Book S20 00 now $17.99 

Sublogic Animation Pack 15% •#• list 

Memorex Disks 10 for $24.99 

$106.19 

$219.00 

$27.99 

$26.99 

$21.19 

$16.99 

$25.39 

$21.19 

$299.00 

$52.99 

$26.99 

$21.19 

$21.19 

$25.39 

$335.69 

$29.69 

$21.19 

$69.99 

$21.49 

$139.99 

$13.49 

$35.99 

$445.49 

$33.99 

$54.99 

$1499 

$470.80 

$25.39 

$33.99 

$54.89 

$21.19 

$33.99 

$20.39 

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$16.99 

15% off list 

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$127.39 

$169.93 

$152.89 

$220.89 

$169.95 

$127.39 

$16.99 



Payroll 

Home Money Minder 

3-D Skiing 

Dr. Daley s Software Library 
Physics I (Educ. Courseware) 

J&S Computer Chemistry 

Cook s Touch Typing 

EAI Literal Comprehension (grades 2-4) 

COMPAK MATH Grade by Concept 

Hellfire Warrior 

Mimco Joy Stick 

Paper Tiger 560G 

Mt Com Music System 

Statistics (Edu-ware) 

Algebra I (Edu-ware) 

Apple Crate 

Creature Venture 

Galaxy Space War I 

DOS BOSS 

Apple Barrel 

Apple Roots 

Interlude 



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S34 95 now 
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$2400 
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now 
now 



now 
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ALL INTERACTIVE MICROWARE 

Meteorites in Space $19 95 now 

Letter Perfect $149 95 now 

VisiCalc 3.3 $199.95 

Visiplot $179.95 

Visitrend $259.95 now 

Visidex $199.95 now 

Visiterm $149.95 now 

Microsoft Typing $19 95 now 

ASC II Express $99.95 now 

Easy Writer Professional $250 00 now $219.00 

ALL AVANT GARDE 15% •##!!»# 

DRAGON FIRE 15% oH list 

Ed. Courseware Basic Tutor 1-6 $28.79 so. 



Special Birthday Sale For Two-Year-Old Computer Users 







To celebrate our daughter Melody's second birthday, we are offering one of the best 
games we've seen anywhere at a special price DYNACOMP, maker of exceptionally 
fine computer software, makes a game called HODGE PODGE for children ranging 
from under two years old to primary grades Children learn the letters of the alphabet, 
words, numbers, musical scales, songs and animals. The child presses any key on 
the keyboard and something happens. For example, when D is pressed, a dog 
appears who frowns when a bathtub comes into sight - all to the tune of Oh Where 
Has My Little Dog Gone. Our Melody loves it and jumps up and down in excitement 
when she plays it It s a chance for her to finally get at the computer after watching 
Mommy and Daddy use it all day. It's the only program we know of for children that 
young It runs on the Apple II" plus (Applesoft") and needs 48K plus a disk drive It 
lists for $23.95 but if you say Happy Birthday Melody you can have it for $18 99. We 
know you II like it We think it s fantastic. 




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Corcoran, California 93212 

Order by Phone 800-344-41 1 1 
In California (209) 992-541 1 



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B 

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B 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



CIRCLE 144 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



APF Imagination Machine II 




In 1978, APF Electronics, caught up in 
the video game craze, introduced the MP- 
1000. Like the Atari Video Computer 
System, the MP-1000 accepted plug-in 
cartridges of various games. Almost with 
one voice, most of the video game manu- 
facturers a year later announced add-on 
keyboard units to make their video games 
into "real computers." Some of these were 
produced on schedule (almost), some were 
produced late (very), and most just quietly 
faded away. APF was in the first group 
having produced a keyboard unit almost 
on schedule. We salute them. 

The keyboard/game unit combination 
is now available in a combined unit as the 
Imagination Machine I. 

At the 1981 Winter CES, APF introduced 
an integrated version of the Imagination 
Machine (IM) aimed more at the small 
business market called the Imagination 
Machine II. First shipments were made in 
May 1981. Marty Upper confided to me 
that consumer and dealer reception has 
been quite enthusiastic in Europe, hence 
APF is filling that pipeline first. 

Using the Imagination Machine II 

I had an opportunity to use an Imagi- 
nation Machine II at the Summer CES in 
June. While this is not an in-depth evalu- 
ation, it will provide some idea of the 
capabilities of the IM II. 

The IM II. unlike other popular com- 
puters, is built around the 6800 mpu. While 
SWTPC, Gimix and Midwest Scientific 
owners swear by the 6800, it has never 
caught on in a mass market machine. 
Perhaps more significant, Microsoft has 
not written a Basic for the 6800. 

The basic IM II unit houses the pro- 
cessor, 53-key full-stroke keyboard, dual- 



track cassette recorder (one track digital 
information, one track audio) and interface 
electronics for disk drives and a printer. 

The IM II drives a monitor or color 
TV set. The display is 32 characters wide 
by 16 lines. There are 70 screen codes: 26 
upper case letters, 10 numerals, 28 symbols 
and 16 graphics characters. The graphics 
characters divide each screen location 
into four elements thus, according to 
current convention, the screen resolution 
is (32 x 2) x (16 x 2) = 2048 pixels, a new 
low on the graphics totem pole. On the 
other hand, machine language access to 
print graphics is possible which gives the 
user the ability to manipulate 256 x 192 
points (49,152 pixels) albeit with much 
less ease than low resolution shapes. 



David H. Ahl 



Although resolution is low, the graphics 
are easy to use. APF Level I Basic has 
PLOT, HLIN and VLIN commands. To 
put Shape 9 (a 2 x 2 checkerboard) at the 
center of the screen (X=15, Y=7) requires 
only the following simple command 
sequence: 

SHAPE=9 
PLOT 15,7 

To color the shape any of seven colors, it 
is necessary to add a single line. For 
example, to color the shape red, type: 

COLOR =3 

However, to make it even easier to use 
colored shapes, screen codes from 128 to 
255 represent each of the 16 shapes in 
each of the eight colors. Hence, a dark 
blue checkerboard would appear at the 
bottom right of the screen given the 
following commands: 

SHAPE=169 
PLOT 31,15 

To plot a line of checkerboards across 
the center row (15) of the screen, one 
need only type: 

SHAPE=9 
HLIN 0,31, 7 

which draws a horizontal line (HLN) from 
X=0 to X=31 at Row Y(7). VLIN does 
the same for vertical lines. 

The IM II has a one-voice music box 
built in with a three octave range. No 
complicated POKE commands are needed. 
Music is simply produced with the com- 





APF 

Imagination 
Machine II 


Osborne I 


Apple II 


Price 


$1600 


$1795 


$1995 


User Memory 


27K RAM 


64KRAM 


32K RAM 


Disk Drives 


2 5-1/4" 


2 5-1/4" 


1 5-1/4" 


Cassette 


Built-in 


No 


Optional 


Keyboard 


53-key 


53-key plus 
numeric keypad 


50-key 



Display 



32 characters 50 characters 40 characters 
x 16 lines x 50 lines x 24 lines 



Upper case Upper & lower Upper case 
Operating System APF CP/M Apple DOS 



38 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




Take Your Cue From Vista . . . 



When it comes to Apples, take your cue 
from Vista's A800 Eight-Inch Floppy Disk 
Controller. The A800 offers a cost-efficient 
approach to software compatible disk 
memory expansion for your Apple II computer. 
The A800 Controller enables Apple II users to 
access up to five megabytes of online storage 
through conventional disk operating (DOS) 
commands. 

The Control and DMA Logic provides high speed 
(1 microsecond per byte) transfer of data from 
the disk drive directly to the Apple II memory 
without processor intervention. Plus, the Phase- 
Locked Loop Data Separator provides the 
ultimate in data reliability. 

AND THERE'S MORE. 

The controller is compatible with the most 
popular disk operating __ 

systems for the _ -.* 



Sure 
Shot. 



Apple II computer It also Interfax estoall 
Shugart ANSI Standard Light Inch f loppy I >l$h 

Drives. The A800 provides complete IBM foi 

mat compatibility In both single and doubk • 

cJfMisity mod< 

THE HOT SHOT AT A COOL PRICE 

The A800 is reasonably priced at S595 A 
price you can't beat when you comp< in • it-, 

quality and performarw < • 



CALL YOUR SHOTS 
Vista offers you a complete line of peripheral 
equipment to maximize the capabilities ( >\ 

your Apple system including HiQhcapa< ityMirn 

floppy Disk Drives, the Vista Music Machine 9 

and the Vista Model 1 50 Type Ahead Buff ei In 

addition, Vr.ta offers a line of advanced 

components fully compatible with the 

rRS BO - and S IOO bas< 

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Apple it is r J registered trademark ol Apple Computers Inc 
fRS BO is a trademark of Radio Shack /• Idndy ( 



CONTEXT 
CONNECTOR 



MAKE 
VISICALC™ 
COMMUNICATE 

Communicate with other computers 
Receive or transmit data 
Link VISICALC models 



*in 



«* CONNfc' 



Transfer stock price history from 
Dow Jones into VISICALC models. 

Put FOCUS reports into VISICALC. 

Use DATADEX files in VISICALC 
models. 

Link VISICALC P & L models too 
big to fit into memory. 

Put economic data from I.D.C. into 
VISICALC models. 

Other uses as creative as 
VISICALC itself! 

Requires Apple II. Disk. Communications. 



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FOR FURTHER 

INFORMATION 

AND STORE 

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(213) 
375-3350 



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California, 90274 

CIRCLE 319 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Imagination Machine, continued.. 



mand MUSIC "nnn M in which nnn repre- 
sents a series of notes represented by 
numbers. Duration is indicated by the 
number of O's following a note value. Sharps 
and flats may be indicated with -I- and - 
symbols. Here are the first two bars of 
Haydn's Symphony #94 (second move- 
ment) with which I may have driven 
everyone batty at APF's press reception 
at Summer CES: 

MUSIO10 10 30 30 50 50 3000 
40 40 20 20 /70 /70 /500000" 

Another major screen and print feature 
is the PRINT USING command which 
allows the user to print numbers or strings 
in a specified format (leading dollar sign, 
two decimal places, etc.). 

Another handy print feature is the ability 
to specify the line printer with the statement 
PRINT=1. To print on the screen, 
PRINT =0. This seems more flexible than 
the LPRINT command in other Basics. 
To list a program on the line printer one 
need only type in immediate mode: 
PRINT=1 and LIST. 

Other features of APF Basic include an 
EDIT statement which allows the user to 
change a portion of a line in a Basic 
program. PEEK and POKE allow examin- 
ation and alteration of values in memory. 
Several built-in machine language routines 
may be accessed by means of CALL 
statements, for example, CALL 17046 clears 
the screen to black while CALL 17026 
creates a combination whistle/beep. 

What else? The usual statements and 
commands, but not the expected functions. 
No log. No exp. No trig functions. APF 
Basic has a range of ±999,999,999.9999. 
Plenty of accuracy for most small business 
applications but for scientific applications 
a far cry from floating point variables to 
10 38 found on most small computers these 
days. 

Software? For starters APF announced 
an impressive array of software for the 
Imagination Machine. There are eight 
educational cassettes, eight personal and 
home management cassettes, seven busi- 
ness disks, and one game cassette (on the 
IM I you can, of course, use the eighteen 
game cartridges that run on the MP-1000 
game machine. These will not run on the 
IM II). In addition to these, another 
company, AVAS, is offering a line of forty- 
six educational cassettes. They are a bit 
pricey, ranging from $33.95 to $83.50 each. 
Since we have seen virtually none of the 
software, we cannot draw any conclusions 
as to its quality at this time. 

Price— The Good News 

Imagination Machine II includes the 
proccessor/keyboard/cassette unit with 
27K memory, floppy disk and printer 

40 



interface, dual 5-1/4" floppy disk drive, 
cables and manuals. The price is an 
unbelievably low $1599.95. We usually 
like to position new products between 
others on the market but nobody, just 
nobody has a dual floppy system under 
$1600. 

The worries: at the moment there is 
just one second source software vendor 
and others are not on the horizon. So 
today, this puts the burden squarely on 
APF. One of the announced business 
software packages has been released. But 
even when the rest come out, APF will 
still have to attract other second source 
vendors to produce compatible software. 

Reliability and manufacturer service? 
Too soon to tell. APF is a major vendor 
of handheld and printing calculators so 
they are not novices in the market. But as 
we all know, computers are different 
animals. Can their dealers service them? 
Only time will tell. 

In summary, although competent in some 
dimensions, we're not ecstatic about IM 
II Basic, we worry about software availa- 
bility, and reliability and servicability are 
unknowns. On the other hand, for $1600 
it's the price leader in hardware and 
features. We don't usually look to APF to 
establish milestones, however, with the 
IM II, they might just have done so. 

APF Electronics, Inc., 1501 Broadway, 
New York, NY 10036. (212) 869-1960. □ 



MEMOREX 

FLEXIBLE DISCS 

BUY THE BEST FOR 
LESS. Lowest prices. 
WE WILL NOT BE 

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(800) 235-4137 for 
prices and information. 
Dealer inquiries invited 
and CO.D.'s accepted. 



VFSA 



PACIFIC 
EXCHANGES 

100 Foothill Blvd. 
San Luis Obispo, CA 
93401 InCaL call 
(800)592-5935 or 
(805)543-1037 




CIRCLE 169 ON READER SERVICE CARD 
CREATIVE COMPUTING 










X 







HI' 








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C-Jl _^ - 3l 1-1 






Turn your Apple into the world's 
most versatile personal computer. 



The SoftCard™ Solution. SoftCard 
turns your Apple into two computers. 
A Z-80 and a 6502. By adding a Z-80 
microprocessor and CP/M to your 
Apple, SoftCard turns your Apple into 
a CP/M based machine. That means 
you can access the single largest body 
of microcomputer software in exist- 
ence. Two computers in one. And, the 
advantages of both. 

Plug and go. The SoftCard system 
starts with a Z-80 based circuit card. 
Just plug it into any slot (except 0) of 
your Apple. No modifications required. 
SoftCard supports most of your Apple 
peripherals, and, in 6502-mode, your 
Apple is still your Apple. 

CP/M for your Apple. You get CP/M 
on disk with the SoftCard package. It's 
a powerful and simple-to-use operating 
system. It supports more software 
than any other microcomputer operat- 
ing system. And that's the key to the 
versatility of the SoftCard/Apple. 

CIRCLE 168 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



BASIC included. A powerful tool, 
BASIC-80 is included in the SoftCard 
package. Running under CP/M, ANSI 
Standard BASIC-80 is the most 
powerful microcomputer BASIC 
available. It includes extensive disk I/O 
statements, error trapping, integer 
variables, 16-digit precision, exten- 
sive EDIT commands and string func- 
tions, high and low-res Apple graphics, 
PRINT USING, CHAIN and COM- 
MON, plus many additional com- 
mands. And, it's a BASIC you can 
compile with Microsoft's BASIC 
Compiler. 

More languages. With SoftCard and 
CP/M, you can add Microsoft's ANSI 
Standard COBOL, and FORTRAN, or 



Basic Compiler and Assembly Lan- 
guage Development System. All, more 
powerful tools for your Apple. 
Seeing is believing. See the SoftCard 
in operation at your Microsoft or Apple 
dealer. We think you'll agree that the 
SoftCard turns your Apple into the 
world's most versatile personal 
computer. 

Complete information? It's at your 
dealer's now. Or, we'll send it to you 
and include a dealer list. Write us. Call 
us. Or, circle the reader service card 
number below 

SoftCard is a trademark of Microsoft. Apple II and 
Apple II Plus are registered trademarks of Apple 
Computer. Z-80 is a registered trademark of Zilog, 
Inc. CP/M is a registered trademark of Digital 
Research, Inc. 



/HKRCSOfT 

V CONSUMER^ PRODUCTSF 

Microsoft Consumer Products. 400 108th Ave. N.E., 
Bellevue. WA 98004. (206) 454-1315 




sensational 

software 



creative 

computing 

software 



Super Invasion 
and Space War 




Disk CS-4508 $29.95 
Requires 48K Apple II or Apple II Plus 

Super Invasion 

This original invasion game features superb 
high resolution graphics, nail biting tension 
and hilarious antics by the moon creatures. 
Fifty-five aliens whiz across the screen, 
quickening their descent, challenging you 
to come out from behind your blockades 
and pick them off with your lasers. A self- 
running attractl mode" makes it easy to 
learn and demonstrate the game. Game 
paddles are required. 



Space War 

Take command in Space War. Select from 
five game modes, including reverse gravity, 
and the battle begins. Challenge your op- 
ponent with missle fire, force him to collide 
with the sun or to explode upon re-entry 
from hyperspace. Be wary. . . He may circle 
out of sight and re-appear on the opposite 
side of the galaxy. (This is the classic MIT 
game redisgned especially for the Apple.) 



3 Adventures 



Disk CS-45 13 $39.95 

Requires 48K Apple II or Apple II Plus 




Space and Sports Games 



DiskCS-4501 $24 95 



8 programs Requires 32k Apple II or Apple II Plus 





Adventureland (by Scott Adams) 
You'll encounter wild animals, 
dwarfs and many other puzzles 
and perils as you wander through 
an enchanted world, trying to res- 
cue the 13 lost treasures. Can 
you rescue the Blue Ox from the 
quicksand? Or find your way out 
of the maze of pits? Happy 
Adventuring! 

Pirate Adventure (by Scott 
Adams)— Yo Ho Ho and a bottle 
of rum. . . " You II meet up with 
the pirate and his daffy bird along 
with many strange sights as you 
attempt to go from your London 
flat to Treasure Island. Can you 
recover Long John Silvers lost 
treasures? Happy sailing matey. . 

Mission Impossible Adventure (by 
Scott Adams)— Good Morning. 
Your mission is to. . and so it 
starts. Will you be able to complete 
your mission in time? Or is the 
world s first automated nuclear 
reactor doomed? This one s well 
named, its hard, there is no magic 
but plenty of suspense. 
Good Luck . . . 



Strategy and Brain Games 

Disk CS-4502 $24.95 1 2 programs Requires 32K Apple II or Apple II Plus 



S^ - ?; Sho 5l down as "^"V T| E fighters Breakout. Four skill levels and mroved 
as poss.ble m 90 seconds scoring make this the best breakout evef 

Saucer Invasion. Fire missies to destroy 
the invaders who fly at different speeds 
and altitudes. 

Rocket Pilot. Maneuver your spaceship over 
the mountain using horizontal and vertical 
thrusters. 

Torpedo Alley. Sink as many warships as 
possible in 2 minutes. 

Darts. Use game paddles to control the 
throw of 6 darts. 

Baseball; A 2-player game with pitching. Dynamic Bouncer. A colorful, ever-changing 

batting, fielding, stealing and double graphics demonstration 

plays. 





Blockade. Build a wall to trap your opponent, 
but don't hit anything. 









jl 
















2 






3 




C 




In 




B 




D 




R 
















Skunk. A 2-player strategy game played 
with dice, skill and luck. 



Dodgem. Be the first to move all your pieces 
across the board in this intriguing strategy 
game 

Nuclear Reaction A game of skill, fast 
decisions and quick reversals of position. 
UFO. Use lasers, warheads or guns to des- 
troy an enemy spacecraft 

Genius. A fast-moving trivia quiz with scores 
of questions 

Parrot. A Simon-type game with letters and 
tones Dueling digits is a version with num- 
bers 

Midpoints and Lines. Two colorful graphics 
demonstrations Tones lets you make music 
and sound effects. 

Checkers. Pit your skill against the com- 
puter version of this all time favorite 



To order any of the software packages 
listed above, send payment plus $2.00 
postage and handling per order to 
Creative Computing, Morris Plains, NJ 
07950. Visa, MasterCard and American 



Express orders may be called toll-free to 
800-631-8112 (In NJ, 201-540-0445). 

Order today at no risk. If you are not 
completely satisfied, your money will be 
promptly and courteously refunded. 



CIRCLE 300 ON READER SERVICE CAR 

Creative Computing Software 

Morris Plains, NJ 07950 

Toll-free 800-631 -81 12 

(In N J, 201-540-0445) 



42 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



creative 



* 



computing 
equipment 
evaluation 



— t- 



Commodore VIC-20 
Personal Computer 




David H. Ahl 



The VIC-20 was formally announced 
on January 8, 1981 at the Winter Consumer 
Electronics Show. It was promised that it 
would be on sale in quantity by March 
1981. However, we have learned from 
previous experience to take such announce- 
ments with a grain of salt. It was not until 
the National Computer Conference in May 
that we were able to pick up an "advance" 
VIC-20. However, by the time you read 
this, production units should be reaching 
retail stores. 

Which retail stores we are not quite 
sure. Commodore has been making a good 
deal of news lately in the trade press by 
first rescinding and then reinstating distri- 
butorship agreements with various personal 
computer distributors in the U.S. Sonie 
months ago, Commodore announced its 
intention to go 100% to company -owned 
stores, however, they seem to have backed 
off this position and so you may well find 
the VIC available in both Commodore 
stores as well as other retail computer 
outlets. 

Commodore also has made news in the 
trade press by having virtually a 100% 
turnover of its key people twice in the 
last year. The last announcement of new 
people in key positions was accompanied 
by an announcement that the company 
headquarters would move from Sunnyvale, 
California to King of Prussia, Pennsylvania. 
Perhaps now that the company is head- 
quartered in a suburb of the city of 
brotherly love we will see somewhat more 
harmony in its ranks. 

Commodore is positioning the VIC as 
a "friendly computer" and everyone on 
the product team as well as the manuals 
and dealer documentation seem to be in 
support of this philosophy. 

From a price standpoint, at a suggested 
retail of $299.95, the VIC-20 falls in the 
group that would include the Sinclair ZX- 
80 and ZX-81 (under $200), the Radio 
Shack TRS-80 Color Computer ($399), 
and the Atari 400 ($399). 

Comparing the VIC to those three units, 
it is quickly apparent that the key differ- 
ences are in memory, keyboard and 
graphics. As shown in Table 1 the Sinclair 
comes with only IK bytes of memory 
while the Atari comes with 16K bytes; 



the VIC and TRS-80 Color fall in between 
with 5K and 4K bytes respectively. Of the 
four, the VIC is the only one that is 
expandable to 32K, although with second 
source memory the Atari also is expandable 
to 32K. 

The VIC-20 has sixty-one full stroke 
keys and four function keys, considerably 
more than any of its competitors. Fur- 
thermore, the Sinclair and Atari 400 have 
flat membrane keyboards which have not 
exactly found universal acceptance among 
people who are use to a typewriter style 
keyboard. In terms of character and 
graphics resolution, except for the Sinclair 
with its monochrome display, the Com- 
modore VIC trails the pack. Ah well, 
"you pays your money and you takes your 
choice." 

Hardware 

The VIC-20 is built around the 6502A 
microprocessor, the same unit used in the 
Pet, Atari, and Apple computers. 

The keyboard is one of the most inter- 
esting features of the VIC. It has two 
modes of operation: Graphics Mode and 
Text Mode. In Graphics Mode all of the 
keys produce upper case letters and when 
shifted, produce the graphics symbol on 
the right side of the base of the key (see 
figure 1). In Text Mode each key will 
type both upper and lower case but, in 



addition, produce the graphics on the left 
side of the key. These are the graphics 
which are most suited for charts, graphs 
and business forms and would most likely 
be used with text. 

The VIC supposedly has 255 different 
combinations of screen and border colors, 
including sixteen screen colors and eighteen 
border colors. Unfortunately, on the two 
color TV sets on which we tried the 
computer, no matter what we did with 
the color tuning on the sets, the most we 
could distinguish were six border and six 
background colors. We suggest that VIC 
owners try the unit on their own TV and 
then use those colors which can be most 
easily distinguished from one another rather 
than blithely follow the manual. 

Two very handy keys (and POKE func- 
tions) are those which let you type reverse 
characters on the screen (for instance 
white on black instead of black on white). 
One key turns reverse on and the other 
turns reverse off. Also very handy are the 
four function keys (eight if you shift them) 
which may be assigned any basic command 
or instruction set under program control. 
Tektronix, Wang and HP computers have 
used function keys for years, but this is 
the first time we have seen them on a unit 
in this price range. 

The VIC also has three tone generators, 
each with a range of three octaves and a 



Price 

Included RAM IK 

Maximum RAM 

Keyboard 



Sinclair 
ZX81 


Commodore 
VIC-20 


Atari 
400 


TRS-80 
Color 


$150 est. 


$300 


$400 


$400 


IK 


5K 


16K 


4K 


16K 


32K 


16K 


32K 


40-key 
Flat 


61 -key 
Full stroke 


57-key 
Flat 


53-key 
Full stroke 



Screen Display 



Graphics 



32 x 16 
(512 char) 



22x23 
(506 char) 



24x40 
(960 char) 



32 x 16 
(512 char) 



128x64 176x184 320x192 256x192 

(8,192 pixels) (32,384 pixels) (61,440 pixels) (49,152 pixels) 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



43 




The VIC comes with keyboard unit, power supply, RF modu- 
lator and cables. 




When all else fails, its time to open the manual. 



fourth white noise generator useful for 
making airplane sounds, explosions and 
the like. Each of the three tone generators 
has a different three octave range so you 
might want to think of them, as the manual 
does, as tenor, alto and soprano. The 
tone generators are called by means of 
POKE statements, for example, POKE 
36875,225 produces a middle C in the 
tenor voice. Actually the easiest way to 
program music is to store the notes and 
durations in data statements and write a 
short routine to call the data and play the 
song or melody. The guide that comes 
with the VIC-20 includes twenty sound 
routines such as laser beam, high-low siren, 
birds chirping, running feet, door opening, 
and explosion. 

Peripherals 

We are promised no less than fifteen 
peripherals and add-ons for the VIC-20 
which "will be introduced through out 
1981." The one we would like to see the 
most, and we suspect most VIC owners 
will want the soonest, is a device for storing 
programs— either a tape or disk unit. We 
are promised a low-priced cassette player 
as well as a low-priced single floppy disk 
unit. Unfortunately promises and delivery 
are two different things. Unlike the other 
computers in its class, you cannot plug a 
standard tape recorder into a set of jacks 
on the VIC. Instead of a set of jacks the 
VIC has an edge connector which takes a 
special type of jack to connect it to a tape 
recorder. Both the user guide and Com- 
modore newsletter describe the use of 
the cassette tape recorder which suggests 
there are at least a few prototype units in 
existence. Hence we probably can expect 
to see this device on the market fairly 
shortly. 

In addition to the tape recorder edge 
connector, the VIC has five other con- 
nectors for external devices. They include 
a nine-pin socket for game I/O devices 
such as joystick, light pens or potentio- 
meters; a memory expansion connector; 
an audio/video connector which plugs into 
the included RF modulator; a serial I/O 



connector which will be used with a disk 
drive; and a user port. 

Software 

The software on the VIC is effectively 
the same as that found on Pet/CBM 
systems. The main difference is that VIC 
programs written on the Pet must conform 
to the VICs 22-character screen width 
and, of course, cannot exceed the available 
memory. Pet lines longer than 22 characters 
will "wrap" around and not produce the 
same image on the VIC. Furthermore, 
the VIC has available various color and 
sound features which are not available on 
the monochrome and silent Pet. What we 
are saying then is that the VIC software is 
not new but rather it is the same excellent 
Basic which has been around and available 
on the Pet for several years. It has a 
range of floating point variables from 
-10 38 to 10 38 , integer variables from -32768 
to 32767 and string variables which may 
be up to 255 characters in length. It has 
the usual arithmetic comparison and 
boolean (and, or, not) operators. 

It has all of the usual commands and 
statements, including a set to read and 
write from data files. It has an impressive 
array of functions including arc tangent, 



QJAt 



I TV 



A *^AWf^ 



DET 




" We've completed the preliminary tests on your 
new computer. " 



LEFTS (X$,X), RIGHTS (X$,X), SPC 
(which in a print statement skips X spaces 
forward, and POS (which returns the 
number of the column which the next 
print statement will begin on the screen). 

Most basic keywords may be abbreviated 
to two letters although these are all letter 
and shift/letter combinations so it is really 
three keystrokes. For short, three-letter 
basic keywords this is rarely a saving. 
However, the print statement is abbreviated 
to simply a shift/? which is most decidedly 
a saving. Although using these abbrevia- 
tions gives the program a very strange 
look on the screen because the letter and 
shift/letter are printed as a letter and 
graphic character, when a program is listed 
the computer will automatically spell out 
all of the Basic words. 

In VIC Basic there are no separate 
graphics commands as are found in Atari 
and Apple systems. Rather the POKE 
command is used to put a graphics char- 
acter in a designated location on the video 
display. For example, if you want to put a 
ball in the center of the screen you would 
type the command POKE 7910,81. Screen 
locations vary from 7680 in the upper left 
hand corner to 8185 in the bottom right 
hand corner. The screen is divided into 
23 horizontal rows of 22 characters each. 
How then can we get a resolution of over 
32,000 pixels as shown in Table 1? This is 
obtained because each character is con- 
sidered to be divided into a subset of 
eight smaller characters because of the 
extensive graphic character set. Purists 
may take issue with this approach because 
there is really no way of addressing 176 x 
184 pixels. The addressing is limited to 22 
x 23 characters. However, within each of 
those characters there are graphics char- 
acters for drawing, for example, a hori- 
zontal or vertical line at four different 
positions, thus dividing the characters into 
eight subsegments. I don't think anyone 
will argue with the statement that the Pet 
can produce outstanding graphics using 
this same approach. As mentioned earlier, 
music and sound is also produced by means 
of POKE statements. 



44 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



SOFTWARE FOR THE SORCERER 



VISI-WORD by Lee Anders 

From pTepvm% short letters to writing a book, word processing becomes easy and inex- 
pensive using VISI-WORD, a cassette based word processor. VISI-WORD is designed to 
interface with just about any printer you can attach your Sorcerer to. VISI-WORD can 
accept control characters, which allows you to issue special commands to those 
printers with graphics controls, font control, and the like. A special feature of VISI- 
WORD, from which it gets its name, is the "command display off" feature. This com- 
mand eliminates all special end of line markers and other non-printing characters and 
automatically performs right-justification, centering, and indenting right on the video, 
so that you can see what your text will look like before it is printed. Other features of 
VISI-WORD include four separate buffers (to assist with form letters, boiler plating, 
and shifting text around), automatic page numbering and titling, partial print, and 
locating strings. $59-95 



General Business System 



by Lee Anders 

GBS is a general purpose system that can be used for many business applica- 
tions. Use this system to enter, edit, format, and print information. You may 
delete, insert, or append records, and then summarize and tabulate the results. 
You design, in just a few minutes with the aid of GBS, a system of records. Then 
use the power of GBS to compute, sort, select, merge, add, or modify your data, 
all at machine language speed. GBS will provide you with the kind of fast, 
accurate, flexible tools you always knew a home computer could provide. Four 
example application programs are included: inventory control, accounts receiv- 
able, payroll, and check register. Of course, you don't have to use GBS for 
business. You can use it for personal finance, club or personal record keeping, or 
almost any type of problem that involves the management of records. Written in 
machine language. Includes an extensive user manual. Requires a Sorcerer with 
at least 32K of memory. $99.95 






FORTH 1ot the Sorcerer. Now Sorcerer owners can enjoy the convenience and speed of 
the fascinating FORTH programming language. Based on fig-FORTH and adapted for the 
Sorcerer by James Albanese, this version uses simulated disk memory in RAM and does 
not require a disk drive. Added to standard fig-FORTH are an on-screen editor, a serial 
RS-232 driver, and a tape save and load capability. Numerous examples are included 
in the 130 pages of documentation. Requires 32K or more of RAM. $59.95 

QS SMART TERMINAL by Bob Pierce Convert your Sorcerer to a smart terminal. Used 
with a modem, this program provides the capability for you to communicate efficiently 
and save connect time with larger computers and other microcomputers. The program 
formats incoming data from time-sharing systems such as The Source for the Sorcerer 
video. Incoming data can be stored (downloaded) into a file in RAM. Files, including 
programs, may be saved to or loaded from cassette, listed on the video, transmitted out 
through your modem, or edited with an onboard text editor. Interfaces with BASIC and 
the Word Processor Pac. $49.95 

DPX™ (Development Pac Extension) by Don Ursem. Serious Z80 program developers 
will find this utility program to be invaluable. Move the line pointer upward. Locate a 
word or symbol. Change a character string wherever it occurs. Simple commands allow 
you to lump directly from EDIT to MONITOR or DDT80 modes and automatically set up 
the I/O you want for listings. Built-in serial driver. Stop and restart listings. Abort 
assembly with the ESC key. Save backup files on tape at 1200 baud. Load and merge 
files from tape by file name. Versions for 8K, 16K, 32K. and 48K Sorcerer all on one 
cassette Requires the Sorcerer's Development Pac. $29.95 







Z80 DISASSEMBLER by Vic Tolomei. 
Decode machine language programs 
with this easy to use disassembler 
written in BASIC. Also works as an 
ASCII dumper. $14.95 

SOFTWARE INTERNALS MANUAL FOR 
THE SORCERER by Vic Tolomei. A must 
for anyone writing software for the 
SORCERER Seven chapters: Intro to 
Machine Language. Devices & Ports. The 
Monitor. Cassette Interface. BASIC 
structure. Video & Graphics, The 
Keyboard. Indexed. Includes diagrams 
and software routines 64 pages 

$14.95 




ARROWS AND ALLEYS™ by Vic Tolomei 

The latest of Quality Software's great arcade games for the Sorcerer is ARROWS AND 
ALLEYS, by Vic Tolomei. You drive your car in a maze of alleys. Your task is to eliminate a 
gang of arrows that constantly pursues you. You have a gun and the arrows don't, but 
the arrows are smart and they try to stay put of your sights and will often attack from the 
side or from behind. Eliminate the arrows and another, faster gang comes after you. 
Four levels of play. Requires 16K or more of RAM. $17.95 

GRAPHICS ANIMATION by Lee Anders. This package provides the BASIC programmer 
with a powerful set of commands for graphics and animation. The program is written 
in machine language but is loaded together with your BASIC program and graphics 
definitions with a CLOAD command. Any image from a character to a large graphic 
shape may be plotted, moved, or erased with simple BASIC commands. Encounters of 
plotted character sets with background characters are detected and background 
images are preserved. Contains a medium resolution plotting routine. A keyboard 
routine detects key presses without carriage returns. Includes a separate program for 
constructing images. Runs on any size Sorcerer. $29.95 

STARBASE HYPERION 1 " by Don Ursem. At last, a true strategic space game for the 
Sorcerer! Defend a front-line Star Fortress against invasion forces of an alien empire. 
You create, deploy, and command entire ship squadrons as well as ground defenses in 
this complex tactical simulation of war in the far future Written in BASIC and Z 80 code 
Full graphics and realtime combat status display. Includes full instructions and 
STARCOM battle manual. Requires at least 16K of RAM $17.95 

HEAD-ON COLLISION™ by Lee Anders. You are driving clockwise and a computer- 
controlled car is driving counter clockwise. The computer's car is trying to hit you head 
on, but you can avoid a collision by changing lanes and adjusting your speed. At the 
same time you try to drive over dots and diamonds to score points Three levels of play, 
machine language programming, and excellent graphics make this game challenging 
and exciting for all. At least 16K of RAM is required. $14.95 

LUNAR MISSION by Lee Anders. Land your spacecraft softly on the moon by control- 
ling your craft's three propulsion engines. Avoid lunar craters and use your limited fuel 
sparingly. You can see both a profile view of the spacecraft coming down and a plan 
view of the landing area. Land successfully and you get to view an animated walk on the 
moon Nine levels of play provide a stiff challenge to the most skillful astronaut 
Requires at least 16K of RAM $14.95 

MARTIAN INVADERS™ by James Albanese How long can you hold out against a 
persistent invasion force from Mars? Zap all the members of the landing party and 
another group comes after you. The longer you hold out, the higher your score. The 
Sorcerer's programmable graphics make this game look great, plus we've added special 
keyboard routines to really zip it up. Written in machine language. $14.95 

BEDIT by Ernest Bergmann. A BASIC editor. This short and easy to use program is a 
machine language routine that loads in low memory and allows you to edit your BASIC 
programs by modifying text on the video screen. No more retyping a long line |ust to 
change one character. A few cursor movements make the necessary modifications 
Even renumbering lines is easy to do. This program is a real time saver. Runs on any size 
Sorcerer. $11.95 




All Programs Are On Cassette 
PLEASE WRITE FOR OUR CATALOG 

QUTILITy SOFTW7IR6 

6660 Reseda Blvd.. Suite 105, Reseda, CA 91335 

(213)344-6599 



HOW TO ORDER: If there is no SORCERER dealer near you, you may order directly from 
us. MasterCard and Visa cardholders may place orders by telephone. Or mail your 
order to the address above. California residents add 6% sales tax. Shipping Charges: 
Within North America orders must include $1.50 for shipping and handling. Outside 
North America the charge for airmail shipping and handling is $5.00. Pay in US 
currency. 

•The name "SORCERER" has been trademarked by Exidy, Inc. 



FASTGAMMON'" by Bob Christiansen. 
Backgammon players love this 
machine language program that pro- 
vides a fast, skillful opponent. Option 
to replay a game with the same dice 
rolls. Eight-page instruction manual 
includes rules of backgammon. 

$19.95 

TANK TRAP by Don Ursem An action 
game that combines skill, strategy, and 
luck. A rampaging tank tries to run you 
down You are a combat engineer, build 
mg concrete barriers in an effort to 
contain the tank Four levels of play make 
this animated game fun for everyone 
Written in BASIC with machine language 
subroutines $11.95 



CIRCLE 195 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



VIC-20, continued... 

Documentation 

The "friendly computer guide" produced 
by Avalanche Inc. for the VIC-20 is 
excellent. We have tried it with young 
children (ages 10 and 1 1) as well as adults 
of both sexes and in all cases have found 
that people are able to get into program- 
ming the computer very quickly and easily 
using this guide. Unlike other manuals it 
gets into graphics, animation, sound and 
music before it actually gets into the Basic 
language, variables, input statements and 
the like. Unfortunately, as a result, it does 
not go very deeply into the Basic language 
and one would be hard pressed using the 
manual alone to write more than a very 
simple program. 

We tried writing a graphics game using 
only the information in the "friendly guide" 
and succeeded quite well in a minimum 
amount of time (see accompanying "Catch 
The Bombs" program). 



In summary 

At $299.95, the VIC is a most impressive 
and capable computer. Features we liked 
the most were the large, full stroke key- 
board, function keys, excellent graphics 
character set, built-in tone generators, and 
user-friendly manual. We are disappointed 
no mass storage device is yet available 
and we think for some applications 5K of 
memory will not be nearly enough. The 
early VICs were plagued with a variety of 
maladies mostly traceable to insufficient 
cooling. This problem seems to be cured, 
as we have used our VIC for long periods 
of time in relatively warm surroundings. 
However it is too soon to make any 
judgements with respect to reliability or 
manufacturer support. Early indications 
look positive. We recommend it. □ 



Figure 1. Each key has three functions on 
the VIC-20 keyboard. 




^ / BD\/gaV^yae\/try 






= /yf>ETU*A/ 



7 



/HBVBB7aB\/E 






CJ ' /P (ST 



H^=^n 



dJ 




creative 

computing 

software 



MECC Software 

Creative Computing is now your source for the out- 
standing educational software developed by the Minnesota 
Educational Computer Consortium (MECC). Three pack- 
ages are available in the initial release. 

Demonstration Disk 

Requires 32K Applesoft in ROM or Apple II Plus, DOS 3.2 MECC-701 $19.95 

A sampling of different applications in drill and practice, tutorial, simulation 
problem solving and worksheet generation. Samples from music, science sociai 
studies, industrial arts, reading and mathematics are included. 

Elementary, Vol. 1 — Mathematics 

Requires 32K Applesoft in ROM or Apple II Plus, DOS 3.2 MECC-702 $24.95 
Programs for the elementary mathematics classroom. Includes games of logic 
such as Bagels, Taxman and Number; drill and practice programs such as Speed 
Drill, Round and Change; and programs about the metric system such as Metric 
Estimate, Metric Length and Metric 21. 

Elementary, Vol. 4 - Math & Science 

Requires 32K Applesoft in ROM or Apple II Plus, DOS 3.2 MECC-705 $24.95 

Two mathematics programs, Estimate and Mathgame provide reinforcement on 
estimating and basic facts. Food chains in fish and animals can be studied through 
Odell Lake and Odell Woods. Solar Distance teaches the concepts of distances in 
space and Ursa is a tutorial on constellations. 

To order, send payment plus $2.00 shipping to the address below. Credit card 
orders may be called toll free to 800-631-8112 (in NJ 201-540-0445) School 
purchase orders should add an additional $2.00 billing fee. 

^ Creative Computing, 39 E. Hanover Ave., Morris Plains, NJ 07950 



Catch 



The 



Bombs 



Writing the Program 

"Catch The Bombs" was written as an 
experiment to see what someone with 
little or no knowledge of graphics pro- 
gramming could do given a plain vanilla 
5K VIC-20 and the guide "Personal Com- 
puting on the VIC-20." This 164-page book 
is termed "a friendly computer guide" but 
it should not be considered a replacement 
for a programmers^ reference guide. 

My idea was to write a simplified version 
of the Mad Bomber game marketed by 
Activision and Creative Computing. In 
this game, a mad bomber at tjie top of the 
screen drops bombs wjiich the player must 
catch (Activisjpn) or shoot (Creative 
Computing). 

With any programming problem, the 
approach J take is to break the problem 
into small pieces. Hence, I started this 
one by trying to develop a routine to 
move a basket back and forth at the bottom 
of the screen to catch the bombs. While it 
was easy enough to form a basket using 
three characters of the extensive VIC 
graphic character set, it could not be moved 
quickly since all three characters had to 
be redrawn for each new position. 

Hence, I settled for three identical 
characters which effectively form a paddle, 
not a basket. However, it moves quickly 
since the program only has to erase a 
character at one side and draw one at the 
opposite side to move one pixel (picture 
element). 

The VIC does not have graphics com- 
mands in Basic like other computers. 
Instead, armed with a memory map of 
the screen one must poke a graphics 
character code into the desired screen 
location. For example, POKE 7910, 81 
puts a ball in the center of the screen. 
POKE 7910, 32 puts a space in the same 
location, thereby erasing anything else. 




be 
c 

'S 
3 
CL 



•a 

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v 

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46 



Glad to sef you back. How was your vacation? 

CREATIVE COMPUTING 





In Language 
Lies The Future 



Paul Lutus creates language. Language for the future. 

From him we have Apple Writer, Apple World and MusiComp 
His software was used by the Viking Mars 
Lander team and other advanced 



space programs. 

For the past three years he has 
applied himself to the development 
of more efficient and powerful 
computer languages to 
help him with his work. 
These new languages 
of the future are now 
available tor your use 
exclusively from Insoft. 



See the new world of 
programming from Insoft 
.»t your Apple dealer 




Mun nan 



r <-<jr.t«M id li, nlinu.uk 
Of Applo < ompiiuM . hn 



.•.<) Mxiinoti n<t / UnM 1 I Modiord, Qi 'i/mii / (603) fl% .'"•'• 

















*ru 



mi 




iT 7 ! ■bbm tt I*T7i 



r»T»T til; «T •!■»[• Irf . 1 1 ill il III* I 



Thefi 
brilliant extension of FORTH. 
i Fully compiled 
Floating point 
Transcendental functions 
Strings and arrays 
Hires, Lores and Turtlegraphics 
Music 

Far more compact and approachable than 
Pascal, TransFORTH II is both recursive and 
structured and easier to use than BASIC. 

Over three years in development, this high 
level language enables you to program in 
English with far greater speed and conven- 
ience than ever before possible. 

TransFORTH II. A transformation in 
computer programming. Available today. 



age Development 
System. Already the preferred assembler for 
professional software developers 

• Object files to 18K 

• Source files to 37K 

• Cursor based •< <*ditor 

• U| h1 lower case text entry 

• NestOd m«i ro instructions 

• i & §1, gtobol iod unWortol lain 

• Cetnprth< oi trapping 

t h< onormoui lilt ity of AID Syitom 

n ; , mi o« th« tblllty lo dovolop 

vii luolly .'"v Imoglntl ! " 

And v"" ' •«" ''<> M with p.r,i> llfKl Al D 

. ||tm II tdltl will) thO '-impli' dy <d ;» W(tid 
pti " 

aid nil Powortul yot oonvonlont 

i hi lint i hok • «»f ptofottlonol 

1 h« bttt coin*-, last Both now 
programs are available? foi tlu* 
Apple II oi Apple IN 



CIRCLE 1 52 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Catch Bombs, continued... 

My first basket movement routine had 
30 statements. Making it a paddle reduced 
it to 21 and two further improvements 
reduced it to 14 statements (100-330). 

The second problem I attacked was 
making a ball (or bomb) drop. The user's 
guide has a short program to bounce a 
ball around the screen. It was a simple 
matter to eliminate horizontal (x) move- 
ment and make the ball drop. Unfortu- 
nately, it was not at all easy to add a 
second ball and have them drop simultan- 
eously. No matter what I did, I always 
wound up with one ball dropping and 
then the other. 

Finally I scrapped the copied routine 
entirely and started from scratch with a 
flowchart. This led to an entirely different 
generalized approach which would work 
for any number of balls (or bombs) dropped 
simultaneously. I settled on three bombs 
with the second released after the first 
had dropped five pixels and the third 
released after another 5-pixel interval (line 
570). For a faster game, the bombs can be 
dropped at three- or four-pixel intervals. 
The other routines (introduction, explo- 
sion, scoring) were relatively straight- 
forward and are described in the marginal 
notes on the listing. 

Playing the Game 

After the game is loaded or keyed in, 
the title block appears for a few seconds. 
During this time the player should press 
the SHIFT LOCK key. 

To start the game, press any key. The 
paddle is moved back and forth using the 
right and left arrow keys ("upper case" 
comma and period). I recommend using 
the index and middle finger, one on each 
key. 

The bombs fall in groups of two or 
three. The object is to move the paddle 
(basket) under each bomb and catch it. 
Each bomb that is caught will remove a 




segment of the paddle which can be 
restored by pressing either arrow key. 

A bomb which is not caught causes an 
explosion. After ten rounds, the program 
will tell you how many bombs were caught, 
how many exploded and the percentage 
score. 

If you find the game too easy, drop the 
bombs closer together by changing state- 
ment 570 to Y(X) = -4*A. Another nice 
addition would be sound effects when a 
bomb is caught or when it explodes. Have 
fun! rj 




"Now, now, Wayne. I'm sure you'll think of an 
original, fun game someday. " 



ID 

15 
20 
25 
30 

35 

40 

45 
50 
60 
70 



80 

90 

100 

110 

120 

130 

200 

210 

220 

230 

240 

300 

310 

320 

330 

340 

500 

510 

520 

530 

540 

550 

560 

570 

580 

600 

610 

620 

630 

640 

650 

660 

670 

680 

690 

700 

710 

720 

730 

750 

760 

770 

780 

790 

800 

810 

850 

860 

870 

880 

890 

900 



PRINT "Q" 

PRINT: PRINT " CATCH THE BOMBS" 
PRINT: PRINT " BY DAVID AHL" 
PRINT: PRINT " COPYRIGHT 1Q81" 
PRINT "CREATIVE COMPUTING" 
G = 10: EX = : DIM Y (23) 
PRINT: PRINT "PRESS SHIFT LOCK" 
FORT ■ 1 TO 300: NEXT T 
PRINT "ET: POKE 36879,27 
PRINT: PRINT "TO START PRESS ANY 
GET A$: IF A$ = "" THEN 50 
PRINT "Q" : POKE 36879,9 
POKE 8174,120 : POKE 8175,120 



Clears the screen 



Initialize game and explosion counter 



KEY" 



P = 10 : G = G + 1 

GOTO 500 

B$ = "" : GET B$ 

IF B$ = "<" THEN 200 

IF B$ = ">" THEN 300 

RETURN 

P ■ P-l 

IF P < THEN P = 

POKE 8167 + P, 32 

POKE 8164 + P,120 

RETURN 

P = P + 1 

IF P > 20 THEN P = 20 

POKE 8163 + P,32 

POKE 8166 + P,120 

RETURN 

REM: MAIN PROGRAM 

FOR N = 1 TO 22 

Y (N) = : NEXT N 

C = 

FOR A = 1 TO 3 

1(1) = INT (22*RND(1)) 

X = Z(A) 

Y(X) = -5*A 

NEXT A 

FOR A = 1 TO 3 

X = Z(A) 

POKE 7724 + X + 22*Y(X),32 

POKE 7746 + X + 22*Y(X),81 

G0SUB 100 

B$ = "" 

Y(X) = Y(X) +1 

IF Y(X) < > 19 THEN 690 



Clear screen, make black background 
POKE 8176,120 Draw paddle at bottom 
center of screen 
(Paddle is 3 pixels wide) 
Paddle position = 10 

Paddle movement subroutine 



Move paddle left 
Check for left edge of screen 
Erase rightmost segment 
Draw new left segment 

Move paddle right 

Check for right edge of screen 

Erase leftmost segment 

Draw new right segment 



3 



Set all columns 
Counter ■ 



;o 



Pick columns for bombs to drop 
Starting height for each bomb 



Erase last position of bomb 
Draw bomb one pixel lower 



IF PEEK (8164 + X) < > 120 THEN 75 

NEXT A 

C = C + 1 

IF C < 40 THEN 600 

IF G > 10 THEN 40 

GOTO 850 

PRINT "O" : FOR N = 1 TO 3 

FOR I = 9 TO 111 STEP 17 

POKE 36879,1 

FOR T = 1 TO 60: NEXT T 

NEXT I : NEXT N 

EX = EX + 1 

GOTO 720 

PRINT "Q" : POKE 36879,27 

PRINT : PRINT EX "BOMBS EXPLODED" 

PRINT : PRINT 30-EX "BOMBS CAUGHT" 

PRINT : PRINT "SCORE IS" INT(100*(30-EX)/30) "90" 

FOR T = 1 TO 14 : PRINT : NEXT T 

END 



If bomb hits paddle on next move, 
consider it caught, otherwise go to 
to explosion subroutine 



Increment counter 
Get al 1 bombs down 
Play 10 games 

Explosion subroutine 

Step through bright colors 

Hold color on screen briefly 

Explosion counter 

Game results 



48 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 





EPSON MX-80 $CALL 

80 cps/9x9 matrix/Lower case with 
true descenders/Bi-directional & 
Logic seeking/Adjustable tractor/ 
Expanded printing/Block graphics/ 
Forms control/Compressed printing/ 
Double-strike printing/Correspon- 
dence quality/Emphasized printing 
mode/Standard parallel interface 

EPSON MX-80 F/T $CALL 

Same features as the MX-80 plus Fric- 
tion Feed. Adjustable removable trac- 
tor is standard for ease of handling 
forms and single sheets. 

EPSON MX-IOO F/T SCALL 

Same features as the MX-80 & MX-80 
F/T but on 15 1 /2 inch carriage for print- 
ing 132 columns with standard 10 cpi 
font or 232 columns in the com- 
pressed character font. The MX-1 00 is 
complete with Dot Resolution 
Graphics 

CREATIVE COMPUTING 



EPSON INTERFACES & OPTIONS 



TRS-80 MODEL I, III CABLE $ 30 

TRS-80 MODEL I Keyboard Interface $ 95 

TRS-80 MODEL II CABLE $ 30 

APPLE INTERFACE & CABLE $ 100 

IEEE 488 INTERFACE $ 60 

SERIAL INTERFACE $ 70 



SERIAL INTERFACE (2K BUFFER) $ 149 

SERIAL CABLE Male to Male $ 30 

DOT RESOLUTION GRAPHICS S 90 

REPLACEMENT RIBBON $ 13 

REPLACEMENT PRINT HEAD (Quiet type) $ 40 

EPSON SERVICE MANUAL $ 40 




We built a reputation on our 
prices and your satisfaction. 

We guarantee everything we sell for 30 days. If anything 
is wrong, just return the item and we'll make it right. 
And, of course, we'll pay the shipping charges. 

We accept Visa and Master Card on all orders. COD 
accepted up to $300.00. We also accept school pur- 
chase orders. 

Please add $2.00 for standard UPS shipping and 
handling on orders under 50 pounds, delivered in the 
continental U.S. Call us for shipping charges on items 
that weigh more than 50 pounds. Foreign, FP0 and AP0 
orders please add 15% for shipping. California res- 
idents add 6% sales tax. 

31245 La Baya Drive, Westlake Village, California 91362 

49 CIRCLE 170 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



OVINI 



THE NEW 

FLIP/FLOPPYDISK 

with twice the byte 

OMNI is pleased to bring you a reversible 
5V4" mini diskette... the FLIP/FLOPPY DISK. 
Now you can record on both sides for twice 
the storage capacity of a single sided 
disk. And you'll be able to do it far 
more economically, too! 

Each OMNI FLIP/FLOPPY DISK incorporates 
all of the quality features you'd expect 
from the very best single sided disk. 



iL ^SB* 



• Two recording surfaces 

• Two sets of WRITE ENABLE notches 

• Two index holes 

• Reinforced Hub Rings 

• Certified error-free operation at ^B^ 
more than twice the error threshold ^m3 
of disk dFives ^1 

• Over 12 million rated passes without 
disk related errors or significant wear, 
for extra long life operation 

• Compatible with most 5V4" disk drives 
including APPLE, TRS-80, PET, OHIO 
SCIENTIFIC, and many more. 

• Hard and soft sector disks available 

OMNI Resources 

4 Oak Pond Avenue . Millbury, MA 01527 . 617-799-0197 

Call TOLL-FREE: In Mass. 1-800-252-8770 

Nationwide 1-800-343-7620 



INTRODUCTORY OFFER 



Order the OMNI FLIP/FLOPPY DISK at this 
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OFFER EXPIRES OCTOBER 15, 1981 



Please send me the following OMNI FLIP/FLOPPY DISK(s) 

Five Packs(s) @ $21.00 each = $ 

Ten Pack(s) @ $40.00 each = $ 

Shipping and handling $ 150 

Massachusetts residents add 5% sales tax $ 

TOTAL $ 

□ Check made payable to OMNI RESOURCES □ C.O.D. 
D Mastercard 

Account Number 

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Authorized Signature 



(Please allow approximately three weeks for delivery) 
Money back guarantee if not completely satisfied 



Copyright© 1981 by OMNI Resources 



CIRCLE 243 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



ztcreotiue 
computing 
equipment 
evaluation 



The LNW-80 



Better Than The Real Thing? 




I 



Question: What would happen if you 
took a TRS-80 Model I, put it in a metal 
case; added a fan to avoid overheating 
problems; made the numeric keypad and 
RS-232 interface standard; added double 
density disk drives; included high resolution 
color graphics; doubled the speed to 4 
megaHertz; added a 24 line by 80 column 
screen display format; added a few keys, 
including brackets, control, and shift lock; 
and put the arrows together for more 
convenient use? 
Answer (choose one): 

a) The TRS-80 Model I would be obso- 
lete. 

b) Many people would lose interest in 

the Model III. 

c) You would have an LNW 80. 

d) All of the above. 

The answer, of course, is "d," all of the 

above. 

When I first saw the advertisements for 
the LNW-80 computer, I was not 
impressed. I thought it must be just a 
cheap rip-off of the TRS-80. Because the 
ad was all text, with just a tiny unappealing 
picture of the keyboard unit, I never even 
bothered to read the specifications. How- 
ever, we had been experiencing reliability 
problems with the TRS-80 Model I com- 
puters we were using in typesetting, and 
decided to try out the advertised substi- 
tutes to see if they had fewer problems 
with loss of memory. We ordered a PMC 
80 and LNW 80 for review. Although we 
wanted both systems fully configured with 
disk drives, the expansion interface on 
the PMC 80 was not available, so we 
received only a tape version. Hence this 
intended comparative evaluation became 
a one product review of the LNW 80. 

When the LNW computer arrived, I 
sent the boxes into our software department 
to be set up and tested. But when we 
unpacked the box, I changed my mind. 
The splidly built, compact and attractive 
keyboard unit, the BMC green phosphor 



George Blank 



monitor, and the RS 232 connector on 
the back won my heart in a flash, and I 
ordered my TRS-80 to leave the office so 
the handsome stranger could take its 

place. 

We were in a rush to review the com- 
puter for our buyer's guide issue, so I 
received one of the first units shipped. In 
fact, mine came even before they silk 
screened the labels on the back of the 
case, but it was not difficult to figure out 
what connected where. I turned on the 
system. It came up with the clearest and 
sharpest display I had seen on any micro- 
computer. 

The next surprise was the low hum of 
the fan, and the air flowing through the 
slots on the top. Since I considered memory 
chip overheating the source of almost the 
problems we have experienced on our 
Model I systems, I was delighted. I then 
hooked up the two Vista V80 drives that 
we ordered with it, and booted the system 
with the DOS Plus 3.3D diskette supplied. 
It booted without any trouble. 

I then tried to boot one of my Model I 
NewDOS diskettes, and got only the 
message "DISK ERROR." I shifted to 
LDOS, which came up on the screen, and 
printed the greeting message, but never 
returned a "Ready". I called the company 
to find out what was wrong. I was told 
that only DOS PLUS could handle disk 
access at 4 megaHertz, and that I needed 
to change the position of a switch on the 
back of the unit for other systems. I flipped 
the switch, and both NewDOS and LDOS 
came up without problems. That did not 
mean I was stuck with using the computer 
at Radio Shack's low 1.8 megaHertz speed, 
however. The LNW 80 is smart enough to 
zip along in high gear (4 mHz) until it 



comes to disk I/O, and then shift down 
into low (1.8 mHZ) just long enough for 
loading, saving, and other disk opera- 
tions. 

With sheer delight, I loaded Scripsit. 
My glee increased when I pressed the 
right arrow and watched it zip through 
the text at more than double speed. I had 
hoped that I might be able to get the full 
24 by 80 display on Scripsit, but that is 
under software control, and I received 
only the normal TRS-80 16 by 64 display. 
After reading the manual, I found that 
the 24 by 80 mode requires complex user 
programming and 16K of memory for 
screen display. Even program listings on 
the screen come out normally as 16 rows 
of 64 characters. 

The LNW 80 claims 100% compatibility 
with TRS-80 Model I software. Because it 
is set up for double density operation, it is 
also possible to transfer Model III pro- 
grams and files back and forth using DOS 
Plus. The way to do it is to use DOS Plus 
for the Model III to read the program to 
be converted from a TRS DOS disk and 
write it to a DOS Plus disk. Then you can 
read the program using the DOS Plus for 
the LNW 80, which is supplied with the 
computer if you buy it with a disk drive. 
In addition to standard TRS-80 Graphics, 
the LNW 80 has three other graphics 
modes. Mode 1 is high resolution black 
and white, with a resolution of 460 by 192 
pixels. This mode requires the lower 16K 
of RAM for graphics information. It is 
rather complicated to work with, but a 
demonstration program is included with 
machine language support routines that 
can be used in your own programs. I 
found it quite simple to substitute lines in 
the demonstration program to create my 
own graphics. To visualize the ability of 
the LNW 80 high resolution graphics, look 
closely at the dot over the "i" on a TRS- 
80 Model I or Model III. That is the size 
of one of the addressable pixels, and normal 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



51 



r 



Comparison of TRS-80 Compatible Systems 48K of Memory, 2 Disk Drives 



Price 

Model I software? 

Lower Case 

Keyboard 

RS 232 Port 

Numeric Key Pad 

Hi Res Graphics 

Color Graphics 

Disk Density 

Cassette included? 

Cassette Speed 

Fan 

Z-80 Speed 

Address 



TRS-80 Model I 

$2,374 

All 

Option 

65 Key 

Option 

Yes 

No (2) 

No (2) 

Single (3) 

Yes 

500 Baud 

No 

1.8 mHz 

(discontinued) 



TRS-80 Model III 

$2,614 

Most 

Yes 

65 Key 

Yes 

Yes 

No 

No 

Double 

No 

500/1500 Baud 

No 

2.0 mHz 

Radio Shack 

Ft. Worth, TX 76102 



LNW-80 

$2,264 

All 

Yes 

74 Key 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Both 

No 

500/1000 Baud 

Yes 

4.0 mHz 

LNW Research 

2620 Walnut 

Tustin, CA 92680 



PMC 80 

$1434 + Drives (1) 

All 

Option 

68 Key 

Yes 

Yes 

No 

No 

Single 

Yes 

500 Baud 

No 

1.8 mHz 

PMC Corp. 

475 Ellis St. 

Mt. View, CA 94043 



Notes: (1) PMC does not sell disk drives 

(2) Programma International sells The Electric Crayon to add Hi Res Color Graphics 

(3) LNW Doubler and Percom Doubler will both allow double density on Model I 



characters are plotted on a matrix of those 
dots that is six dots wide and eight dots 
high. With 80 columns across and 24 rows 
down, you can plot 480 dots across and 
192 dots down, or define your own char- 
acters and print them the way letters and 
numbers are printed. 



There are also two color modes, if you 
have a color monitor. The LNW 80 requires 
a monitor, and cannot use a television 
set. Low resolution (128 by 192 pixels) 
color graphics with eight colors are stan- 
dard. The colors are white, green, yellow, 
red, magenta, blue, blue green, and black. 



">v 




STAR 

THE GAME' 



SVCC- \"/0\ 



The only approved and licensed version authorized by 
Paramount Studios. A real-time space adventure. Hi-res 
graphics. All the action of the movie. Apple 3.3-48K. Insist 
on Star Trek The Game' at your local dealer. $34.98. 



Computer 
^consultants 
Jowa 




Computer Consultants of Iowa Ltd. 

PO Box 427 
Marion. Iowa 52302 
319373 1306 



CIRCLE 217 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



V 



There is also a high resolution color 
graphics mode, with 384 by 192 dot 
resolution. This costs an additional $150 
and requires an expensive (about $1000) 
RGB color monitor instead of the less 
expensive (about $400) NTSC monitors 
usually sold for computer use. 

There are two speeds for cassette I/O. 
The 500-baud tape speed reads standard 
Model I and low speed Model III tapes. 
The other speed is 1000 baud, twice as 
fast, but not equal to the 1500 baud of the 
high speed Model II tapes. No cable or 
cassette recorder comes with the compu- 
ter. 

The computer sells for $1,914 with a 
black and white monitor and one double 
density disk drive. I recommend spending 
an additional $125 for the BMC green 
phosphor monitor. Additional Vista V80 
disk drives are available for $350 each. 
The price for the computer without monitor 
or drives is $1450. Partial kits are also 
available, starting with just the circuit board 
and manual for $89.95. While a complete 
kit with all the parts is not available, you 
can purchase the circuit boards, manuals, 
keyboard, case, double density board, DOS 
PLUS, 48K of memory chips, transformers, 
expansion cable, floppy disk controller, 
UART, video parts, and a starter parts 
set for $857.80. Do not expect Heathkit 
type documentation; this is a difficult VXx. 
to build. 

What do I think of the computer? Until 
using this computer, I wanted to replace 
my Model I at home with a Model III. 
Now I am tempted to use the LNW 80 
instead. I have not used the system long 
enough to know about any maintenance 
problems. If it proves reliable in frequent 
use, we may convert our typesetting 
operations over to the LNW 80. □ 



J 



52 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



4MHZ, DOUBLE DENSIT Y,COLOR & B / W 
GRAPHICS . .THE LNW80 COMPUTER 



COMPARE THE FEATURES AND PERFORMANCE 




When you've compared the features of an LNW80 Computer, you'll quickly 
understand why the LNW80 is the ultimate TRS80 software compatible system. 
LNW RESEARCH offers the most complete microcomputer system at an outstand- 
ing low price. . ._ 
We back up our product with an unconventional 6 month warranty and a iu 
days full refund policy, less shipping charges. 

LNW80 Computer 5 1 » 450. 00 

LNW80 Computer w/B&W Monitor & one 5" Drive $1,914.00 

All orders must be prepaid, CA residents please include 6°' sales tax. 
Contact us for shipping charges 

* TRS80 Product of Tandy Corporation. 

** PMC Product of Personal Microcomputer, Inc. 



FEATURES 


LNW80 


PMC -80** 


TRS-80* 
MODEL III 


PROCESSOR 


4.0 MHZ 


1 ,8 MHZ 


2.0 MHZ 


LEVEL II BASIC INTERP. 


YES 


YES 


LEVEL III 
BASIC 


TRS30 MODEL 1 LEVEL II COMPATIBLE 


YES 


YES 


NO 


48K BYTES RAM 


YES 


YES 


YES 


CASSETTE BAUD RATE 


500/1000 


500 


500/1500 


FLOPPY DISK CONTROLLER 


SINGLE/ 
DOUBLE 


SINGLE 


SINGLE/ 
DOUBLE 


SERIAL RS232 PORT 


YES 


YES 


YES 


PRINTER PORT 


YES 


YES 


YES 


REAL TIME CLOCK 


YES 


YES 


YES 


24 X 80 CHARACTERS 


YES 


NO 


NO 


VIDEO MONITOR 


YES 


YES 


YES 


UPPER AND LOWER CASE 


YES 


OPTIONAL 


YES 


REVERSE VIDEO 


YES 


NO 


NO 


KEYBOARD 


63 KEY 


53 KEY 


53 KEY 


NUMERIC KEY PAD 


YES 


NO 


YES 


B/W GRAPHICS, 128 X 48 


YES 


YES 


YES 


HI -RESOLUTION B/W GRAPHICS, 480 X 192 


YES 


NO 


NO 



HI-RESOLUTION COLOR GRAPHICS (NTSC), 
128 X 192 IN 8 COLORS 

HI -RESOLUTION COLOR GRAPHICS (RGB), 
384 X 192 IN 8 COLORS 

WARRANTY 



YES 

OPTIONAL 
6 MONTHS 



NO 

NO 
90 DAYS 



TOTAL SYSTEM PRICE 



$1,914.00 $1,840.00 



NO 



NO 
90 DAYS 



$2,187.00 



LESS MONITOR AND DISK DRIVE 



$1 ,450.00 $1,375.00 



LNW80 

BARE PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD & MANUAL $89.95 

The LNW80 - A high-speed color computer totally compatible with 
the TRS-80*. The LNW80 gives you the edge in satisfying your 
computation needs in business, scientific and personal computa- 
tion. With performance of 4 MHz, Z80A CPU, you'll achieve per- 
formance of over twice the processing speed of a TRS-80*. This 
means you'll get the performance that is comparable to the most 
expensive microcomputer with the compatibility to the world's 
most popular computer (TRS-80*) resulting in the widest soft- 
ware base. 

FEATURES: 

. TRS-80 Model 1 Level II Software Compatible 
. High Resolution Graphics 

. RGB Output - 384 x 192 in 8 Colors 
. NTSC Video or RF MOD - 128 x 192 in 8 Colors 
. Black and White - 480 x 192 
4 MHz CPU 

500/1000 Baud Cassette 
Upper and Lower Case 
16K Bytes RAM, 12K Bytes ROM 
Solder Masked and Silkscreened 

LNW SYSTEM EXPANSION 

BARE PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD 

AND MANUAL $69.95 

WITH GOLD CONNECTORS $84.95 

The System Expansion will allow you to expand your LNW80, TRS-80*, 
or PMC-80** to a complete computer system that is still totally 
software compatible with the TRS-80* Model 1 Level II. 



FEATURES: 



32 K Bytes Memory 

5" Floppy Controller 

Serial RS232 20ma I/O 

Parallel Printer 

Real Time Clock 

Screen Printer Bus 

On Board Power Supply 

Solder Masked and Silkscreened 



CIRCLE 278 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

LNW RESEARCH 

C OR PORA T ION 

2620 WALNUT 
TUSTIN CA. 92680 

ORDERS&INFO. NO. 714-544-5744 
SERVICE NO 714-641-8850 



LNDoubler&DOS PLUS 3.3D 

Assembled and Tested W/DOS PLUS 3. 3D 



$175.00 



Double- density disk storage for the LNW Research's "System Expan- 
sion" or the Tandy's "Expansion Interface". The LMDoubler™ is 
totally software compatible with any double density software 
generated for the Percom's Doubler***. The LNDoublerTM provides 
the following outstanding features. 

. Store up to 350K bytes on a single 5" disk 

. Single and double density data separation 

. Precision write precompensation circuit 

. Software switch between single and double density 

. Easy plug in installation requiring no etch cuts, jumpers 

or soldering 

. 35, 40, 77, 80 track 5" disk operation 

. 120 day parts and labor Warranty 

*** Doubler is a product of Percom Data Company, Inc. 
DOS PLUS 3. 3D 

Micro Systems software's double density disk operating systen. 
This operating system contains all the outstanding features of 
a well developed DOS, with ease in useability. 



KEYBOARD 



LNW80 KEYBOARD KIT $84.95 

The Keyboard Kit contains a 63 key plus a 10 key, P.C. board, and 
remaining components. 



CASE 



LNW80 CASE $84.95 

The streamline design of this metal case will house the LNW80, 
LWN System Expansion, LNW80 Keyboard, power supply and fan, 
LN Doubler™, or LNW Data Separator. This kit includes all the 
hardware to mount all of the above. Add $12.00 for shipping 

PARTS AVAILABLE FROM LNW RESERARCH 
4116 - 200ns RAM 

6 chip set $26.00 

8 chip set $33.50 

16 chip set $64.00 

24 chip set $94.00 

32 chip set $124.00 

LNW80 "Start up parts set" LNW80-1 $82.00 

LNW80 "Video parts set" LNW80-2 $31.00 

LNW80 Transformer LNW80-3 $18.00 

LNW80 Keyboard cable LNW80-4 $16.00 

40 Pin computer to expansion cable $15.00 

System Expansion Transformer $19.00 

Floppy Controller (FD1771) and UART (TR1602) . . . $30.00 



VISA MASTER CHARGE 
ACCEPTED 



UNLESS NOTED 

ADD $3 FOR SHIPPING 



r 



~\ 



Xerox Enters The 
Personal Computer 
Market 



Stephen B. Gray 







A low-cost desktop workstation that 
can be used as a personal computer, word- 
processing system or both, by clerical, 
professional, managerial and decision- 
making executive personnel, was intro- 
duced recently by Xerox Corp. The 
introduction makes Xerox the first major 
American office products company to enter 
the personal computer market. Other 
manufacturers, such as IBM and Digital 
Equipment, are expected to follow suit 
this year. 

A Xerox executive described the 820 
as "a low-cost, entry-level system for 
everybody in the office. It's easy to use, 
easy to learn. It's designed for electronic 
mail. It's most suited to the low-volume 
user who generates from one to ten pages 
a day." 

$2,995 Without Printer 

Purchase price of the basic Xerox 820 
information processor is $2,995, including 
display screen, keyboard, and disk storage. 
As a word processing system with an 
optional 40-cps printer, purchase price is 
$5,895. Software is priced separately. The 
820 will be sold through Xerox Stores, 
other retail outlets, OEMs, dealers and 
distributors, as well as by the company's 
national Office Products Division sales 
force. It will be marketed in Europe by 
Rank-Xerox. 

The code name for the 820 during 
development was Worm, according to OPD 
president Donald J. Massaro, who said 
he'd wanted to have the product officially 
named Worm, "not because it will eat 
Apples, but because it's a Wonderful Office 
Revolution Machine." 



The 820 isn't a home computer," said 
Massaro. "It's a personal computer to go 
on the desk of a professional, for office 
use. It's not offered without the display. 
You can't hook it up to your TV set." 

Continuing in the same vein, Massaro 
said, "If Exxon can put a tiger in your 
tank, why can't Xerox put a Worm on 
your desk?" What the marketplace needs, 
he continued, is an electric typewriter 
and low-cost word processor for clerical 
people, a desktop computer and intelligent 
terminal for the executive, and a small- 
business system, all in one price-sensitive 
product. 

The 820 can operate as a standalone 
unit, and can also be connected to the 
Xerox Ethernet local area communications 
network that links different kinds of office 
equipment for high-speed exchange of 
information. 

Although the 820 has no graphics capa- 
bility, Massaro said "We're looking into 
that. As for color, we haven't made a 
decision; however, color is necessary in 
networking." 

Software 

Current software for the 820 includes 
word processing, Digital Research's CP/M 
operating system, Microsoft's Basic-80, 
Cobol-80 and Z-80 assembler, Compiler 
System's CBasic II, and applications pack- 
ages from Structured Systems Group, 
MicroPro International, Microsoft, and 
others, including an electronic worksheet 
package called Supercalc. 

Supercalc provides 60 variable columns, 
for five years of monthly data, with 250 
items per column. 

Other languages for the Xerox 820 are 



"available in industry," and include Fortran, 
Pascal, PL/ 1, and APL. 

The CP/M operating system is $200 for 
the prepaid license fee; the word processing 
software is $500. 

Hardware 

The Xerox 820 consists of three basic, 
separate components: a display /processor, 
keyboard, and dual 5 1/4" floppy-disk 
drives. 

A 12" screen displays white characters 
on a dark background and has a capacity 
of 24 lines of 80-characters each. The 820 
uses the 2.5-MHz Z80 microprocessor, 
and has 64K RAM and 4K of ROM. The 
basic system includes dual RS-232 serial 
ports, one for the printer and one for 
communications. Dual parallel ports are 
also standard. 

The system uses a 96-character ASCII 
keyboard with two operator keys: CON- 
TROL and HELP. The Shugart SA-400 
dual disk drives are single-sided, single 
density, and can store 92K characters of 
data, which is about 45 pages of text. 
Optional Shugart SA-800 8", single-sided, 
single-density dual drives can store 300K 
characters, or about 140 pages of text. 

The optional printer is a letter-quality 
daisy wheel Xerox Diablo 630 that prints 
bidirectionally at 40 characters per second. 
It can use either plastic or metal print 
wheels with 88, 92 or 96 characters in 
either 10 or 12 pitch. A non-Xerox printer 
can be used through the standard RS-232 
interface. 

Menu-Driven 

The 820 is menu-driven. When the 
full menus are displayed, each uses the 



54 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



> 



FALANTIfc 



The next generation 
of business software 



WHAT'S IN A NAME? 

We've changed the name of our product line Originally we called oui 
products "Phoenix because we saw the phoen • 
symbol of quality. Unfortunately, a lot o\ orhi nix 

as well, and there was some concern the marke • old 

become confused. 

Oui new name, PALANTIR'" (pionounced pal'u 

for us since it's our corporate name It com R K lolkien s 

lord of the Rings and de es a bio - 

used to see things at a distance. 

Whatever the name on the package the software in the 

changed. It is still the highest quality business software y luy for 

your microcomputer. 

WORD PROCESSING 

We lenow word processing. A yea half a< of 

Designer Software" wrote a well known word pro, anotnei 

company. In the last 18 months we've lean 

want in a word processing package PALANTIR" Word Pi 
leflects our experience. It is more powerful 

packages you can buy and can c '•' ex 

pensive dedicated word proce 

Many people have remarked that the . anierw 

the best ever for microcomputer softw could 

have made it more accessible to the n Witl <NTIR" 



te Training Manual with beginning, 
int< ' levels. By allowing you to work at your own 

level we have e learning proce id less intimidat: 



ACCOUNTING 

All five PALANTIR " .ounting packao eneral Ledger, Ac 

»unts Receivable and Payable, Payroll and Invent designed by 

■\ based on simila :es from mini and mainframe computers. 

rh< • th an integral assembly language data 

>d to allow automated posting to the General 

i. An mtt handler permits full screen data entry for 

use. Although we made cosi- nhancements prior 

to distnbution, the programs have been user tested for at least 

jhteen month 

; also mcludt mowing number of specific 

We have completed or scheduled for completion 

V\ail Management, Financial Projec 

■ds alone, be >o work in 

with other PALANTIR'" pa -. For example, Mail 

it will . self, but we also designed it to fit in 

.. "i the merging capabilities of Word Processing. 

With all PALANTIR" Accounting we have given special attention to 
Not being content to describe which buttons to push, we 
he 'he tin 1 - vplam the accounting principles behind the pro 

ickage helps to automate your office. 



Designer SofKtore 

HOUSTON 



If you want to k .not PALANTIR" A • Processing and accounting can do for your 

bus < or use The y re information. 



3400 Montrose Blvcl • Suite 718 • Houston, Texas 77006 
(713)520-8221 • Telex 790510 • Source TCU671 



CIRCLE 1 50 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



/■ 



Xerox, continued... 

top 12 lines of the screen. The menus are 
automatically suppressed to allow more 
typed lines to appear on the screen. When 
the menus are no longer needed as remind- 
ers, the operator can suppress them so 
that all 22 lines are visible on the screen. 

Features of the Xerox 820 include regular 
and decimal tabs, searching forward or 
backward, global find and replace, save 
original document, headers and trailers, 
document titles, wraparound display, 
copy /move, reformat, pagination, repeat 
keys, auto centering, auto underscore, 
super/subscripts, etc. 

The 820 as first offered is TTY-com- 
patible so as to be compatible with Ether- 
net. IBM 3270 compatibility will be pro- 
vided in the fourth quarter of 1981. 



Sales and Support 

For support, Xerox offers a yearly 
maintenance contract, and will set up 
service centers. The customer can call a 
center and arrange for pickup and subse- 
quent delivery of his 820 or can bring it in 
himself. 

Diagnostic disks that can be run by the 
operator are available. A 20,000-word 
spelling checker is "available in the 
industry." 

The Xerox OPD sales force will market 
the 820 primarily to the Fortune 1000 
companies, who will be offered the 820, 
860 word processor, 8010 Star, and Ether- 
net. Another market is the 4 to 6 million 
small businesses in the U.S. 

Asked if the 820 is a "me-too product," 



THE NEW OMR 500 
SEES THE 



An Optical 

Version 

of our MR 500 

Makes it Even 

Easier to Enter 

Data into Your 

Microcomputer 



Now you can read punched holes, 
preprinted data, or pencil marks on 
standard OMR cards. All with the 
incredibly compact OMR 500 op- 
tical card reader. 
Using state-of-the-art fiber optics 
to "read" each card, a single long- 
lasting bulb does the job. Reliably 
and accurately. 

The OMR 500 is a low-cost alter- 
nate to keyboard data entry. And 
at less than 1/2 second per hand- 
fed card, you won't be sacrificing 
speed. 

Compact and lightweight, our 
new optic reader is a mere 4-lb, 
4-V2 inch cube. Automatic turn-on 
is standard. 

The reader is available with in- 





telligent interfaces to Apple, 
TRS-80, PET and Atari that 
simplify user software re- 
quirements. Also available are 
RS-232 and S100 interfaces. 



At $1095, including the intelligent 
interface, the OMR 500 truly adds 
an affordable new dimension to 
card reader flexibility. Its uses are 
virtually unlimited. Small 
business, the entire educational 
field, personal computers — 
wherever data entry is required. 

And remember, we still offer the 
industry's largest selection of card 
readers. So whatever your needs, 
we've got the right card reader 
for you. 

Write or phone for complete 
details. Better yet, put in your 
order today. 



K CHATS WORTH DATA 



r»o 



20710 Lassen Street Chatsworth, California 91311 Phone: (213) 341-9200 



Massaro said, "I'd like to see the Star, or 
a Star-derivative machine, on executive 
desks, but it's too expensive. There are 
60,000 personal computers in the Fortune 
1000 companies. We can provide a personal 
computer, and migrate up to a Star, 860, 
etc." 

(The 8010 Star information system, 
introduced earlier this year, has a base 
price of $17,500, and can compose both 
text and graphics, with a bit-mapped display 
of 827,392 dots and the ability to display 
type fonts from 8 to 24 points.) 

Wide-Open Market 

Commenting on a question about Xerox 
getting back into the computer business, 
after the failure some years ago of Xerox 



it 



CIRCLE 204 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



We're trying to test the 
price elasticity of the 

market, with an 
entry-level machine. " 



Data Systems (bought as SDS), Massaro 
said, "This isn't an attempt to diversify, as 
was SDS, into mainframes, where you're 
up against one dominant company. This 
is a wide-open market. We're trying to 
test the price elasticity of the market, 
with an entry -level machine. A manager 
can put one on the desk of every secretary, 
without having to justify the price." 

The 820 with optional printer, selling 
together for $5,895, is more than $1000 
below the smallest machines now offered 
by IBM and Wang Laboratories. The Xerox 
860 word processor starts at $1 1,000. 

"We expect to sell the 820 in tens of 
thousands in 1981," Massaro said. □ 



EQ5 ' tl_ ( 




"Don't laugh! He seems to do the work of two!" 



56 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



5* 



THE 
DAKIN5 




■£88?. 



i i 











Proven Performance with 7,000 Controller® Packages 
now being used by satisfied customers. 

Specially designed for users who have no prior computer or 
accounting knowledge. 

Fast, technical support for you through nation wide, toll-free 
lines to our Customer Service Department. 

Simple, all programs are menu driven with built in fail safe 
protection that allows error free operations. 

A total system approach with add-on packages that allow 
you to meet all your business needs. 

There is other business application software on the market 
all claiming it is the best. But, only the Dakin5 Controller 
Package has recently won the International Computer Pro- 
grams (ICP) Award for one million dollars in sales the first 
year on the market. 

The new Controller® 1.1 is a comprehensive accounting 
system comprised of Accounts Payable, Accounts Receiv- 
able and General Ledger. It has improved processing 
speed, requires less disk swapping and is printer inde- 
pendent. It's fail safe and error free, which makes The 
Controller ideal for the businessman who wants maximum 
output with no worry. The Controller package shortens 
bookkeeping time, allows for easy tracing of transactions 
thanks to audit trails, and warns of data entry errors via 
"audio beeps". The Controller also protects the user from 
losing important business information by automatically 
making a back-up copy of all operational data after posting. 
The Controller prints statements and checks and gener- 
ates all reports necessary for the running of a successful 
business. The reports are so complete it's more like having 
an accountant 24 hours a day than a computer system. All 
of these features make The Controller software the best 
accounting package for your business. 

What makes The Controller Package even better is 
The Analyzer® Package. The Controller 
software was developed to serve 
as an operational aid. 



The Analyzer is a simple to operate management tool 
which utilizes The Controller as a data base. Little or no 
operator time is required and information is produced 
automatically that would be virtually impossible to gen- 
erate manually. The Analyzer produces 16 decision mak- 
ing reports which allow for the comparison of business 
activities on a monthly, quarterly, and yearly basis. These 
include The Cash Flow Report which projects the amount 
of money available for the next 4 months, allowing for 
realistic decisions for the use of available cash. Because 
all financial information used by The Analyzer is produced 
by The Controller, tighter control can be exercised and 
immediate decisions can be made if the results are not as 
planned. 

Dakin5 isn't stopping with only these products designed for 
the business. The following will be available in late Summer 
or early Fall. 

• The Controller's Bookkeeper™ Package 

• The Controller Interfacer™ Manual 

• The Depreciation Planner™ Package 

• The Visualizer™ Package 

• The Budget Planner™ Package 

Dakin5 is committed to helping you solve the right prob- 
lems. That's the Dakin5 difference. 

For more information see your local Apple Retailer or con- 
tact Dakin5 Corporation at P.O. Box 21187, Denver, CO 
80221 , Phone: 800 525-0463. 

The Controller, The Analyzer, The Controller Interfacer, The Controller's 
Bookkeeper, The Depreciation Planner, The Visualizer and The 
Budget Planner are trademarks of Dakin5 Corporation. 
Apple is trademark of Apple Computer Inc. 
The Controller is marketed by Apple 
Computer Inc. 

©1981 DAKIN5 
CORP 



\oH 






CIRCLE 1 27 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



SuperSoft's 

Gallery off CP/M Maste 





V % 



orkj§ 



Programming Languages 

FORTH 

FORTRAN IV 

RATFOR 

BASIC 

TINY' PASCAL 

System Maintenance 

Diagnostics II 
Diagnostics I 
DISK DOCTOR 

Utilities 

Utility Pack #1 
Utility Pack #2 

Text Processing 

TFS 
Super-M-List 

Software Security 

Encode/Decode II 
Encode/Decode I 

intercommunications 

TERM 
TERM II 

Entertainment 

ANALIZA 
NEMESIS 
Dungeon Master 
(For use with Nemesis) 

Miscellaneous 

Z8000 Cross-Assembler 
"C" Cross-Compiler 
(Z8000 Target) 



Disk/Manual Only 

$200/20 

$200/20 

$225/25 

$100/NA 

$200/25 

$ 85/10 

$100/15 
$ 75/15 
$100/15 

$ 60/NA 
$ 60/NA 



$ 85/15 
$ 75/10 

$100/20 
$ 50/20 

$150/15 
$200/15 

$ 35/NA 
$ 40/NA 
$ 35/NA 



$500/25 
$500/25 




A Complete Networking/Intercommunications Package 

TERM allows the CP/M user to communicate with 
other CP/M based systems or with remote timesharing 
computers. TERM supports file transfers between both 
timesharing systems and between CP/M systems. 

TERM equals or exceeds comparable programs in 
power and flexibility, but costs less, delivers more and 
source code is provided on discette! 

With TERM you can send and receive ASCII, HEX 
and COM files. You also have a conversational mode, 
and a timesharing terminal emulator. Below is a partial 
list of features: 

• Engage/disengage printer • terminal emulator 

• auto error checking with re-try 

• conversational mode 

• send files • receive files 



requires 32K CP/M and a minimal knowledge of assembly language 
programming. 

TERM is supplied with source and user manual: $150.00 
Manual only: $15.00 




: 



TERM 




Many programs include SuperSoft's online "HELP" system! 



SUPERDISKS FOR SALE! 

SuperSoft Has Great Prices on Blank Discettes 

SuperSoft sought out and found a discette that 
met our high standards. In the software distribution 
business we needed a discette that was reliable, 
sturdy, durable, and inexpensive We wanted no data 
errors on any discette that we shipped. 

• Guaranteed 

• Data density in excess of 3200 b.p.i. 

• Approved by Shugart, Persci, Qume. Remex, others 

• Operating temperature: 50-120 degrees Fahrenheit 
Discette type | price per box 

Single Sided Single Density: 

Soft sectored IBM compatible 8": $30.00 

10 hard sectors 5K": $30.00 

16 hard sectors 5Y 4 ": $30.00 

Single Sided Double Density: 

Soft sectored IBM compatible 8": $35.00 

10 hard sector 5%": $35.00 

16 hard sector 5%": $35.00 

*Add $15.00 for Double Sided Discettes 

Illinois residents add 5% 
Add $1 .00 shipping per box 

All SUPERDISKS are sold only in lots of 10 Each comes with jackets and box All orders must be pre- 
paid or COD Generally we ship from stock, with arrival times running about 8-10 days 



For complete information on these and all other 
SuperSoft products, please write for our free catalogue. 

All software can be supplied on the following media: 
CP/M formats ... 8" sft sectored, 5" Northstar, 
5" Micropolis Mod II, Vector MZ, Superbrain DD/QD, 
Apple II + 



All Orders and General Information: 

SUPERSOFT ASSOCIATES 

P.O. BOX 1628 

CHAMPAIGN, IL 61820 

(217) 359-2112 

Technical Hot Line: (217) 359-2691 




(answered only when technician is available) 



•CP/M REGISTERED TRADEMARK DIGITAL 
RESEARCH 

SSS FORTRAN is the copyright of 

Small Systems Services, Urbana, Illinois 



24 hour express service available! 



SuperSoft 



First in Software Technology 



CIRCLE 267 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Pricmg $uDi»ct to change without notice 



The HP-83 







ireotiue 
computing 
equipment 
euDluntion 



• 



Workbench Wonder 



David Lubar 



\ 



First Impressions 

There seems to be a trend these days 
to view the new line of small computers 
as nothing but expensive toys or smart 
games. Whether or not such opinions are 
justified, there is ho way that the HP-83 
Personal Computed from Hewlett-Packard 
could fall prey to this description. Other 
computers from the HP Series 80 have 
graced the workbenches of scientists and 
engineers for years, performing heavy- 
duty number crunching with smooth 
reliability. The HP-83 seems to be extending 
the attraction beyond the realm of science 
into the business world, offering an expand- 
able system with a variety of add-on devices 
and a promise of good software support. 
Let's start with the main unit. 

The computer is an all-in-one unit of 
the form that is becoming popular these 
days. The console contains the computer 
circuitry, a full keyboard with numeric 
keypad, a small display screen, and slots 
for connecting peripheral devices. The 
entire unit is housed in a sturdy, attractive 
plastic case. Installation is simple. The 
user merely sets a switch for the correct 
voltage and inserts one fuse. The 83 is 
now ready to run. The 300-page manual 
begins by explaining the calculator mode. 
Problems are entered in standard fashion; 
no PRINT statement is required to produce 
the answer. The full range of arithmetic. 




algebraic and trigonometric operators is 
available, with radian or degree mode for 
trig calculations. Variables are allowed, 
making any series of calculations a simple 
task. There is also a RESULT key which 
prints the result of the most recent opera- 
tion. 



While the math 

capabilities will delight 

the scientist, the 83 also 

has much to offer the 

businessman. 



So far, none of this is extraordinary; 
one can do the same things on a pocket 
calculator. But the manual goes on to 
explain editing techniques. It is here that 
the first taste of HP magic appears. Let's 
say the expression 5 + 7 is entered. On 
hitting the ENDLINE key, the answer 12 
will appear. Now, using the up arrow, the 



cursor can be moved over the 5. If it is 
changed to a 6 and ENDLINE is pressed 
again, the computer will produce the 
correct answer for the new equation. In 
other words, changes can be entered 
without recopying the entire line. With 
another keystroke, one can enter the insert 
mode, allowing longer portions to be placed 
into existing expressions. 

Getting Down to Basics 

The experienced programmer will be 
able to use the 83 almost immediately. It 
uses a fairly standard form of Basic. 
Beginners will find the manual clear and 
helpful, with many sample programs and 
comprehensive explanations of all func- 
tions, statements, and operations. 

The full-size keyboard and crisp video 
display make programming a pleasure on 
the 83. The small 5 1/2" screen is limited 
to 16 lines of 32 characters, but the letters 
are remarkably clear. Information that 
has scrolled past the top of the screen 
can be retrieved with the ROLL key. The 
three most recent screen displays are stored 
in memory and can be rolled into view at 
any time. While lines are limited to 32 
characters, an expression can be up to 95 
characters in length, and multiple state- 
ments are allowed. 

The keyboard abounds with special keys, 
including LIST, PAUSE, CONT, a STEP 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



59 



r 



HP-83, continued... 



^ 



HP PLOTTER 



PLOT OF TEMPERATURE VS. TIME 





8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 
HOURS 



Figure 1. Products of the plotter. 



control which is handy for debugging, 
and AUTO which provides automatic line 
numbering for Basic programs. Other 
wonders include a built-in command for 
renumbering parts or all of a program; 
special math constants such as pi, epsilon, 
and infinity; nesting of up to 255 loops; 
and user-definable multi-line functions. 
There are also eight special keys which 
can be used to control program flow. The 
keys can be labeled and the labels can be 
displayed at the bottom of the screen. 
The keys are used with statements such 
as ON KEY# 1 GOTO 500 or ON KEY# 
5 GOSUB 2000. 

The 83 has three timers which can be 
used for program interruption or branching. 
Internal time is set in a rather bizarre 
fashion. The user specifies the number of 
seconds since midnight. The time can be 
recalled and displayed, but the user who 
desires any standard information such as 
hours or minutes must include the neces- 
sary calculations in his program. 

While the math capabilities will delight 
the scientist, the 83 also has much to 
offer the businessman. The Basic includes 
all the essential functions, including POS, 
LEN, VAL$, and LEN, as well as a PRINT 
USING which, combined with the IMAGE 
command, allow for powerful formatting 
capabilities. Moving beyond text and 
numbers, we get to the area where the 
HP-83 really shines. 

Picture Perfect 

The graphics display of the 83 has a 
resolution of 256 horizontal by 192 vertical 



pixels. Combine this resolution with an 
expansive set of graphics commands and 
the result is a system with astounding 
capabilities. Again, the manual does an 
admirable job of explaining everything. 
To start, one can scale the screen, with 
independent control of the range for each 
coordinate. For example, the statement 
SCALE -10, 10, 0, 1000 defines a coordinate 
area from -10 to 10 on the X axis and 
from to 1000 on the Y axis. There are 
commands for drawing the actual axes, 
and for placing tic marks on each axis. 
XAXIS 0, .5 will place the X axis at Y 
value and put a tic mark each .5 unit 
along the line. The spacing for the tic 
marks is relative to the defined scale. 

In a manner similar to turtle graphics, 
the user can control whether the pen is 
up or down, and move the pen to any 
location on the screen. Graphics, charts, 
and shapes are very easy to produce in 
this manner. Beyond mere graphics, the 
user can label any section with either 
horizontal or vertical lettering. For more 
complex applications, figures can be 
defined and placed on the screen. These 
figures are defined as strings where the 
value of each byte in the string represents 
a set of eight pixels. To design a figure, 
the user must first plot a grid containing a 
binary representation where each 1 repre- 
sents a pixel to be plotted and each 
represents no change. The binary sequence 
is converted to decimal and concatenated 
into a string. This string is used in a BPLOT 
statement which places the figure on the 
screen. 



Expansion 

The HP-83 has four interface slots in 
the rear. These accept accessories such 
as ROMs, extra RAM, and peripheral 
connectors. The unit comes with 16K of 
RAM. An additional 16K can be added 
by sliding the appropriate cartridge into 
any of the four slots. The nice part of 
these slots is that no special addressing is 
required from the user. The computer is 
smart enough to know what is plugged in 
and doesn't have to be told which slot 
contains the extra RAM. Another special 
cartridge is available which can hold up 
to six ROMs. The ROMs are required for 
special applications and for use with certain 
peripherals. Here the picture begins to 
get a bit complicated. While the system is 
designed for modularity, and while per- 
ipherals are available, the user can become 
slightly bogged down in a flood of manuals. 
ROMs, and cables. 

For example, the following indicates 
what a user might go through when hooking 
up a disk drive. The drive is a double- 
density double sided unit for mini-floppy 
diskettes. It comes with its own power 
supply, and a switch for proper line voltage. 
To use it, the Mass Storage ROM must be 
installed. This ROM comes with a booklet 
explaining installation of the chip and 
operation of the disk. Once the ROM is 
installed, one must connect the drive to 
the computer. This requires the HP Inter- 
face Module, which plugs into the back 
of the computer. The module comes with 
a cable that attaches to the back of the 
drive. The rear of the cable plug contains 



60 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




him 

with 



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Other chapters include discussions on microcomputer 
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Over 600,000 microcomputers will be installed during 



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Webster's MICROCOMPUTER BUYER'S GUIDE 

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HP-83, continued... 

another opening so a series of devices 
can be chained to one interface. There 
are two manuals accompanying the Inter- 
face Module. Another manual comes with 
the drive, but this just covers initial set-up 
and disk care. The programming infor- 
mation is all in the manual that comes 
with the Mass Storage ROM. Once every- 
thing is attached and all the essential 
information has been ferretted out, the 
drive works fine. Disks must be initialized, 
which takes about two minutes. Each disk 
can hold an impressive 286K of data. 
Besides storing programs, the disk has a 
special command for saving the graphics 
screen. Thus an often-used format, such 
as a coordinate grid, can be saved and 
retrieved for later applications. Both 
random and serial access of data files are 
allowed, as well as array storage. 

Though the installation procedure seems 
slightly complicated, there is actually an 
advantage to this sort of configuration. 



By having a ROM 

handle the disk 

communication, there is 

no wait for booting. 



By having a ROM handle the disk com- 
munication, there is no wait for booting. 
The disk is always available for access. 
Neither is there a chance of losing the 
operating system through disk failure. All 
of the crucial software is safely locked in 
the ROM. It should be mentioned that 
the drive is not exactly silent. There is a 
constant low-pitched whirr somewhat 
reminiscent of a car idling or a muted 
helicopter. While it takes a while to get 
used to this, the noise isn't really distract- 
ing. 

Plot Lines 

Another peripheral, and truly a nice 
piece of work, is the graphics plotter. As 
with the disk drive, interfacing the plotter 
requires a bit of patience and reading; a 
Printer-Plotter ROM and Interface Module 
are required. Again, instructions are 
somewhat scattered through several man- 
uals. In contrast to the HP-83 manual, the 
plotter instructions aren't too clear. While 
examples are given, not enough specific 
instructions are included to allow for easy 
programming. Still, with a bit of experi- 
mentation, one can get wonderful results 
from the device. 

The manuals contain sample programs 
with extensive remarks, but certain things 
are lacking. Parameters for some com- 



mands, as well as necessary syntax, are 
not covered in any depth. Throughout 
the manuals, there are hints of the many 
features of the plotter. It contains several 
character sets, allows user-defined char- 
acters and different size characters, and 
can place special symbols at vector points 
on graphs. The unit itself is compact and 
attractive. The front contains a series of 
buttons including PEN UP, PEN DOWN, 
arrows to move the pen, and CHART 
LOAD for moving the arm out of the way 
and installing a sheet of paper. There is 
also a CONFIDENCE TEST button which 
performs a test of the mechanical and 
electronic functions of the plotter. A sample 
output, taken from the cartoid program 
in the HP-83 Programming Guide, is shown 
in Figure 1. The lettering at the top is 
from one of the internal character sets. 

Since it is likely that many of those 
who purchase plotters won't have the time 
to develop software, there is probably a 
good chance that specialized software will 
appear, allowing the HP-83 owner to make 
full use of this peripheral without the bother 
of programming. One such program is 
already available. 

Software 

One of the most popular and useful 
programs for small computers, Visicalc, 
comes on disk for the 83. This software is 
a natural companion for the HP-83, espe- 
cially when combined with the additional 
plotting programs that resulted in the 
package being called Visicalc Plus. Visicalc 
files can be displayed as line charts, fitted 
curves, pie charts or bar charts, giving 
businessmen and scientists a powerful tool 
for graphic output. The program was 
slightly unfriendly to the user at one point. 
If it doesn't find a suitable data file for 
plotting, it offers a choice of either viewing 
the disk catalog or loading a data file. 
This can turn into an infinite loop if the 
right data file isn't available. Luckily, reset 
solves such problems. The manual for 
Visicalc is extensive and full of good 
examples. 

The Bottom Line 

The HP-83 is a sophisticated tool, with 
many capabilities. It is well designed and 
supported by a company with a good 
reputation. Anyone who requires complex 
number crunching or detailed business 
calculations should consider this computer 
as a serious alternative to expensive mini 
computers. The computer with 16K of 
RAM costs $2250, dual disk drives start 
at $2500, the plotter is $2450, the Interface 
Module is $395, and the ROMs for mass 
storage and for the plotter are $145 each. 
Finally, Visicalc Plus costs $200. 

For more information, contact Hewlett- 
Packard, 100 N.E. Circle Blvd., Corvallis, 
OR 97330. □ 



62 



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itiue 



creai 

computing 
equipment 
evaluation 



The NEC 



PC-8 



III 



1 



David Lubar 

More for Your Money 

The new generation of computers seems 
to be splitting into two trends. One phi- 
losophy is to give consumers a lower- 
priced alternative. Examples of this include 
the Sinclair ZX80, the VIC-20, and the 
TRS-80 Color Computer. These products 
offer an opportunity to explore the world 
of computing with a small initial investment. 
The other philosophy is to produce com- 
puters in the same price range as the 
older models while offering more features. 
The NEC America PC-8000 series falls 
into this category. With high-resolution 
color graphics, mixed text and graphics 
on the same screen, a character set 
including graphics symbols, an eighty- 
column color display with upper and lower 
case, Microsoft Basic, a set of user- 
definable keys, full keyboard with numeric 
keypad, and a Centronics-compatible 
parallel interface, the NEC is advertised 
as "the end of the compromise." Whether 
this is true remains to be seen, but the 
computer seems promising, and it could 
have a good future in this crowded field. 

This review will concentrate on the 
computer and video monitor. The disk 
drive and other peripherals will be covered 
at a later date. The unit is supplied with 
24K of ROM (expandable to 32K), includ- 
ing Basic, and 32K of RAM. With system 
overhead, the amount of user RAM actually 
comes to a bit over 26K. But, when you 
consider that only 3K is required for screen 
display, there is plenty of memory left for 

CREATIVE COMPUTING 




programs. The rear of the unit contains 
interfaces for cassette, color monitor, 
monochrome monitor, and parallel and 
serial connections. 



One of the first things 

to notice about the NEC 

is the well-designed 

editing function. 



When you turn the computer on, it 
displays a greeting message letting you 
know that everything is ready to go. At 
the bottom of the screen, five boxes display 
the current contents of the definable keys. 
More on that later. 

Ease and Power 

One of the first things to notice about 
the NEC is the well-designed editing 
functions. One can move the cursor to 
any part of the screen, make a change in 
a statement, and register the change by 
hitting return. An insert/delete key allows 
one to remove unwanted characters or 
make space for additional characters. The 
only problem is that with both these 
functions on one key, it's easy to delete a 
character by mistake. If a key is depressed 
for more than one second, it will automati- 
cally begin repeating. This comes in handy 
for moving the cursor across the screen. 



The keyboard, though labeled only with 
alphanumerics, also offers a graphics 
character set and a Greek character set. 
The graphics characters, which include 
boxes of various sizes, card suits, and 
arcs, can be accessed either by using the 
graphics key, or through the proper CHR$ 
value from Basic. The Greek set is also 
obtained either through a special key or 
through Basic control. This set does not 
correspond to the English letter keys, but 
appears in order across the keyboard, 
with alpha on the Q key, beta on the W, 
gamma on the E, and so on. The full 
lower-case set is available; a limited upper- 
case set is obtained from part of the bottom 
row of keys. 

The Basic is by Microsoft, and contains 
a few extra commands not found in many 
existing computers. Beside the usual string 
functions, there is INSTR, which returns 
the postion of a substring within another 
string. IF.. .THEN. ..ELSE statements are 
allowed. There is a SWAP command which 
exchanges the values of two variables. 
This could be very useful when doing 
sorting. LINE INPUT allows up to 255 
characters, including commas, to be 
entered into a string. TIMES can be used 
to return the value of the internal clock, 
and DATES gives the currently entered 
date. AUTO line numbering is available 
and there is a fast renumber command. 
There are four types of variables; string, 
integer, single precision, double prescision 
(with 17 significant digits), as well as multi- 
dimensional numeric and string arrays. In 
essence, the NEC has a powerful and 
useful version of Basic which the exper- 



65 



r 



NEC PC-8001, continued... 

ienced programmer can use immediately 
and the beginner can learn quickly. 

There are five definable keys which, 
combined with the shift key, allow for ten 
functions. The functions are defined as 
strings and definitions can be concatenated, 
allowing one to tack a return onto the 
end of a key command. Two-finger typists 
will especially appreciate this feature, since 
one can obtain a LIST or RUN a program 
with a single keystroke. 

One overall impression of the system is 
that it is designed for flexibility. Many of 
the configuration commands for the display 
have three or four parameters, making 
initial use slightly tricky, but offering 
powerful potential. For instance, the user 
has control of the number of rows and 
columns shown on the screen. The com- 
mand WIDTH 80,25 specifies 80 columns 
of text in 25 lines. The allowable column 
values are 80, 72, 40 and 36. There can be 
either 20 or 25 lines. When you change 
the format, the character size changes, 
thus a forty-column line makes as much 
use of the monitor as an eighty-column 
line. The CONSOLE command allows the 
user to set the top and length of the scroll 
window, switch the display of function 
keys on or off, and switch from color to 
black and white. 

Graphic Delight 

This brings us to the highlight of the 
NEC. The graphics, with eight colors and 
maximum resolution of 160 by 100, has 
the potential to produce excellent displays. 
Graphics and text can be mixed on the 
screen, allowing such diverse things as 
labeled graphs, captioned pictures, and 
score displays for games. Changing the 
width of the screen changes the resolution, 
allowing for low-resolution graphics. Indi- 
vidual plotting points can be turned on 
with the PSET command and turned off 
with PRESET. This works well for doing 
graphs. Another command draws a filled 
or unfilled box with either graphics points 
or text characters. More complex graphics, 
such as drawing shapes, can be accom- 
plished using the GET and PUT com- 
mands. GET captures a rectangular portion 
of the screen display in an array. PUT 
places the display on the screen. While 
this allows for animation, the slow speed 
with which PUT works in Basic leads me 
to believe that most animation programs 
for the NEC will be in machine language. 

Speaking of machine language, the 
computer can be programmed in Z-80 
code. While there is no built-in assembler, 
one can enter code with POKE commands, 
or enter bytes directly into the monitor. 
The machine-language monitor is accessed 
with the MON command. This gives the 
user eight options: set or display values in 
memory; load, verify or save a tape; 
execute a machine-language routine; per- 



form a memory test; or return to Basic. 
It's nice to see that NEC isn't trying to 
lock any secrets away from the user. 

All this and More 

The NEC can also function in a terminal 
mode, allowing it to communicate with 
other devices over an RS-232C interface. 
In this mode, the function keys control 
such features as full or half duplex. This 
capability is built into the machine and 
requires no additional software. 



Many of the 

configuration 

commands for the 

display have three or 

four parameters, 

making initial use 

slightly tricky, but 

offering powerful 

potential. 



A cassette interface is included with 
the computer. Programs are saved with a 
filename, and must be loaded using that 
name. One can determine the names of 
files on a tape by requesting the computer 
to load a dummy file. It will display the 
name of each file found as it searches the 
tape for the requested program. The tape 
interface worked perfectly. For additional 
peace of mind, a verify command is 
included which checks the contents of a 
tape against the contents in memory. The 
only problem with the system is that a 
LOAD command always clears memory, 
even if the requested file isn't found. Stilly 
any cassette operating system that doesn't 
produce tons of error messages deserves 
praise. 

On the negative side, there was one 
slight problem that occurred during testing. 
At times, a flicker would appear on the 
screen. This seemed to happen in two 
situations. If a listing was scrolling in the 
color mode, flashes of white dots would 
occasionally overlay a line or two. This 
also happened at one or two points while 
running some simple animation programs. 
The flicker resembled snow, but was limited 
to a small portion of the screen. The 
problem has nothing to do with the monitor, 
but seems to be related to the way the 
computer handles graphics. While it is 
slightly distracting, one gets used to it 
after a while. 



Only 3K is used for screen memory; 2K 
for character codes and IK for attributes 
such as color. The combination of low 
RAM usage with the ability to mix text 
and graphics introduces one limitation. 
After making twenty changes on any screen 
line, you lose control of color. From the 
twenty-first change onward, all points 
plotted on that line will be in the same 
color until some of the previous points 
are erased. But, except for people who 
like watching random-dot programs, this 
shouldn't be much of a limitation. 

The color graphics of the NEC are seen 
at their best on a good video monitor. 
The PC-8043 from NEC is a 12" color 
monitor with beautiful resolution. Text 
and graphics appear crisp and well-defined 
on the screen. Unfortunately, the monitor 
costs almost as much as the computer. 
Fortunately, the computer comes supplied 
with a standard cable and can be used 
with any color monitor. 

No one wants to buy a computer and 
then be unable to figure out how to use it. 
Fortunately, NEC seems to have spent a 
good deal of time making sure the docu- 
mentation was clear and thorough. The 
Basic Language Learning Guide is almost 
a textbook on programming, including 
explanations of all aspects of Basic and 
questions at the end of each chapter. The 
Microcomputer Reference Manual gives 
an overview of the hardware, explains 
initial set up of the computer and periph- 
eral, and gives capsule explanations and 
examples of all Basic commands and 
statements. 

NEC seems to realize that a computer 
can't make it on the market without good 
software support. They have an open policy 
which encourages software houses to 
develop programs for the computer. On 
the business side, there is a lot in the 
works, including word processing, engineer- 
ing packages, and utilities for stock fore- 
casting. For entertainment enthusiasts, 
there should be a flood of good games in 
the near future. The NEC is the number 
one selling computer in Japan, the country 
which gave us Space Invaders, Packman, 
Galaxian, and other goodies. One of the 
companies developing software for the 
NEC is Broderbund, whose arcade games 
for the Apple have been quite good. All 
in all, there should be no problem with 
software support. 

As mentioned, the NEC computer is 
competitively priced. The main unit costs 
$1295. A green display monitor is $285 
while the color model costs $1195. Expan- 
sion is a bit expensive but still competitive. 
A dual disk drive costs $1295. While it 
may not be the end of the compromise, 
the NEC American PC-8000 series could 
be the start of something big. NEC 
America, Inc. is located at 1401 Estes 
Ave., Elk Grove Village, IL 60007. □ 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



66 






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DJ. 'AT Systems Ltd., Ilminster, Somerset, TA19 9BQ. England 

Telephone: 04605-4117. Telex: 46338 ANYTYR G. 

CIRCLE 134 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



So You Want 
to Buy a Printer 



George Blank 



If I could borrow a time machine for a 
few hours, I would like to go back into 
the dark ages and find a monk who had 
spent his entire lifetime copying a few 
books. After a demonstration beginning 
with a small personal computer word 
processing system using an inexpensive 
printer, I would like to show him some of 
the wonders of modern printers. There 
are printers which print graphics in full 
color, band printers that can print 1000 
lines a minute across the full width of a 
five foot sheet of paper, and modern ink 
jet printers that can be used with compu- 
terized work stations to produce camera 
ready copy for a printing press. 

Of course, few people are going to have 
$200,000 to spend on a Xerox laser printer 
for their $200 Sinclair ZX-80 computer, 
but the extreme cases mentioned above 
illustrate the problem of selecting the right 
printer. There are hundreds of different 
models from which to choose, starting at 
less than $100. 

The most difficult part of selecting a 
printer is determining the features you 
need. There is no single "right" printer 
for everyone. Many features on some 
printers exclude other possible features. 
For example, it may be desirable to make 
one printer light and transportable, while 
another may have to be built solidly to 
stand up to industrial use. Yet each printer 
might be ideal for a certain personal 
computing application. 

Probably the best way to start looking 
for a printer is to draw up two lists. The 
first list is of things you must be able to 
do with your printer. The second one lists 
the things you would like to be able to do. 
Here is a sample pair of lists: 

Must List 
Line listings for programs 
Magazine articles 
Routine letters 
Interface to a TRS-80 Model I 

Want List 
Type envelopes for letters 
Formal letters 
Graphics for magazine articles 

Separating out the things you must have 
from the things you desire but can do 




without gives you much more flexibility. 
For example, the average person could 
satisfy the requirements of the must list 
above with a printer like the Epson MX- 
80 for $545, and gain TRS-80 graphics as 
well for the magazine articles. Insisting 
on the requirements in the want list could 
easily triple the cost, and make the search 
much more difficult. 



Printer Features 

Once you know what you want to use a 
printer for, the next step is to match your 
requirements against the features of com- 
monly available printers. The most basic 
differences between printers include print 
quality, paper feed, paper size, interfaces, 
noise, print speed, printer size and weight, 
special printing abilities, and price. 

Print Quality 

Probably the most important consider- 
ation after price for the average person is 
the quality of the printed output. This is 
primarily a function of the method used 
to form characters on the paper. The 
methods used, roughly in order of cost, 
are as follows: 

1) Thermal printing, in which heat is used 
to bring out an image on the paper. 

2) Electro-static printing, which uses a 
spark to do the same thing. 

3) Dot matrix impact printers which use 
magnets to fire pins against a ribbon to 
transfer ink onto the paper. 

4) Thimble, ball, or daisy wheel impact 
printers which work like a typewriter, 
pressing a fully formed letter against a 
ribbon to create a character. 

5) Ink jet printing, in which a precisely 
controlled, electrically charged stream of 
ink is sprayed on paper to create characters 
of a quality similar to commercial 
printing. 

In general, each category of printer 
creates better looking printing than the 
preceding category, and costs correspond- 
ingly more. There are currently no ink jet 
printers at prices that make them practical 
for use with personal computers. Eventually 
ink jet printer prices might come down as 
low as $10,000, which would pose a severe 



Axiom EX850 Screen Print. 



threat to phototypesetting, and open up 
many new options to personal computer 
owners. 

Fully formed character printers, 
including typeball printers such as con- 
verted IBM Selectric and Olivetti type- 
writers, thimble printers such as the NEC 
Spinwriter, and daisy wheel printers like 
the Diablo, Qume, and C. I ton Starwriter, 
range in price from a little under $2000 to 
over $4000. They are referred to as letter 
quality printers because their print quality 
is suitable for formal correspondence. 

The printers in the first three categories 
use the dot matrix method to form char- 
acters. That is, they construct a character 
out of a series of dots in a pattern shaped 
like the letter to be printed. If the pattern 
is five dots wide and seven dots high, the 
letter A might be formed like this: 



There is a large variety of dot matrix 
printers, and they have a wide range of 
print quality. As a purchaser, you will 
want to know the size of the dot matrix, 
which is related to the number of pins in 
the print head. With only a few pins, the 
print head will be less expensive and less 
prone to failure, since the failure of a 
single pin can make characters incomplete 
and tear up your ribbons and paper. On 
the other hand, with more pins and 
therefore more locations for dots, you 
can have more attractive characters. Most 
printheads have from five to nine pins. 
Five pins are adequate for roughly formed 
capital letters, seven pins allow lower case, 
and nine pins allow lower case with 
descenders. There are also tricks that allow 
descenders with only seven pins. If you 
want to evaluate the dot pattern of a dot 
matrix printer, pay particular attention to 
the lower case letter "j" since it should 
extend both above and below simpler letters 



68 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




The MX-100. Not just better. Bigger. 



Epson. 



Our MX-80 was a pretty tough act to follow. I mean, 
how do you top the best-selling printer in the world? 

Frankly, it wasn't easy. But the results of all our 
sleepless nights will knock your socks off. 

The MX-100 is a printer that must be seen to be be- 
lieved. For starters, we built in unmatched correspon- 
dence quality printing, and an ultra-high resolution bit 
image graphics capability. Then we added the ability to 
print up to 233 columns of information on 15" wide 
paper to give you the most incredible spread sheets 
you're ever likely to see. Finally, we topped it all off 
with both a satin- smooth friction feed platen and fully 
adjustable, removable tractors. And the list of standard 
features goes on and on and on. 

Needless to say, the specs on this machine — and 
especially at under $1000 — are practically unbelievable. 
But there's something about the MX-100 that goes far 



beyond just the specs; something about the way it all 

comes together, the attention to detail, the fit, the feel. 

Mere words fail us. But when you see an MX-100, you'll 

know what we mean. 

All in all, the MX-100 is the most remarkable printer 

we've ever built. Which creates rather a large prob- 
lem for those of us at 
Epson. 

How are we going to 
top this? 




Your next printer. 

EPSON 

EPSON AMERICA, INC. 



3415 Kashiwa Street • Torrance, California 90505 • (213) 539-9140 
See the whole incredible Epson MX Series of printers at your Authorized Epson Dealer. 

CIRCLE 256 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Printer, continued... 







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400 
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FUTURE 



PRESENT 




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a.'.-.-*v.'j.-*-. 



like the lower case a. Here are some of 
the patterns used for "j", along with a 
typical "a" for reference: 



The width of the dot pattern is also 
significant. Many printers have a fixed 
character width, with typewriter style 
spacing. These printers leave just as much 
space on the paper for an "i" as they do 
for a "w." Other printers have variable 
width characters, so that a "w" might be 
two and a half times as wide as an "i." 
Whether or not a printer offers proportional 
spacing, it may have a condensed or high 
density dot format, which allows adjacent 
dots to overlap for more attractively formed 
characters. 

If you are going to use a printer for 
letters or articles to be read by other 
people, you will probably want true decen- 
ders, preferably in a format that dots the j 
above the level of the lower case "a," 
with high density dots. Proportional spacing 
is significantly more attractive than type- 
writer spacing. 

Other differences between the three 
types of dot matrix printers concern the 
type of paper. Thermal and electrostatic 
printers use special paper, which often 
costs considerably more than plain paper 
and is harder to find. Electrostatic paper 
is covered with a thin covering of aluminum 
which burns off to display dark paper 
underneath. The aluminized paper is very 
hard to read, but looks nice when photo- 
copied. 



1 2 3 4 3 6 7 S 10 12 14 16 13 20 22 24 
HOURS OF THE DAY 



The Centronics 739. 




Paper Feed 

How paper is pulled through the printer 
can make a major difference in the cost 
of a printer. The common options are 
friction feed, pin feed, and tractor feed. 
Friction feed simply pulls paper through 
like a typewriter. This is ideal for using 
stationary, envelopes, and ordinary sheets 
of paper. If you do examine a friction 
feed printer, check to see that the paper, 
even small pieces such as postcards is 
held firmly. Find out how many sheets of 
paper can fit in at once if you wish to use 
multipart forms. A rubber platen (the 
"roller") is better than steel, which is better 
than plastic. Some printers that have 
friction feed combined with tractor or 
pin feed, such as the NEC Spinwriter and 
Okidata M-82 have switches that turn off 
the printer when the paper is out. This 
can be a nuisance when working with 
small pieces like envelopes. Find out from 
the dealer how to override the switches. 

Tractor or pin feed printers require 
special paper with holes along the side 
margins. Pin feed usually has plastic pins 
around the ends of the paper roller to 
hold the paper, while a tractor is a paper 
feed mechanism which holds the paper 
both before and after it goes around the 
roller. Tractors are often removable, and 



almost always allow you to adjust for 
different widths of paper, while pin feed 
is usually built in and is seldom adjustable. 
Usually a tractor gives you the best 
registration, followed by pin feed, with 
friction feed giving poor registration. 
Registration is a technical term for position- 
ing a sheet of paper precisely so that a 
dot can go in exactly the right place. 
Registration is very critical in a graphics 
printer, especially for color graphics where 
the printhead may have to travel over 
the paper several times to print the different 
colors. Precise registration is also important 
when you are using superscripts and 
subscripts on a letter quality printer. 



Printing Width 

Another important consideration for a 
printer is the carriage width, which deter- 
mines paper size. I am aware of printers 
with carriage widths ranging from two 
inches to over five feet. Related to carriage 
size is the number of columns of type that 
the printer can print across the page. There 
are some general rules that might be helpful 
in choosing the right carriage width. 

A printer that is used for Basic line 
listings should print clearly at least as 
many columns across the page as appear 
on the screen to simplify debugging. 
Therefore an Atari needs at least 38 
columns across, an Apple II 40 columns, 
a TRS-80 Model III 64 columns, and a 
Heath H-89 80 columns. 

A printer used for letters needs to accept 
8 1/2" paper with 72 to 80 columns across. 
A printer used for business or financial 
reports needs to print 132 columns across, 
as much financial software is set up this 
way. 

Interfacing Your Printer 

Of critical importance to you is that 
the printer you select be able to connect 
to your computer. In most cases, this is 
simple. The majority of printers come 



70 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




IMAGINE a computer printer/electronic 
typewriter with a 100 character daisy wheel, 
controlled by 6 microprocessors (including 
2 Z-80's) with an all-electronic keyboard...all 
in one machine! 
THATS INCREDIBLE! 
THAT'S THE TYPRINTER 221! 

AUTOMATICALLY, IT WILL: 

Center copy. 

Line up decimal points. 

Print vertical lines (to separate columns). 

Layout columns. 

Center titles (over a column). 

Print flush right. 

Return carriage (at end of line). 

Paper feed to pre-set starting point. 

Indicate end of page. 

Set tabs from one to many. 

Clear tabs from one to all. 

Set temporary margins (wherever you like) 

as often as needed. 
Repeat all typing keys as needed. 
Underline copy. 
Print bold face and underline. 
Do reverse print (white on black), 

sort of "reverse Video". 
Allow alphabetic and decimal tabulation. 
Indent paragraphs. 
Store in non-volatile resident memory: 

Often used line formats (margins & 

tab stops). 
Often used phrases (up to 835 characters) 

in 10 "bins". 

Up \o 10 complete forms (tax, 
medical, insurance, etc.). 
Up to 14,000 characters in an 
additional 26 "bins*". 
Print perfectly spaced proportional letters. 
Return to typing position after correction 
with relocation key. 

Allow one character to overlap another (0). 
Right margin justification. 
Print two columns with both right and left 
margins justified and the center ragged. 
Lift off errors (from single character to 
entire line). 

♦Optional at extra cost. 

CIRCLE 190 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



IT WILL EVEN: 

Allow a carriage return without a linefeed or 

a linefeed without a carriage return. 
Allow you to pre-set an impression 

control for high-quality carbon copies. 
Allow both vertical and horizontal 

half-spacing. 
Allow cancellation of copy before printing. 
Allow express and normal backspacing. 
Print in four different sizes: 10 pitch pica, 

12 pitch elite, 15 pitch micron. 
Allow insertion of a missing character 

in an already printed line. 
Accept paper up to 1 7" wide. 




Backspace 1/10, 1/12, 1/15 or even 1/60 

of an inch. 
Buffer and print out one word at a time, or 

one line or as many as 10 pages*. 
Print up to 198 columns. 
Do 1/2 line spacing for footnotes and 

scientific notation. 
Accepts carbon film or reusable nylon 

ribbons. 

IT HAS: 

A lighted key to inform you that it's set to 

temporary margin. 

A factory installed noise reduction shield. 
A 16K buffer/automatic spooler*. 
A lighted key to indicate upper case only. 
A Centronics standard parallel interface 

and can be ordered with: 

RS-232 Serial interface* or 
IEEE (PET) interface*. 



A print speed of 20 cps and (because of 
logic seeking circuitry) a through-put of 
approx. 32 cps. 

A built-in anti-glare shield. 

IT EVEN HAS: 

Carbon film ribbons in various colors. 
20 character plasma readout that informs 

you as to: 

Number of characters to end of line. 

Number of lines left to end of page. 

The existence of an error condition. 

The contents of a memory "bin". 

Number of characters left in buffer. 
An automatic "feature in use" indicator 

(centering, storage, etc.) 
With scrolling, both FORWARD and 

BACKWARDS. 

INCREDIBLE? 

THE 221 OFFERS EVEN MORE! 

It's totally compatible with all computers 
and software. 

It will print in English, French, Spanish, 
Italian and German. It will automatically 
switch between English and foreign 
keyboards*. (Under computer control). 

Scientific, mathematic, financial and legal 
daisy wheels available*. 

Tractor feed available*. 

Can be used as a stand-alone terminal*. 

Can be used to access both TWX and 
TELEX networks*. 

TRY WHAT YOU VE BEEN MISSING. 
TRYTHE INCREDIBLE MACHINE. 
TRY THE TYPRINTER 221. 

Suggested price $2850.00 

Dealer inquiries invited. 
(Call for store nearest you). 

Service available through the world-wide 
facilities of the Olivetti Corporation. 

HOWARD 
INDUSTRIES 

2051 E. CERRITOS AVE., 8-C 

ANAHEIM, CA 92806 

714/778-3443 




Printer, continued... 




The Epson MX- 100. 

with either parallel or RS 232C serial 
interfaces. Most computers will support 
one of these. For the Apple II, you need a 
printer card. The TRS-80 Model III has a 
parallel port built in, and the dual disk 
version comes with a serial port as well. 
The Model I expansion interface has a 
parallel port, with a serial board available, 
and it is also possible to get a parallel 
cable that will work without the expansion 
interface. With the Atari computers, you 
should have their expansion interface, 
although it is possible to buy a cable from 
Macrotronics that will plug directly into 
the joystick ports. The PET and CBM 
present a problem, as they require an IEE 
488 interface, which few printers offer. 
Most S-100 computers have both parallel 
and serial boards available. The important 
thing about interfaces is to be certain 
that you have everything needed to get 
your computer to work with your printer. 

Noise 

Noise is another consideration in choos- 
ing a computer. Some printers are so noisy 
that it is uncomfortable to share an office 
with them. This is particularly true of 
letter quality, heavy duty, and high speed 
printers. Sound proofing and shielding may 
be available to make it quieter. If you are 
going to be working in the same room as 
a printer, I recommend checking out the 
noise level first. If you select by product 
specifications, 70 decibels is about as much 
noise as I would want in an office. 

Speed 

Printing speed is a subtle feature that is 
hard to evaluate until it is too late and 
you have already bought a printer that 
may be too slow. Creative Computing has 
a high speed industrial printer hooked up 
to the PDP 11/34 computer that processes 
our mailing list. It still takes us 10 hours 
every month just to print out the mailing 
labels for the magazine subscribers. I 
currently have two printers in my office, 
sitting back to back. The Vista V300-25 is 
for letters. At 25 characters per second, it 



is much too slow for line listings or 
proofreading copies of my articles, so I 
use the Centronics 779 with a lower case 
kit for most printouts. My converted 
Selectric typewriter at home, with a print 
speed of 15 characters per second, is so 
slow that I usually bring most things to 
work to print them out. In general, anything 
below 60 characters per second is very 
slow, up to 100 characters per second is 
slow, and over 600 lines per minute is 
fast. However, it is hard to compare speed 
by specifications. A 25 cps Vista printer 
is actually faster than a 55 cps NEC 
Spinwriter on some material. Some printers, 
like the Epson series, have a logic seeking 
feature so that the printer ignores blank 
spaces for faster printing. 

Size 

Another sometimes overlooked printer 
feature is size. For the last three years, in 
three houses, my computers have taken 
over a full room of my house. Even at 
that, there is little table space. It can be 
hard finding a place for a 7" by 10" by 3" 
Radio Shack Quick Printer II, much less 
a 17" by 25" by 9" C. Itoh Starwriter. 



A printer that won't work 

with your computer is 

simply an expensive 

paper weight or 

boat anchor. 



Then you have to find room for the paper. 
The weight is also important. If you move 
a printer often, a 15 lb. Epson MX-80 is a 
lot easier to work with than a 60 lb. NEC 
Spinwriter. 

Special Features and Graphics 

Many printers offer special features. 
Some are just imitations of the things that 
can be done with a typewriter, such as 
underlining, superscripts, and subscripts. 
Other features such as boldface and double 
size or condensed characters go beyond 
the abilities of a typewriter. Then there 
are special features to increase speed and 
convenience, such as bidirectional printing 
and a memory buffer to hold characters 
yet to be printed. If you need special 
character sets, they are available for many 
printers, and some printers even allow 
you to define your own characters. 

Graphics are another special feature of 
many printers. Graphics abilities on dif- 
ferent printers range from the inclusion 
of the TRS-80 Models I and III graphics 
characters on several Epson printers and 



PET graphics characters on the CBM 2023 
printer to the high resolution, high quality, 
dot-oriented graphics on Integral Data's 
Paper Tiger series to full color graphics 
on several printers in the $5,000 price 
range. 

Service 

I would not recommend buying any 
printer before you ask about service. Some 
companies charge $200 just to look at 
your printer, with parts and time over 
two hours extra. There is also an unfortu- 
nate tendency in the computer industry 
to blame all problems on the other parts 
of the system. The guy who wrote the 
software blames the guy who designed 
the Computer, who points the finger back 
at the programmer. The company that 
builds the printer often blames both. My 
converted Selectric typewriter is a night- 
mare to service, because it was built by 
two different companies, and I don't know 
where to turn first. On top of that, it 
needs service constantly at $50 to $75 per 
call. My estimate is that I have spent 3 
cents per page printed on maintenance 
for the SelectraPrint, while Creative 
Computing has printed out 20,000 pages 
on three Epson printers without a single 
service call. Epson claims print head life 
of 100 million characters and you can 
replace the head for $30. They also claim 
a mean time between failures of 5 million 
lines and a return rate less than 1/2 of 
one percent. 

I would also stay away from any com- 
pany that seems unwilling to offer advice 
about interfacing. A printer that won't 
work with your computer is simply an 
expensive paper weight or boat anchor. 

The one factor that puts all the others 
in perspective is cost. If all you need is a 
cheap printer to check your line listings, 
expect to pay from $100 to $400. A good 
quality, quiet, dot matrix printer (remember 
to look for lower case with true descenders) 
will cost $500 to $1 100. Good, dot address- 
able graphics printers cost $1,000 to $2,000. 
High speed dot matrix printers cost from 
$2,500 to $3,500. Letter quality printers 
start just under $2,000 and range upward 




The Epson MX-80F/T. 



72 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



past $4,000. Color graphics printers start 
around $5,000. 

Consider the cost of supplies when you 
are purchasing a printer, too. If you save 
$200 by buying an electrostatic printer, 
then spend 2 cents a copy extra on special 
paper, then spend 20 cents a copy at the 
local copy center making readable photo- 
copies to send to other people, you haven't 
saved much. Thermal paper is also expen- 
sive. We pay $4.50 for a 90' roll of paper 
for our Apple Silentype Printer, about 5 
cents a page. Ribbons can also be expen- 
sive, ranging from $1.50 for a long lasting 
typewriter ribbon for our Atari 820 printer 
to $6.95 for a ribbon for a Centronics 
printer good for about 20 very sharp pages 
(for magazine listings) or 2000 pages with 
the last few barely readable. Epson claims 
a ribbon life of 3 million characters. On 
letter quality printers, the ribbons can get 
very expensive. I pay $3 each for carbon 
film ribbons that last about 20 pages for 
my SelectraPrint, though most of the time 
I use cheaper cloth ribbons. 

Creative Computing covered a large 
number of printers in the July 1981 issue, 
with a comparison chart of features. The 
following list includes printers which have 
lower case descenders, take both tractor 
feed and single sheet paper, and offer 
graphics. The Axiom printer is also listed 
for its unique ability to read the television 
signal instead of using a printer port. 

Abbreviations: 

cpi = characters per inch 

cps = characters per second 

dpi = dots per inch (graphics) 

lpm = lines per minute 

hor. = horizontal 

ver. = vertical 



Epson MX-80FT $745 

MX-100 $995 
Impact dot matrix 

Plain paper, tractor and rubber platen, 80 
cps 

5, 8.25, 10, and 16.5 cpi Bidirectional 
Print 

Parallel interface standard 
Add for interfaces and cable: Apple $110, 
TRS-80 $35 (cable for expansion interface), 
PET (IEE-488) $80, RS 232 $100 (with 2K 
buffer $175) 
MX-80F/T 

40, 66, 80, and 132 columns (depending 
on character size) 

46 lpm with 80 characters (with 20 
characters, 105 lpm) 

15" x 12" x 5", 16 lbs. 

TRS-80 style character graphics 
MX-100 

68, 116, 136, 233 columns 

29 lpm with 136 characters 

23" x 13" x 5", 21 lbs. 

Dot addressable graphics, 60 dpi stan- 
dard, 120 dpi double density. 




The Integral Data Systems 460, 560 and 445. 



Epson America 

23844 Hawthorne Blvd. 

Torrance, CA 90505 



Centronics Model 739 $995 

Impact dot matrix 

8 1/2" plain paper 

Friction or pin feed 

80 to 132 columns (10 - 16.7 cpi) 

100 cps monospaced 

80 cps proportional 

Dot addressable graphics: 74 dpi hor. by 

72 dpi ver. 

Parallel interface 

RS-232C interface with 2K memory buffer 

available for $50 additional. 

Acoustic cover 



Centronics 
Hudson, NH 03051 



Microline 82A (not 82!) $799 

83A(not83!) $1195 

84 $1495 
Impact dot matrix 
5,8.3, 10, 12, 16.5 cpi 
Parallel and serial interfaces 
Current loop and IEE-488 (PET) interfaces 
at extra cost 

200 million character print head 
82 A - 8 1/2" plain paper 80 columns 

size 14" x 13" x 5" 
83 A and 84 15" paper 136 columns 

size 20" x 13" x 5" 
82 A and 83 A print at 120 cps 

Pin and friction feed 

TRS-80 style block graphics 
84 prints at 200 cps 

Tractor and friction feed 



72 hor. by 72 ver. dot addressable 
graphics 
Okidata 

1 1 1 Gaither Drive 
Mt. Laurel, NJ 08054 

Integral Data Paper Tiger 460 $ 1 395 

560 $1695 

Impact dot matrix 

460 - 1 1/4" to 9 1/2" plain paper 

560- 1 1/4" to 14 1/4" 

Tractor feed (Tiger Trax single sheet holder 

$17 extra) 

460 has 80 columns 

560 has 132 columns 

10, 12, 16.8 CPI 

Lower case with descenders 

84 dpi hor. & ver. Graphics. 

RS 232 and parallel interface 

560 has acoustic cover 

Integral Data Systems 

Milford NH 03055 

■ 

Axiom EX -850 Video Printer $1495 

Electrostatic dot matrix 

5" aluminized roll paper 

Friction feed 

Takes standard video input and prints 

exactly what is on the television screen 

350 - 650 dots per line hor. 

480 - 510 lines ver. 

Picture size 3.78 x 5 (normal) 3.78 x 10 

(high res.) 

Speed 13.5 seconds per screen normal, 27 

seconds high resolution. 

12 x 16 x 4 inches, 16 lbs. 

Axiom 

1014 Griswold Ave. 

San Fernando, CA 91340 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



73 




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I 



So You Want to Buy a Monitor 



George Blank 



The Great Monitor War took place 
about 9 months ago. Creative Computing's 
software department then had seven color 
computers, six television sets, and a Texas 
Instruments color monitor. The monitor 
went from system to system, in constant 
demand. There were times when it 
appeared that any one of our programmers 
would willingly have committed murder 
to obtain the monitor permanently. We 
decided that the time had come to investi- 
gate the monitors on the market. 

We have used one RGB color monitor 
from NEC; four NTSC color monitors 
from Texas Instruments, Heath/Zenith, 
Amdek, and Videcon; two black and white 
monitors from Leedex and Radio Shack; 
a green phosphor monitor from BMC; 
and the television set sold for use with the 
Radio Shack Color Computer; as well as 
several ordinary color and black and white 
television sets. 

Monitors provide significant advantages 
over TV sets, particularly when reading 
text. On a monitor, individual characters 
were much sharper and better defined 
than on a television set. The difference 
on NTSC color graphics was not nearly 
as pronounced, though the RGB monitor 
was outstanding. The difference between 
individual NTSC color monitors was not 
very significant, though our staff had a 
clear favorite. A technical discussion of 
the differences between a monitor and a 
television set appears separately with this 
article. 



Radio Shack Model I Monitor 

Not all monitors have the high bandwidth 
that characterizes a quality monitor. The 
Radio Shack TRS-80 Model I monitor is 
simply a 12" RCA television set without 
the tuner, the wave trap, and the speaker. 
Since a black and white signal does not 
have to carry as much information as a 
color signal, this is perfectly adequate for 
the Radio Shack computer. But it also 
means that a TRS-80 monitor is not suited 
to other computers. It will plug directly 
into the monitor output port on the Atari, 
but the picture is the worst I have ever 
seen on my Atari— even worse than cheap 
television sets. 



Leedex Video 100 

Another popular black and white mon- 
itor, the Leedex Video 100, is suitable for 
use with color computers. It gives clear 
and readable text. However, it is not suited 
for computers that output sound through 
the television speaker, such as the Atari 
and the Texas Instruments 99/4, since it 
has no speaker. The difference between 
this monitor and a television set is not 
great. Text on the $69 Bohsei television 
set I use with my Atari is almost as good, 
and the Bohsei has sound. 

BMC KG12C Green Phosphor Monitor 

The sharpest, clearest monitor I have 
used is the green phosphor BMC monitor 
we purchased with our LNW 80 computer. 



Actually, it is only sharp and clear when 
it is receiving the right video signal. The 
LNW 80 has two monitor outputs, one 
with a NTSC signal for color monitors, 
and one for black and white (green?) 
monitors. When I use the BMC monitor 
with the color port, the signal is much 
less clear. This suggests that it would not 
be good for an Atari, Apple, or other 
NTSC signal producing computer. Accord- 
ing to the specification sheet, this monitor 
has a bandwidth of 18 mHz. 

Heath/Zenith and TI Color Monitor 

It is the color monitors that really stand 
out. Of the four NTSC monitors we have, 
the Texas Instruments and Heath/Zenith 
appear to be identical except for the 
nameplate. The color scheme is black 
and silver— well matched to the TI 99/4. 
We have given the TI monitor several 
months of rugged and constant service, 
taking it to computer shows and carrying 
it from system to system, with no ill effects 
other than cosmetic. The pictures are 
clear and sharp, and our programmers 
have no complaints about it. The adjust- 
ment controls are located behind a panel 
on the top of the set, and are easy to use. 

Texas Instruments has withdrawn this 
monitor in favor of a 10" monitor that we 
have not tested. They cite as reasons the 
lower price and clearer display of the 
smaller set. The specifications are listed 
on the chart. The original monitor may 
still be purchased from Heath. 



76 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



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NEC 5610 SPINWRITER $2495 

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OKIOATA MICROLI NE-80 $ 399 

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Monitor, continued 





The TI/Heath/Zenith Monitor. 



Amdek's Color II monitor is an RGB version of the Color I 



Amdek Color Monitor 

Our staffs favorite monitor is the Amdek. 
It has picture quality about the same as 
the Heath, but it is smaller and lighter 
with the same 13" diagonal picture. It is 
attractively styled in a beige color that 
matches the Apple and is a little lighter 
than the Atari. This one has had about 
three months intensive use— again without 
problems. The adjustment controls are 
hidden behind a panel on the front of the 
set below the screen, a very convenient 
location that is easier to use than the 
Heath monitor. 

Videcon Monitor /Television Set 

The Videcon is a combination TV set 
and monitor. Like the other color monitors, 
it has a 13" diagonal picture. This seems 
to be about the ideal for computer use, 
for reasons related to the bandwidth. Since 
the number of dots on a screen is limited, 
a single dot on a larger set has to cover a 
wider area, and this tends to give a fuzzy 
picture, while a smaller screen can give 
much sharper and more distinct characters 
with the same number of dots. This is the 
secret of the clear display on the tiny 
monitor of the IBM 5110 computer. The 
Videcon seems to have a somewhat lower 
picture quality than the other monitors, 
only slightly better than a good color 
television. The controls are on the front 
and, with slide controls for color and tint, 
are even easier to use than the other 
monitors. Unfortunately, we have not been 
as satisfied with the colors obtained. 



The NEC 8043 Character Display 

The best color monitor we have used is 
the 12" RGB monitor that came with our 
NEC computer. Of course, the comparison 
is unfair, as this monitor is much more 
expensive, and has direct video input for 
each color, and cannot be used with the 
Apple, Atari, TI 99/4, and other NTSC 
computers. The color is clear and sharp, 
does not bleed into the other colors on 
the screen, and does not need tint and 
color adjustment. 

Radio Shacks TRS-80 Color Video Set 

The 13" television set that Radio Shack 
sells for use with their TRS-80 Color 
Computer appears to be a repackaged 
RCA XL- 100. It does not have a monitor 
input jack, and can only accept a broadcast 
video signal. The picture is of good quality, 
only slightly less adequate than the Videcon 
monitor. I have not been able to determine 
whether it is in fact a standard XL- 100 set 
or whether it has been modified for 
computer use. It is attractive, and with 
digital controls, looks especially good with 
the TRS-80 Color Computer. We have 
also enjoyed using it with the Apple and 
Atari. 

The Poor Man's Monitor 

If you are not satisfied with the reada- 
bility of your television set when typing 
text on your computer, there is another 
option. Several manufacturers sell green 
filters that go over your television screen. 



I consider them a significant help in making 
the screen easier to read and in reducing 
eyestrain from long periods at the com- 
puter. I would automatically equip any 
black and white monitor with one, and 
even like to keep one hinged on tape 
above a color set when I am typing in 
programs on the Atari and Apple. I just 
lift up the screen when I want to check 
the colors, or when I am using a program 
with graphics. My own set at home has 
one, and I have equipped our TRS-80 
Models I and III at Creative Computing 
with green screens. 

There are several different types, includ- 
ing some cut and shaped to fit the screen 
of the computer, some made of flexible 
film with a frame, and my favorite, the 
Green Screen, $19.95 from Quality Soft- 
ware Distributors, 11500 Stemmons 
Expressway, Suite 104, Dallas, TX 75229. 
It is made of thick hard plastic with beveled 
edges and held on with double sided tape. 
The green screen, designed for use with 
the TRS-80, comes in two sizes. The Model 
I version is 11" x 8 5/8" while the Model 
III version is 11 1/4" x 8 3/4". If you are 
using them with another monitor or tele- 
vision, check to see that they will fit and 
that you have a flat surface for them. 
Because this one is thick, solid plastic, it 
is the only one I recommend for use with 
a color set where you will have to remove 
it frequently. You can either hang it from 
the top of your set with a piece of tape or 
build a small track for it to slide into. 



J 



78 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



CBrvi 

(Wot* 



c °n-i Puter 



The image on the screen was created 
by the program below. 



10 VISMEM: CLEAR 

20 P*160: Q=100 

30 XP=144: XR^l. 5*3. 141592? 

40 YP«56: YR=1: ZP-64 

50 XF=XR/XP: YF=YP/YR: ZF=XR/ZP 

60 FOR ZI=~Q TO Q-l 

70 IF ZX<-ZP OR ZI>ZP GOTO 150 

80 ZT«ZI*XP/ZP: ZZ*ZI 

90 XL=INT(.5+SQR(XP*XP-ZT*ZT) ) 
100 FOR XI=-XL TO XL 
110 XT=SQR(XI*XI+ZT*ZT)*XF: XX=XI 
120 YY*(SIN(XT)+.4*SIN(3*XT) )*YF 
130 GOSUB 170 
140 NEXT XI 
150 NEXT ZI 
160 STOP 
170 X1=XX+ZZ+P 
180 Yl*YY~ZZ+Q 

190 GMODE 1: MOVE XI, Yl: WRPIX 
200 IF Y1=0 GOTO 220 
210 GMODE 2: LINE Xl,Yl-l,Xl,0 
220 RETURN 



The Integrated 
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Comparison Chart— Video Monitors and Television Sets 



Model 



Type 



Price 



Size 



Color 



Text 



Size (WxHxD) 



Weight 



Speaker 



Manufacturer 



GDZ1320 



Monitor 



$399.95 



13" 



Excellent 



Sharp 



20" x 13" x 13" 



38 lbs. 



Yes 



Heath 

Benton Harbor, Ml 49022 



PHA4100 



Monitor 



$374 



10" 



Yes- Untested 



Untested 



Unknown 



Unknown 



Yes 



Texas Instruments 
Consumer Electronics 
P.O. Box 53 
Lubbock, TX 79408 



Color 1 



Monitor 



$449 



13" 



Excellent 



Sharp 



17"x11"x13" 



26 lbs. 



Yes 



Amdek 

2420 E. Oakton Suite E 

Arlington Heights, IL 60005 



Videcon TC700 



Monitor/TV 



$399 



13" 



Very Good 



Sharp 



18"x 15 x 12 



33 lbs. 



Yes 



Video Marketing 
Box 339 
Warrington. PA 18976 



What Is the Difference Between 
a TV and a Monitor? 



The difference between television 
sets and monitors is related to the 
amount of information each one can 
handle. The information roughly cor- 
responds to dots on the screen, but 
shows up as a clearer or sharper image. 
Actually, whether you are using a 
monitor or a television set to receive a 
signal, you are getting the same amount 
of information from the Apple II, the 
Atari, or the TI 99/4. For some com- 
puters, including the NEC, which are 
not made to work with television sets, 
this is not true. 

The number of bits of information 
that can be displayed on the screen is 
dependent on the modulation frequency 
of the signal coming into the set. A 
signal with a very high frequency has a 
lot of information, while a signal with 
a low frequency has very little. 

Frequency is simply the number of 
times each second that an event occurs. 
If you think of a highway tunnel that 
can allow 10 cars to pass through each 
second, that tunnel has a frequency of 
ten. In an electrical circuit, instead of 
cars, we deal with electrical cycles. 
An electrical cycle is a change from 
no current to a current going in one 
direction to no current to a current 
going in the other direction and back 
to no current in the line. In United 
States electric current, this takes place 
60 times a second, giving us 60 cycle 
current. Sixty cycle current has a 
frequency of 60. Today this is known 



as 60 Hertz. Your AM radio receives 
radio waves with a frequency of thou- 
sands of cycles each second. Your FM 
radio and your television set receive 
frequencies of millions of cycles each 
second. 

However, there are two frequencies 
involved in a radio or television signal. 
The first is the carrier frequency. This 
is the basic signal that you think of as 
the location to which you tune on the 
dial. The carrier frequency is not 
supposed to change, so that you can 
always find the same station at the 
same place on the radio or television 
dial. 

The second frequency in a broadcast 
signal is the information that is placed 
on the carrier frequency. For example, 
an audio speaker can vibrate several 
thousand times a second. One way to 
get it to do that is to send a signal that 
changes several thousand times a second 
to an electromagnet that attracts a 
magnet attached to the paper speaker 
cone and causes it to vibrate. This in 
turn causes the air around it to vibrate, 
which makes our eardrums vibrate, and 
we hear those vibrations as music or 
speech. This information is placed on 
the carrier frequency by a process called 
modulation, which simply means 
changing the frequency. There are 
several forms of modulation, but let us 
keep it simple and just think of changing 
the frequency. The musical note "A", 
used as a reference frequency for tuning 
an orchestra, is a pure tone at a 



frequency of 440 cycles per second. If 
we wanted to send that tone to a radio 
tuned to a carrier frequency of one 
million cycles per second, one way to 
do it would be to change the one million 
cycle frequency back and forth by 440 
cycles per second. Thus the mixture 
of our carrier frequency would have a 
frequency that varied instantaneously 
from 999,560 cycles per second to 
1 ,000,440 cycles per second. The radio, 
tuned to the carrier frequency, has 
circuits that remove the carrier fre- 
quency, separate out the modulation 
(information) frequency, boost the 
power of the signal, and send it to the 
speakers. This is called frequency 
modulation (FM) and is the method 
used for TV broadcasting. 

Note one particular feature of this 
explanation. While our carrier frequency 
was 1,000,000 cycles per second, the 
signal sent actually varied from this by 
440 cycles in each direction, from 
999,560 to 1,000,440 cycles per second. 
In order to avoid conflicts, we could 
not allow any other strong signals 
anywhere in that frequency range. The 
size of this signal, 440 cycles below the 
carrier frequency to 440 cycles above 
the carrier frequency, or 880 cycles, is 
called the bandwidth. A radio or tele- 
vision station must be protected against 
strong competing signals within the 
entire bandwidth it uses at the extremes 
of its frequency range. Thus, if our 
radio station was transmitting music 
with high notes that reached 30,000 
cycles per second, there could be no 
other station between 970,000 and 
1,030,000 cycles per second. The gov- 
ernment has decided how much space 



80 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



JC1202DH 



RGB Monitor 



$1195 



KG-12C 



12" 



Outstanding 



Excellent 



Green Monitor 



$280 



TRS-80 Color Video 



Television 



Video 1 00 



Monitor 



$399 



12" 



(Green) 



Excellent 



14" x 12" x 16" 



28 lbs. 



Yes 



NEC 

1401 EstesAve. 

Elk Grove Village, IL 60007 



12" x 11" x 11" 



16 lbs. 



No 



13" 



Good 



Clear 



21"x 12"x17" 



$179 



12" 



TRS-80 Video Display 



Monitor 



$149.95 



Black & White 



Clear 



28 lbs. 



BMC International 
11222 LaCienaga 
lnglewood,CA90304 



Yes 



Radio Shack 

Ft. Worth, TX 76102 



17" x 11" x 11 



18 lbs. 



No 



12" 



Black & White 



TRS-80 only 



17" x 12" x IS- 



IS lbs. 



No 



Amdek 

2420 E. Oakton Suite E 

Arlington Heights, IL 60005 



Radio Shack 

Ft. Worth, TX 76102 



on the frequency spectrum to allow to 
each kind of station, and requires them 
to limit their signal to their authorized 
bandwidth. This leads to a political 
decision. If we have wide bandwidths 
that allow a lot of information to be 
sent, we can only have a few stations. 
If we have many stations, we have to 
limit the amount of information trans- 
mitted. The government has decided 
how many stations to allow and has 
placed limits on the bandwidth of each 
signal allowed. 

In the case of television, not only 
the audio (sound) signal, but also the 
video (picture) signal is carried by 
modulation. Since a television set 
displays a complete picture on the 
screen 60 times each second (this is 
done to avoid "flickering" and give the 
appearance of a steady picture and 
smooth motion), we are limited to 
displaying on a television screen the 
amount of information that can be sent 
in l/60th of a second. The government 
has allocated a bandwidth of 4.2 mega- 
Hertz (4,200,000 cycles per second) 
for each television station. Part of that 
is for audio and part is for video 
information. The video signal is allowed 
3.57 megaHertz, or 3,570,000 cycles 
per second. 

If we divide this by 60, we get a 
potential resolution on the screen of 
about 59,500 different dots that can be 
turned on or off. Unfortunately there 
are further limits. First, we need to use 
part of the information stream to tell 
the television when it has reached the 
end of a line, so it can go back to start 
the next one, and then we need to tell 
the television when it has reached the 



bottom of the screen, so it can go back 
to the top. In addition, since we have 
nc way to store information in the 
television, it makes no sense to send 
information while the television is 
getting ready to display information at 
the next line or page. A further restric- 
tion is imposed by overscan. If you 
have watched movies on television, you 
may have noticed that the edges of the 
picture are lost. This is done deliberately 
to avoid annoying black edges around 
the picture. Actually, about 20% of 
the signal is lost to overscan around 
the top, bottom, and sides of the 
screen. 

What this all means, in practical 
terms, is that a computer designed to 
work with a television set can only 
display a limited amount of information 
on the screen. American television sets 
have circuitry called a wave trap that 
cuts out any signal above and below 
the authorized 3.57 megaHertz to avoid 
interference from other channels. This 
is why the Apple and the Atari are 
limited to a 40 character screen width, 
and even at that, the letters are fuzzy 
and poorly defined. It is simply not 
possible to send much more information 
to a standard television because of the 
wave trap. 

In designing a television set, one 
designs it to handle the amount of 
information with which it will be used, 
adding a comfortable margin to allow 
for the aging of the parts used and 
small defects and variations in manu- 
facture. In the case of most television 
sets, that means that even if you bypass 
the wave trap, the set can only handle 
about a 5 megaHertz signal. The very 



best television sets can probably handle 
10 to 12 megaHertz signals. Even though 
we send a lower frequency signal 
than that, we want a set that can handle 
a higher frequency because it will locate 
our signal more precisely on the screen 
and give us a clearer picture. This is 
why some television sets have better 
pictures than others. 

In addition, when you send informa- 
tion to a television set through the 
antenna circuitry, you have to super- 
impose the information on a 3.57 
megaHertz carrier wave at the computer 
and then allow the television set circuitry 
to strip the information back off for 
display. Each circuit distorts the signal 
a little, so you do not get the quality 
picture you would get if you bypassed 
both operations. 

All this is to say that monitors can 
have two advantages over television 
sets. They can be designed to handle 
signals with a wider bandwidth than a 
television needs, and they can bypass 
the conversion of the digital information 
to a broadcast frequency and back 
again. Actually, the Apple II, the Atari, 
and the TI 99/4 all use NTSC or 
composite video, which means that the 
advantage of bypassing the extra con- 
versions is lost. In fact, of the monitors 
discussed here, only the NEC can handle 
the other type of signal, which is known 
as RGB for Red-Green-Blue, designating 
the separate signals for each color. 
Few popular computers put out an RGB 
signal. Among the ones that do are the 
NEC, the Apple III, the LNW, and the 
Cromemco. It is the higher bandwidth 
that makes a monitor more expensive 
than a television set. □ 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



81 




COMPUTER 
SYSTEMS 
INC. 

15620 South Ingle wood Avenue 
I awndale. ( alifornia 90260 
(213) 970-0952 




The QT System* is designed for both 
businessmen and engineers in accordance 
with the latest IEEE standards. Among other 
functions, it can be used for accounting and 
word processing, as well as a variety of 
scientific applications. The system will soon 
be available with MP/M® to allow multiuser, 
multi-tasking operations. This means, for 
example, that an engineer could be working 
on scientific applications in the lab while an 
accountant is writing payroll checks in the 
office. QT also offers a full line of business 



SYSTEM+ 
(8") 



QT SYSTEM + 



and applications software, ranging from a 
business package to word processing. 




Technical specifications: 4MHzZ-80A CPU 
• Dbl-sided, dbl-den. 5V*" & 8" floppy disk 
controller (handles both drives simulta- 
neously) • Two 8" dbl-den., sgl. or dual 
sided disk drives, expandable to 4 floppy 
drives • CP/M® 2.2 included • 64K RAM • 
Comes complete in single mainframe • 
EPROM/ROM in any combination to 8K • 



MINI- 
SYSTEM* 
(5V4*') 



Two RS232C serial I/O ports • Two parallel 
I/O parts • Hard disk compatible • Real time 
clock • Std. 2K monitor program & disk 
routines included on ROM • Power- 
on/Reset jump to monitor program • 2716 
(5V) EPROM programmer (software incl. on 
monitor ROM)(ext. 25.5V @ 50ma req.) • 
Uses Z-80A CPU vectored interrupts • 
Assembled, tested & burned •Documen- 
tation included. 

With Terminal 920C Add $900.00 



SYSTEM + I (1MB+) 



SYS+SS Computer System with 8" Single Sided Drives (801 R) 
without Terminal 

A&T (6 slot) $3595.00 

A&T (8 slot) $3695.00 

A&T (12 slot) $3795.00 



MINI-SYSTEM + I (V2MB+) 



Computer System with 5W Single Sided Drives (uses B-51 Disk 
Drives) No Terminal 

A&T (6 slot) $2495.00 

A&T (8 slot) $2595.00 

A&T (12 slot) $2695.00 



DISK DRIVE PRODUCTS 



SYSTEM + II (2MB+) 



SYS+DS Computer System with 8" Dual-Sided Drives (Qume 
DT-8) without Terminal 

A&T (6 slot) $4495.00 

A&T (8 slot) $4595.00 

A&T (12 slot) $4695.00 



MINI-SYSTEM + II (1MB+) 



Computer System with 5%" Double Sided Drives (uses B-52 Disk 
Drives) No Terminal 

A&T (6 slot) $2795.00 

A&T (8 slot) $2895.00 

A&T (12 slot) $2995.00 



PARTS 




QT DISK 
PACKAGES 



DDC-88-1 Dbl Den Controller, A&T. two 8" dbl den 
drives (801 R) CP/M® 2.2 cabinet, power supply 
& cables SPECIAL $1495.00 

DDC-88-2 Two 801 R disk drives with cabinet, power 
supply, fan & cables $1200.00 

DDC-88-22 Two DT-8 Qume drives with cabinet, power 
supply, fan & cables $1600.00 

DDC-88-3 Cabinet with power supply, fans 

& cables $ 275.00 

DDC-88-4 Cabinet only $ 75.00 



DISK DRIVES 
8" 

Shugart 801 R Sgl/Sided Dbl/Den $ 450.00 

Qume Datatrak 8" Dbl/Den QME-8DS (851R)compatible 

$ 650.00 

Pkg of two $1250.00 

5V4" 

MPI-B51 MPI B-51 $ 235.00 

Sgl Sided Sgl/Dbl Den 

MPI-B52 MPI B-52 $350.00 

Sgl Sided. Dbl Den 

MPI-B91 

MPI B-91 $ 375.OO 

Sgl Sided. Dbl Den. 77 tracks 

Shugart SA400 SHU-SA400 $ 250.00 

Sgl Sided. Dbl/Den 



MICROPROCESSORS 
Z80 (2MHz) $10.95 

Z80A (4MHz) $12.95 

6502 $11.25 

6800 $12.50 

6802 $18.00 

8035 $20.00 

8080A $ 3.50 

8085A $20.00 

8086-4 $60.00 

8088 $60.00 

8748 $60.00 

TMS 9900 JL $29.95 



8080A SUPPORT 



8212 $ 

8214 $ 



S-100 PRODUCTS 



3.50 
4.50 
2.95 
4.00 
6.00 
6.00 
5.00 
7.00 



Double Density • Cal Comp Sys 

5%" or 8" disk controller with free CP/M 2 2 
CCS-2422A A&T $374.95 

Expando RAM II - SD Systems 

4 MHz RAM board expandable from 16K to 256K 

SDS-RAM216K 16K kit $289.95 

SDS-RAM216AT 16K A&T $339.95 

SDS-RAM232K 32K kit $329.95 

SDS-RAM232AT 32K A&T $379.95 



ITHACA AUDIO REV 2.0 Z-80 BD 



Bare Board $35.00 each 

10 for $300.00 



SEALS ELECTRONICS 32K STATIC BD 



SDS-RAM248K 48K kit $369.95 

SDS-RAM248AT 48K A&T $419.95 

SDS-RAM264K 64K kit $409.95 

SDS-RAM264K 64K A&T $459.95 

PROM-100 - SD Systems 

2708, 2716, 2732. 2758 & 2516 EPROM programmer 

SDS-PROM-100K kit $220.00 

SDS-PROM-100AT A&T $275.00 



Uses TMS-4044 or 5257L 



$35.00 each 



QT MEMORY EXPANSION KITS 



TRS-80 • A PPLE • EXID Y 

4116 200 ns 8 for $32.00 

2716 (5V-450 ns) $ 9.00 

2716 (5 & 12V-450 ns) $ 9.00 

2732 (5V) $40.00 

2114L 300 ns 8 for $36.00 

100 - $3.50 ea. 




8216 $ 

8224 $ 

8228 $ 

8238 $ 

8243 $ 

8251 $ 

8253 $19.00 

8253-5 $20.25 

8255 $ 6.25 

8257 $17.95 

8257-5 $19.00 

8259 $19.95 

8275 $69.95 

8279 $17.50 

8279-5 $18.00 

8295 $16.50 

KEYBOARD CHIPS 

AY 5- 2376 $13.75 

AY5-3600 $13.75 

BAUD RATE 
GENERATORS 

MC14411 ... $11.00 
1.8432 XTAL $ 4.95 

DISK CONTROLLER 

1771B01 $24.95 

1791B01(CER) $37.95 



EPROMS 

1702A $ 4 95 

2708 $ 6.25 

2516 (5V) S 900 

2716 (5V) S 9 00 

2716 (5 & 12V) S 9 00 

2758 $19 95 

2532 S40 00 

2732 $40.00 

USRT 
S2350 $ 7.95 

MISCELLANEOUS 
OTHER COMPONENTS 

N8T20 $ 3.25 

N8T26 $ 2.50 

N8T97 $ 2.00 

N8T98 $ 2.00 

1488 $ 1.25 

1489 $ 1.25 

D3205 $ 3.00 

D3242 $14.00 

P3404 $ 6.75 

TMS5501 $19.00 

DM8131 $ 3.00 

UARTS 
TR1602B $ 4.50 

AY5-1013A $ 4.50 

CHARACTER 

GENERATORS 

2513 $10.95 

UP CASE (5&12V) 
2513 $10.95 

LWR CASE (5&12V) 
2513 $ 9.75 

UP CASE (5V) 
2513 $10.95 

LWR CASE (5V) 

6800 PRODUCTS 

6802P $18.00 

6821P $ 5.25 

6840P 

6845P 

6850P 

6860P 

6875P 




SBC+2/4 
SINGLE BOARD COMPUTER 



Features: 1K RAM (which can be located at 
any 1 K boundary) plus one each Parallel and 
Serial I/O parts on board • Power on jump to 
on-board EPROM (2708 or 2716) • EPROM 
addressable on any 1K or 2K boundary • Full 
64K use of RAM allowed in shadow mode • 
Programmable Baud rate selection, 110-9600 
• 2 or 4MHz switch selectable • DMA 
capability allows MWRT signal generation on 
CPU board or elsewhere in system under DMA 
logic or front panel control • Two program- 
mable timers available for use by programs 
run with the SBC+2/4 (timer output and 
controls available at parallel I/O connector; 
parallel input and output ports available for 
use on CPU board). , 

Bare Board $ 60.00 

Kit $190.00 

A&T $295.00 



Z+80 CPU 




COMPUTER 
SYSTEMS 
INC. 

15620 South Inglewood Avenue 
Lawndale. California 90260 
(213) 970-0952 



Features: Power on jump to on-board EPROM 
(2708. 2716 or 2732) • EPROM addressed on 
any 1K or 2K boundary; also shadow mode 
allows full 64K use of RAM • On-board USART 
for Synchronous or Asynchronous RS-232 
Operation (Serial I/O port) • Programmable 
Baud rate selection, 1 10-9600 • Switch select- 
able 2 or 4 MHz • MWRITE signal generated 
if used without front panel • Front panel com- 
patible. 

Bare Board $ 50.00 

Kit $150.00 

A&T $210.00 



RAM+16 



Features: S-100. 16K x 8 bit static RAM • 2or4 • 
MHz • Uses 21 14 1 K x 4 static RAM chip • 4K 
step addressable • 1K increment memory 
protection, from bottom board address up or 
top down • Deactivates up to six 1K board 
segments to create "holes" for other devices • 
DIP switch selectable wait states • Phantom 
line DIP switch • Eight bank select lines 
expandable to Vi million byte system • Data, 
address and control lines all input buffered • 
Ignores I/O commands at board address. 

Bare Board $ 35.00 

4Mhz Kit $190.00 

4Mhz A&T $225.00 



RAM+ 65 



•S-100, 16K x 8 bit static RAM «2 or 4MHz 
•Uses 21 14L(300NS) CHIP •Addressable in 4K 
steps •Memory protection in 1K increments, 
from bottom board address up or top down • 
May deactivate up to six 1 K segments of board 
to create "holes" for other devices • DIP switch 
selectable wait states • Phantom line DIP 
switch ©Features bank selection by I/O 
instruction using any one of 256 DIP switch- 
selectable codes— allows up to 256 software- 
controlled memory banks. 

Bare Board $ 35.00 

4MHz Kit $210.00 

4MHz A&T $250.00, 



QT PRODUCTS 



EXPANDABLE-*- REV II 
DYNAMIC MEMORY BOARD 



Features: Runs at 4MHz • 3242 refresh con- 
troller with delay line • Four layer PC board 
insures quiet operation • Supports 16K, 32K, 
48K or 64K of memory • 24 IEEE-specified 
address lines • Optional M1 wait state allows 
error free operation with faster processors • 
Optional Phantom disable • Uses Z-80 or on- 
board refresh signal • Bank on/off signal 
selected by industry standard I/O port 40 
(Hex) • Convenient DIP switch selection of 
data bus bits determines bank in use • 3 watts 
low power consumption • Convenient LED 
indication of bank in use. 

Definitely works with 
Cromemco and North Star 

Bare Board $ 75.00 



KIT 
No RAM .... $230.00 

16K $280.00 

32K $360.00 

48K $480.00 

64K $525.00 



A&T 

16K $350.00 

32K $450.00 

48K $575.00 

64K $675.00 



CLOCK/CALENDAR+ 
FOR APPLE II, S-100 OR TRS-80 



Features: Date/Month/Year • Day of week 
• 24 hour time or 12 hour (a.m./p.m.) select- 
able • Leap year (perpetual calendar) • 4 
interval interrupt timer; 1024Hz (approx. 1 
millisec), 1 sec, 1 min., 1 hr. • On-board bat- 
tery backup • Simple time and date setting • 
Simple software interface • Time advance 
protection while reading. 

Battery Included 
S-100 or Apple TRS-80 

A&T $150.00 A&T Only . . . $150.00 

Kit $100.00 

Bare Bd $ 60.00 



WATCH FOR THE FOLLOWING NEW BDS: 



• 4 Port Serial Bd (APR) 

• E-PROM Programmer (MAY) 

• Floppy Disk Controller (JUN) 

• Hard Disk Controller (JUN) 

• Color Video Bd (AUG) 



I/O+ 

INDUSTRIAL GRADE I/O BD 



Has two serial Sync/Async ports (RS-232, 
current loop or TTL) with individual Xtal 
controlled programmable baudrate genera- 
tors • Four 8-bit Parallel ports; one latched 
input port and other three can be programmed 
in combinations of input, output or bidirec- 
tional • Also, has three 16-bit Programmable 
Timers and an 8-level Programmable Interrupt 
Controller w/Auto restart (8080/ Z80) • Other 
features include; on-board clock divisor for 
timers, completely socketed, wire wrap posts 
for easy port configuration plus more. 

Bare Board $ 70.00 

Kit $200.00 

A&T $375.00 



PLACE ORDERS TOLL FREE 

1-800-421-5150 

(CONTINENTAL U.S. ONLY) 

(EXCEPT CALIFORNIA) 

Apple is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. 
CP/M and MP/M are trademarks of Digital Research. 
TRS-80 is a trademark of Radio Shack. 

CIRCLE 298 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




SILENCE* 
MOTHERBOARDS 



These motherboards are among the quietest 
on the market. A unique grounding matrix — 
with each line completely surrounded by 
ground shielding — eliminates need for ter- 
mination and gives high crosstalk rejection • 
They're customer-proven, without crosstalk 
sometimes operating at 14MHz • A LED power 
indicator helps eliminate zapped circuits • 
IEEE S-100 std. compatible, available with 6, 8, 
1 2, 18 or 22 slots • (The 22 slot board fits Imsai 
chassis and has slot for front panel.) 



6 Slot 
Bare Board . . $ 25.00 

Kit $ 40.00 

A&T $ 50.00 

8 Slot 
Bare Board . . $ 27.00 

Kit $ 55.00 

A&T $ 70.00 



12 Slot 
Bare Board . . $ 30.00 

Kit $ 70.00 

A&T $ 90.00 

18 Slot 
Bare Board . . $ 50.00 

Kit $100.00 

A&T $140.00^ 



QT MAINFRAMES 





fll 

MF+ 
5V." Disk Mainframe with 25A Pwr Sup 

MF+MD12 (12 slot M/B) $500.00 

MF+MD8 (8 slot M/B) $475.00 

MF+MD6 (6 slot M/B) $450.00 

MF+MD w/o M/B $400.00 

Q.T. Mainframe 

MF+12 (12 slot M/B) $450.00 

MF+18 (18 slot M/B) $500.00 

MF+22 (22 slot M/B) $600.00 



MAINFRAME* DISK DRIVE 



Includes cabinet, 25 i 
amp power supply, 
IEEE S-100 compat- 
ible 6, 8 or 12 slot 
motherboard and dual 8" disk drive with disk 
drive power supply. 

MF+DD6 $625.00 

MF+DD8 $650.00 

MF+DD12 $675.00 



DDC-8 
SINGLE 8" DISK CABINET 



Accepts one 8" disk drive (Shugart, Remex, 
PerSci, Siemens, etc.) • Fan cooled, with data 
cable and AC line filter to eliminate EMI • 
Operates from 100- 125 VAC/200-250 VAC at 
50-60Hz • Disk drive NOT included. 

DDC+8 $195.00 



TERMS OF SALE: Cash, checks, money orders, 
credit cards accepted. Also COD. orders under 
$100.00. Minimum order $10.00. California resi- 
dents add 6% sales tax Minimum shipping and 
handling charge $3.00. Prices subject to change 
without notice. International sales in American 
dollars only. aHHB 

WS4 







r-^T 



So You Want More Memory 



Bill Kubeck 



If you are like most folks you probably 
didn't buy your computer with as much 
memory as it could use. Sooner or later 
you're bound to want to expand your 
system. When you do, you will be faced 
with some choices. 

The first thing you must decide is who 
will actually do the installation. The most 
direct method is to take the system to the 
dealer from whom you bought it and say 
"Fill it up!" This is the simplest method 
and the best way to go if you just can't 
face the thought of tinkering with the 
insides of your computer. It will cost more, 
though, than doing it yourself. The extra 
cost is the dealer's fee for the service and 
support he provides. 

If you are willing to do a little homework, 
however, you can save some money and 
learn something about your computer at 
the same time. First, a little basic infor- 
mation about memory. 

The working storage area of the com- 
puter is called RAM, which stands for 
Random Access Memory. The essence of 
RAM is that information can be stored or 
retrieved in any location independently 
of anything else stored there. 

RAM is usually packaged in the form 
of integrated circuits or "chips." Each 
chip has a capacity which is measured as 
so many "K" bits of data. "K" means 
"kilo" and when applied to computers 
represents 1024. Thus, a 16K RAM chip 
has a capacity of 16 x 1024 or 16,384 bits. 

Since the computer deals in 8-bit bytes 
and the RAM chips are organized in bits, 
eight RAM chips are required to make a 
set capable of storing any number of bytes 
of data. Thus, a 16K memory expansion 
will consist of a set of eight 16K RAM 
chips. 

There are two important RAM specifica- 
tions that you must understand in order 
to be sure you're getting the right chips 
for your computer. 



MEMORY EXPANSION REFERENCE CHART 






RAM Chip/ 


Min/Max 




COMPUTER 

Apple II & 11+ 


type Board 


RAM cap. r 

16/48 (64) 


totes 


4116 chips 


1 


TRS-80 Model I 


4116 chips 


4/48 


2 


TRS-80 Model III 


4116 chips 


16/48 




TRS-80 Color 


4116 chips 


16/48 


3 


Atari 400 


4116 board 


8/48 




Atari 800 


4116 board 


8/48 




PET -Old ROM 


2114 chips 


8/32 


4 


PET -New ROM 


4116 chips 


8/32 


4 


VIC-20 


4116 chips 


5/8 


5 


NOTES: 








1. Last 16K requires RAMcard or Language system. 




2. First 16K in main unit, 32K in expansion interface. 




3. Last 32K requires expansion interface. 




4. Chips are soldered in. 






5. Last 3K requires expansion RAMpack. 





The first is "Access Time," which is a 
measure of how quickly data can be loaded 
into or taken out of a memory location. 
Access time is measured in nanoseconds 
(billionths of a second or ns) and the 
smaller the number, the faster the chip. 
Each type of computer has a certain 
minimum speed it requires of its memory 
if it is to work properly. Fast memory is 
more expensive than slower memory, so 
a bit of care is required to insure the best 
combination of price and performance. 

The second is the difference between 
"Static" and "Dynamic" RAM. All RAM 
lose stored information when the computer 
is shut off. In addition, Dynamic RAM 
must constantly receive a special "refresh" 
signal during operation. Computers are 
very specific regarding which type of RAM 
they can use and the two types are not 
interchangeable. Be sure of which type 
you need for your system. 



A certain amount of manual skill and a 
measure of technical common sense are 
needed to install memory chips in a 
computer. The circuit chips used in 
computers are sensithe to static and 
memory chips are no exception. The pins 
on the chips can be bent by improper 
handling. If a chip is installed incorrectly 
(like backwards), the computer may be 
damaged. Some computers must be par- 
tially disassembled and this calls for some 
caution. 

These hazards are present anytime you 
work on a computer but they can be 
overcome. If you are comfortable working 
with small tools and take the time to 
check your work as you go, then you 
should be able to install memory in your 
own computer. Your reward for your 
efforts will be a nice cost savings and a 
better working knowledge of your 
system. 



84 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



\ 

Depending on the particular computer, 
memory chips may be mounted on separate 
boards or may plug right into the main or 
"mother" board. There are also special 
considerations for each type of computer 
so we will cover each of the popular systems 
separately. 

1. Apple II and II Plus— The Apple has 
room on the motherboard for a total of 
48K. An additional 16K can be added by 
plugging a special RAMcard or the Apple 
Language Card into slot 0. This, of course, 
is in lieu of an Applesoft or Integer card. 
Don't use anything slower than 250ns 
memory. 200ns is better. 

2. TRS-80 Model I— There is room in 
the keyboard/CPU unit for a total of 16K. 
If the unit originally came with 4K, these 
chips can be replaced with 16K chips. 
This will require some changing of jumper 
wires. Upgrade kits specially packaged 
for changing 4K TRS-80s to 16K will have 
instructions on how to do this. Further 
upgrades require the Expansion Interface, 
which has room for 32K. Memory can be 
added quite easily by plugging chips into 
the available sockets and no rewiring is 
needed. 

3. TRS-80 Model III— This system can 
accommodate a maximum of 48K, which 
is held in sockets on the main board. Add 
memory 16K at a time. No rewiring 
needed. 

4. TRS-80 Color Computer— this system 
is somewhat similar to the old Model I in 
that a 4K unit can be upgraded to 16K by 
replacing the chips and changing the 
jumper. The maximum memory capacity 
of the computer is 16K. Percom makes 
an expansion interface for the Color 
Computer which allows expansion to 
48K. 

5. Atari 400/800— Atari memory comes 
in the form of plug-in boards. The 400 
can hold one board. This normally means 
a maximum of 16K RAM although one 
supplier has a 48K board available. The 
800 can hold three RAM boards and can 
use 48K effectively. It is possible to modify 
an 8K board to 16K by replacing the 
chips and changing jumpers. 

6. PET— Memory upgrades in the PET 
are not very easy. The memory chips are 
soldered in place and Commodore has 
recently been drilling holes through the 
circuit boards at unoccupied RAM loca- 
tions. This makes it necessary to solder in 
an auxiliary circuit card in order to add 
memory. Such memory cards are available 
from vendors other than Commodore. 

7. VIC-20-The VIC comes with 5K of 
memory in the main unit and is not 
expandable internally. External expansion 
requires a device but it is not available at 
present. 

8. Sorcerer— Sorcerers come in two sizes: 
16K and 32K. All memory is on the main 
board in sockets and adding 16K is quite 

simple. □ 

v , — ' 



r 



Why would anyone spend $59,95 for a joystick? 




Super 
Joystick 



Star Wars. Played with paddles, its difficult 
at best and frustrating at worst. But with 
a joystick it becomes an entirely new 
experience. Its still challenging. Its also 
fun. And very addictive. 

Have you ever used a drawing program 
in which one paddle controls the horizontal 
movement of the "brush" and the other 
paddle the vertical? Its slow, tedious work. 
But with a joystick, drawing is an absolute 
joy. 

Exceptional Precision 

The Apple high-resolution screen is divided 
into a matrix of 160 by 280 pixels. To do 
precise work on this screen, you need a 
precise device. Most potentiometers used 
in paddle controls are not quite linear. If 
you rotate a paddle control at a constant 
speed, you'll notice that the cursor speeds 
up slightly at the beginning and end of the 
paddle rotation. 

The Super Joystick has a pure resistive 
circuit which is absolutely linear within one 
tenth of one percent. In other words it would 
give you precise control over an image of 
1000 by 1000 pixels, were such resolution 
available. Thus it is suitable for high precision 
professional applications as well as educa- 
tional and hobbyist ones. 

Matched to your application 

The Super Joystick also has two external 
trim adjustments, one for each direction. 
This allows you to perfectly match the unit 
to your application and computer. Say you 
want to work in a square area instead of the 
rectangular screen. Just reduce the horizontal 
size with the trim control. 

How many times have you played Space 
Invader and had your thumb ache for hours 
from the repeated button pressing? This 
wont happen with the Super Joystick. It's 
two pushbuttons are big. Moreover, they 
use massive contact surfaces with a life of 
well over 1 ,000,000 contacts. A few games 
of Super Invader using these big buttons 
will justify the purchase of the Super Joy- 
stick. 

The Super Joystick is self-centering in 
both directions. That means when you take 
your hand off it, the control will return to the 
center. However, if you want it to stay where 
you leave it, self-centering may be easily 
disabled. 

The Super Joystick plugs right into the 
paddle control socket and doesn't require 
an I/O slot. 



High-quality construction 

The sturdy metal case of the Super Joystick 
matches that of the Apple computer. Every 
component used is the very highest quality 
available. The Super Joystick even uses a 
full 16-conductor ribbon cable so you can 
add a second joystick if you wish. The first 
Super Joystick replaces Paddles and 1. 
You may not realize it, but the Apple can 
support four paddle controls. A second Super 
Joystick would replace Paddles 2 and 3. 




By removing two springs, self-centering 
can be defeated. 

We invite your comparison of the Super 
Joystick with any other unit available. Order 
it and use it for 30 days. If you're not 
completely satisfied, return it for a prompt 
and courteous refund plus your return 
postage. You can't lose. 

The Super Joystick consists of a self- 
centering, linear joystick, two trim controls, 
and two pushbuttons mounted in an attractive 
case. It comes complete with an instruction 
booklet and 90-day limited warranty. Cost 
is $59.95. 

Order Today 

To order the Super Joystick send $59.95 
plus $2.00 postage and handling (NJ 
residents add $3.00 sales tax) to our address 
below. 

Experience the joys of using the worlds 
finest joystick. Order your Super Joystick 
at no obligation today. 




39 East Hanover Ave. 

Morris Plains, NJ 07950 

Toll-free 800-631 -81 12 

(In NJ 201-540-0445) 

CIRCLE 239 ON READER SERVICE CARD/ 



85 



r 



So You Want To Buy A 
Music Synthesizer 



David Lubar 




The Soundchaser could be the wave of the future. 



After a few hours at the computer 
balancing your checkbook, eradicating 
Klingons, and eavesdropping on the local 
network, wouldn't it be nice to sit back 
and let the machine provide a bit of Bach? 
Computers, with their number crunching 
abilities, are ideal for controlling synthe- 
sizers. In fact, the computer can even go 
beyond control and perform the synthesis. 
There is a wide variety of music systems 
available, ranging from inexpensive devices 
for hobbyists to extravagant setups suitable 
for studio work. Of course, your selection 
will be governed by which computer you 
own or are planning to buy. Presently, 
the widest choice is available for the Apple, 
with the TRS-80 and Atari slowly gaining 
ground. PET, Sorcerer and TI 99/4 owners 
will have the narrowest selection from 
which to choose. 

While a record on the hi-fi is a cheaper 
way to get music, there are many uses for 
a synthesizer. Beyond just producing music, 
it can be used by anyone who wants to 
practice a duet but lacks a willing human 
partner. Or it can be used as a Music 
Minus One record. But better than the 
record, the synthesizer can play slowly 
when a piece is being learned and the 
tempo can be increased as proficiency is 
gained. The synthesizer keeps perfect 
rhythm, never plays anything it wasn't 
told to play, and doesn't drink all your 
beer. If you want to know how a piece of 
sheet music should sound, and don't have 
a recording of the piece, a synthesizer is 
ideal. It is also perfect for composers and 



anyone else who desires to experiment 
with music. 

Before covering buying strategy, I will 
consider some background such as types 
of music systems, what they can and can't 
do, how they differ, and so on. The majority 
of systems are based on a synthesizer. As 
the name suggests, this is a device which, 



The square wave has an 

organ-like quality, 

though it can be 

manipulated somewhat 

to simulate other 

instruments. 



in part, artificially creates the sound of a 
musical instrument. Beyond this, it can 
create sounds of imaginary instruments, 
as well as noises and sound effects. Bas- 
ically, synthesizers produce a wave which 
is created by changing voltage in some 
regular manner. When this voltage is sent 
to a speaker, a sound is produced. Changing 
the frequency of the wave changes the 
pitch of the sound; a faster wave produces 
a higher note. Changing the amplitude of 
the wave changes the volume; the greater 
the amplitude, the louder the sound. 

There is more to music than pitch and 
volume. Characteristics such as timbre 



are affected by the type of wave produced. 
For instance, a sine wave has a different 
quality than a square wave. Most synthe- 
sizers produce a square wave. This is a 
wave which, as opposed to a smoothly 
curving sine, alternates between two values. 
To most people, the square wave has an 
organ-like quality, though it can be man- 
ipulated somewhat to simulate other 
instruments. A good synthesizer can get a 
great deal of mileage from a square wave. 
Since the synthesizer does the work of 
producing the wave, the computer is free 
to provide all control over pitch and 
volume. Good synthesizers allow you to 
control not just the amplitude of the music, 
but the actual rise and fall of amplitude 
within the wave producing the note. This 
is called envelope control, and allows the 
creation of unique instrument sounds. 
Another type of system actually creates 
the waveform in the computer, then sends 
the signal to a digital-to-analog converter 
(DAC). The DAC is a fairly simple piece 
of hardware which takes a number from 
the computer (a digital input) and translates 
it into a voltage (an analog output). While 
systems using DACs allow more control 
of the waveform, they are limited to fewer 
voices since the computer must do all 
calculations. 

Voices? That is the slightly confusing 
term used to refer to a single sound channel, 
and has nothing to do with speech. A 
synthesizer that can produce four notes 
at the same time is said to have four 
voices. One of the major criteria in selecting 
a synthesizer is how many voices you 



86 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



COMPUTER STOP 



2545 W. 237 St. Torrance, CA. 90505 



ORDER BY PHONE 

MON.— SAT. 

10-6 

(213)539-7670 PST 
TELEX: 678401 TAB IRIN 



LOWEST PRICES IN THE WEST.NORTH. SOUTH & EAST 




'icippkz computer 

r Sales and Service 

APPLE /// OPTION A: 3850 

APPLE /// 96K 

Information Analyst Package 

12" B/W Monitor 
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Music Synthesizer, continued... 

want or need. Interestingly enough, systems 
offering more voices don't always have 
higher prices. 

While the computer produces the music, 
the notes have to be entered by a human. 
This introduces another consideration. 
Some systems are very easy to use, some 
are rather difficult. Sound quality is also 
important. The user with perfect pitch 
will have different needs than the casual 
listener. 

So, how do you go about selecting the 
right system. You should first have a good 
idea of the kind of music you will be 
entering. If you want to use the synthesizer 
as a partner for duets, you will need fewer 
voices than if you are trying to simulate a 
jazz quintet. Coupled with this, you have 
to consider which instruments you plan 
to synthesize. While a flute or clarinet 
requires only one voice, a piano might 
need many. Each note in a chord requires 
a separate voice. With a bit of ingenuity, 
you can shave these requirements. For 
instance, though a guitar has six strings, a 
chord can usually be simulated with four 
voices by letting the bass fade before the 
treble begins. Similarly, a guitar and banjo 
don't necessarily need eleven voices. By 
swapping channels, using them for which- 
ever instrument is playing the most notes 
at any point, you can get away with eight 
or nine voices. Of course, this requires a 
system which allows voices to be swapped 
or redefined on a note-by-note basis. 

Some synthesizers offer stereo, either 
sending specific voices to the right or left 
speaker, or allowing you to define which 
voice goes to which speaker. This can be 
important if you are using several voices 
for one instrument; the instrument 
shouldn't be split between speakers. A 
few synthesizers include the ability to 
produce white noise. This type of sound 
has a variety of uses, ranging from simu- 
lating percussion to adding a bit of realism 
to flutes by making the sound the player's 
breath produces when crossing the 
opening. 

If you aren't in the mood to enter your 
own music, it's nice to have the option of 
playing existing scores. Some companies 
offer albums of music for their synthesizers, 
and a few entrepreneurs are also producing 
such products. 

For those who want music but don't 
want to spend a great deal of money, 
there is one other option. Several compu- 
ters already include hardware for sound 
generation. The Apple has a limited but 
usable speaker, and the TI and Atari have 
internal synthesizers. There is software 
available which uses this hardware. Texas 
Instruments and Atari each manufacture 
a cartridge containing software for entering 
and playing music. 

To sum things up; you should consider 
number of available voices, ease of entry, 
sound quality, and price. If you can, try 



"\ 



to hear the system before buying it. Some 
manufacturers sell audio cassettes with 
sample music, and many computer stores 
have demonstration models. A list of 
companies producing music systems is 
included below. 



If you aren't in the mood 

to enter your own 

music, it's nice to have 

the option of playing 

existing scores. 



Representative Music Systems 

ALF Apple Music Synthesizer 

Two systems available; the AMS has three 
voices per board, up to three boards per 
Apple, with two boards required for stereo. 
Price is $248. The AM-II offers nine voices 
(three left, three right, and three shared 
by both speaker cables) for $198, but has 
less fidelity in the higher ranges. Thus the 
AMS is aimed at the musician while the 
AM-II is for the hobbyist. Both use paddles 
and hi-res graphics for note input, have 
envelope control, produce square waves, 
and give a lo-res display of note dynamics 
during playback. The AM-II has limited 
white-noise capability. A selection of pre- 
recorded disks is available for each. For 
more information, contact Peripherals Plus, 
39 East Hanover Ave., Morris Plains, NJ 
07950.(201)267-4558. 



Mountain Hardware Music System 

A sophisticated system employing digital 
oscillators and programmable waveforms. 
For $545 you get the music boards (the 
system comes on two boards that must be 
placed in adjacent slots in the Apple), 
software, speaker cables, and a light pen. 
The light pen is used, along with the 
paddles, for note entry. There are sixteen 
voices which can be split among up to 
four instruments. Instrument definitions 
are provided on the disk; others can be 
created by the user. So far, Mountain has 
done a good job of supplying owners with 
software and documentation updates. 
Mountain Computer, Inc. is located at 
300 Harvey West Blvd., Santa Cruz, CA 
95060. 



Soundchaser 

Passport Designs has just released a 
sophisticated system integrating a four- 
octave keyboard with a powerful synthe- 



sizer. The synthesizer offers three voices, 
oscillators for square and sawtooth waves, 
a filter, and an audio amplifier. Two boards 
can be used, giving a six-voice system. 
Note entry is through the keyboard. Price 
for one synthesizer and keyboard is $1000. 
Keyboard alone is $650, synthesizer alone 
is $350. A complete review of this product 
will appear in a future issue. Available 
from Passport Designs, Inc. 785 Main St., 
Suite E, Half Moon Bay, CA 94019. 

Orchestra-80 

A DAC that plugs into the TRS-80, offering 
four voices and control of instrument 
definitions. Software supplied with the 
system allows note entry through the 
keyboard using numbers and letters, and 
includes a powerful text editor for changing 
scores. At a price of $79.95, it is one of 
the best bargains around. The distributor 
is Software Affair, 473 Sapena Court, Suite 
1, Santa Clara, C A 95051. 



The Music Box 

A DAC for the TRS-80, housed in a small 
box painted to resemble an organ keyboard. 
The box contains a volume control and 
an audio amplifier, allowing direct hookup 
to a speaker. Four voices are available, 
and the user can define instruments. Notes 
are entered as letters and numbers. The 
system costs $149, and is available from 
Newtech Computer Systems, Inc. 230 
Clinton St., Brooklyn, NY 11201. 

Music Synthesis System 

Micro Technology Unlimited carries a 
line of software and DACs for 6502 
computers such as the PET, AIM, and 
KIM. The software supports four voices 
and allows total control of waveforms. 
Stereo is possible using two DACs, but 
the additional hardware does not increase 
the number of voices. Music is entered as 
hex code. Prices for DACs are around 
$50 ($89 for an Apple DAC), varying 
depending on which computer the board 
is designed for. The software is separate 
and also costs about $50. MTU is located 
at 2806 Hillsborough St., P.O. Box 12106, 
Raleigh, NC 27605. □ 



"People can be divided into three groups: 
those who make things happen, those 
who watch things happen, and those who 
wonder what happened. " 

John W. Newbern 



88 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Pick & Choose 



by Philip Tubb 



'Tick & Choose " was written by the 
designer of the ALF Music Synthesizer 
Boards, and, as such, cannot pretend 
to be an unbiased equipment evaluation. 
It does, however, present a great deal 
of valuable information on music syn- 
thesis, and some important factors to 
consider when choosing a music 
system. 



Just a year or two ago, there were only 
a few brands of music cards from which 
to choose. Today, there are so many that 
making a choice can be difficult and con- 
fusing. After you've made your choice, 
you can look forward to enjoying music 
with an ease never before possible — but 
first, what are the important features and 
how do you weigh them? 

Although I'm going to concentrate on 
music cards available for the Apple com- 
puter, many of the same questions apply 
to products based exclusively on soft- 
ware (using the Apple's built-in speaker) 
or products for other computers. I'll con- 
sider the ALF cards, the Micro Music 
card, and the Mountain Computer card 
for most of the examples because they 
span a wide range of techniques and 
features. 

There are two main applications for 
music cards. First, they're fun! Like a 
dancing bear, a computer that plays 
music is a joy to behold. It doesn't have 
to perform some mundane, "practical" 
task to be entertaining. Whether you add 
sound effects to games, play avant- 
garde algorithmic music, or play pre- 
programmed songs, a music card can add 
a lot to the enjoyment of your computer 
system. 

Second (and this can be either more 
fun or very practical), you can enter or 
"program" your own songs. There are 
countless reasons for doing this: you can 
play a song from sheet music without 
taking instrument lessons for years, you 
can use the computer for accompani- 
ment if you've already learned how to 
play an instrument, if you're a composer 
you can see if the sheet music you've 



05 



a* 



&*- 



"J** 



K 








♦ 



^ 



*<*> 



& 



** 




The ALF MC16 three-channel synthesizer (previously called the "Apple 
Music Synthesizer"). Note the removable audio cord and disk software 
(tape software is optional.) 




*** 




~fr 



The ALF MCI nine-channel synthesizer (previously called the "Apple 
Music ][ 'V . This unit also features a removable audio cord and disk 
software, again tape software is optional. 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



89 



Pick & Choose, continued... 

written really does match what's in your 
head (or use the computer to play a com- 
plex polyphonic passage that's too diffi- 
cult or impossible to play on a piano), 
and on and on. 

Then there are many other applica- 
tions that are rather specialized and ap- 
ply only to certain interests, like ear 
training and other music theory/com- 
position training, bio-feedback output 
generation and general audio-response 
work, programmable frequency genera- 
tion for testing and prototyping, sum- 
moning alien space craft, and so forth. 
Knowing exactly what your interests are 
will help you quite a bit in making a de- 
cision, especially if you have a particular 
need. If you want to dabble in everything 
and just generally get the most out of 
your music card, then particular applica- 
tions won't be an important factor. 

THE HARDWARE 



.:■ „ ;. . :■ :■:■ . 




The Micro Music Music Composer four-channel synthesizer (previously 
called the "Micro Composer. ") This unit has an attached audio cord, hut 
features direct speaker driving capabilities (note the on-board manual 
volume control near the audio cable). Shown with disk software, tape 
software is also available. 



Let's get down to specific factors now. 
The number one biggie for most people 
is price. There are a couple of ways to 
look at price. The most obvious one is the 
'I've only got $1.98, so what's the best I 
can do?" approach. This is easy because 
it isn't hard to find out the purchase price 
of each available model. Generally, be 
prepared for a price of $100 to $600. 
Another way is to look at the price/per- 
formance ratio, or "How much am I get- 
ting for my money?" One of the easiest 
check is the price/ voice (read as "price 
per voice") , which is computed by taking 
the total price and dividing it by the num- 
ber of "voices." 

Voices vs. Channels 

So, the next factor is the number of 
voices. "Voice" is a rather abused term 
that should be used to refer to a melody 
that never plays more than one note at a 
time. For example, if you play a piano 
using only one finger (and don't cheat 
by pressing down several keys at once), 
you're playing a one-voice melody. If you 
use two fingers to press two different 
notes either at the same time or just to 
hold down one note and add another, 
that's a two-voice melody. Simple. 

If you have a song that plays three- 
note chords in both the main melody and 
the background melody, you'd need a 
six-voice music card to be able to play 
all the notes in the chords. You could 
probably get along with a five voice card 
by skipping one of the chord notes with- 
out seriously straining the song, but 
clearly the more voices a card can play 
the better. 

"OK," you ask, "what's so confusing 
about that?" The problem is that some 
manufacturers say "voice" when they 




The Mountain Computer (previously "Mountain Hardware") MuslcSy stem 
sixteen-channel synthesizer. Note the light pen and the removable audio 
cable with rear-mounting jacks. The unit has two circuit cards permanently 
attached to each other (two Apple slots are required). No accessories are 
currently available. 



mean "channel." In fact, you should just 
assume that people always mean "chan- 
nel." A channel is a piece of circuitry (or 
software) that can play a one-voice 
melody and is usually separate from but 
identical to all the other channels. The 
reason a five-channel card is not neces- 
sarily a five-voice card is that in many in- 
stances you will want to use more than 
one channel for a given voice. Let's say 
you have a four-voice song, but you want 
a really "fat" sound on one voice, prob- 
ably because it's the main melody. The 
best way to get really interesting sounds 
on most music cards is to program two 
(or more) channels to play the same 
melody, but with the two channels set for 
different sounds (or maybe with one 
channel delayed a fraction of a second 
for an echo or "reverb" effect) . So, you'd 



probably use two channels for the main 
voice, and one channel each for the other 
three voices, for a total of five channels. 

Virtually any music card can be pro- 
grammed to use more than one channel 
per voice. So, you can just take that into 
consideration when you're thinking about 
how many channels (which most people 
will call "voices" or "parts") you need. 
However, some cards practically require 
several channels for each voice; so on 
those you'll want to keep in mind that the 
effective number of voices may be lower 
than other cards even if the other cards 
seem to have a smaller number of voices. 

The reason some cards need more 
channels per voice than others has to do 
with the way they generate (synthesize) 
different sounds. No music card pres- 
ently available for the Apple can du- 



90 



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Pick & Choose, continued... 

plicate the sound of conventional instru- 
ments. When playing a song you've 
always heard played by banjos, for ex- 
ample, a music card may sound remark- 
ably like a banjo — especially if a 
salesman says "Listen to this song; it 
sounds just exactly like a banjo" before 
he plays the song. But don't be too quick 
to agree; if a real banjo player walked in 
and played along with the music card 
you'd probably be embarrassed. So for- 
get about "duplicating" conventional in- 
struments. What is really important is 
being able to create sounds that are 
pleasant, that fit the mood of the song 
being played, and that have a lot of 
variety. 

Envelope and Waveform Synthesis 

There are many ways to synthesize 
sounds, and comparing them is like com- 
paring apples to TRS-80s. However, the 
two main methods rely on envelope syn- 
thesis and on waveform synthesis, two 
fundamental components of musical 
sounds The "envelope" of a note is its 
loudness contour. For example, when a 
violin string is plucked, it starts produc- 
ing sound very loudly almost instantly, 
then slowly dies away. But when the 
same string is bowed, it starts producing 
sound a little slower (but still quite 
rapidly) and continues at about the same 
loudness as long as the bow is moved. 
When the bow stops, the sound stops 
almost instantly if the bow is still touch- 
ing the string. 

Sounds used in music have character- 
istic loudness contours, and people are 
used to distinguishing different sounds 
by their loudness patterns. So, a variety 
of sounds can be produced by using dif- 
ferent types of envelopes. 

The "waveform" of a note is a 
technical term used in analog synthe- 
sizers which cannot easily be explained 
since it rarely occurs in conventional 
sounds; most music card manufacturers 
probably mean "timbre." The "timbre" 
of a note is its pattern of overtones and 
resonances. People are also used to dis- 
tinguishing different sounds by their 
resonance patterns. For example, a violin 
has a distinct shape which causes the 
sound made by the vibrating strings to 
resonate in a desirable pattern. Reson- 
ance emphasizes certain frequencies of 
sound. 

Overtones are another factor in 
timbre; they are frequencies which are 
multiples of the frequency (pitch) being 
played, usually integer multiples. A note 
played at 100 Hz (hertz, which is cycles 
per second) may also be strong in fre- 
quencies of 200 Hz, 300 Hz, 400 Hz, and 
so on. The resonance of an instrument 






^ 




serves to emphasize certain overtones. If 
the ratio of the loudness of all these over- 
tones stays constant at all times through- 
out a note, the note will have a character- 
istic "waveform." 

Conventional instruments do not have 
a fixed waveform, and since people are 
used to complex overtone patterns (or 
constantly varying waveforms, if you 
like) they generally find fixed- or simple- 
waveform sounds "empty" (as opposed 
to "fat"). 

Waveform Control 

Although there are many who would 
disagree with me, I feel waveform control 
has about the same importance as volume 
control. Rapidly changing waveforms 
create a timbre pattern; and rapidly 
changing volumes create an envelope 
pattern. Whether timbre or envelope is 
more important to making a variety of 
sounds remains the Big Question. Per- 
sonally, I prefer envelope control because 
both methods give you a wide variety of 
sounds (when done equally well), but 
envelope control is almost always less ex- 
pensive than timbre control. If you can 
get both (and I haven't seen a product 
for the Apple that has sufficient control 
of both), then great! But if you find 
yourself choosing one over the other, 
then a closer look at both is in order. 

All notes have some envelope and 
timbre, the question is whether or not the 
envelope and timbre are programmable 
(variable) and to what degree. A com- 
mon situation is a great deal of timbre 
control and virtually no envelope con- 
trol, or vice versa. Let's look at some 
specific music cards. 






a/** 



,©. 



r o 





x 






First, I'll explain the ALF MCI and 
MCI 6 music cards. The MCI has nine 
channels; the MCI 6 has three channels, 
but two cards can be used for six chan- 
nels or three cards for nine. (Since I hap- 
pen to work ALF, I can assure you that 
these music cards are the best buy and 
there's really no reason to look at the 
others; but in order to maintain a 
semblance of objectivity I'll describe a 
few other brands. ) Both ALF cards have 
fixed (non-programmable waveforms. 
They create a "square" waveform which 
has the fundamental frequency (the pitch 
you're playing), plus an overtone three 
times higher in frequency but at one- 
third the loudness, plus one five times 
higher at one-fifth the loudness, and so 
on all the way up the odd numbers. This 
creates a moderately fat sound, but since 
it is unchanging it is not strikingly fat. 

Envelope Control 

Sounds are created mainly through 
envelope control. Each quarter note is 
divided into 240 time slices of equal duration. 
A pattern of loudness is created by changing 
the volume at each of these slices. Generally, 
each note is made up of four pieces; at- 
tack (when the note first starts, going 
from zero loudness to full loudness), de- 
cay (when the note slumps down a little) , 
sustain (when the note is held at a fairly 
high loudness), and release (when the 
note ends, and drops back down to zero 
loudness). 

The sustain stage can be skipped for 
"plucked" sounds, and various other 
changes can be made. In order to make a 
variety of sounds, the attack, decay, and 
release must be capable of many different 
speeds, and the sustain stage must have a 



92 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



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BUSINESS PAC 1 00 




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BUSINESS 100 PROGRAM LIST 



1 RULE78 

2 ANNU1 

3 DATE 

4 DAYYEAR 

5 LEASEINT 

6 BREAKEVN 

7 DEPRSL 

8 DEPRSY 

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11 TAXDEP 

12 CHECK2 

13 CHECKBK1 

14 MORTGAGE/A 

15 MULTMON 

16 SALVAGE 

17 RRVARIN 

18 RRCONST 

19 EFFECT 

20 FVAL 

21 PVAL 

22 LOANPAY 

23 REGWTTH 

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26 ANMDEF 

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30 DEPLETE 

31 BLACKSH 

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37 SHARPE1 

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43 VALAEHNF 

44 CmUTY 

45 SIMPLEX 

46 TRAMS 

47 EOQ 

48 QUECJE1 

49 CVP 

50 CONDPROF 

51 OPTLOSS 

52 FQCIOQ 

NAME 

53 FQEOWSH 

54 FQEOQPB 

55 QUEUECB 

56 NCFANAL 

57 PROF1ND 

58 CAP1 



Interest Apportionment by Rule of the 78's 

Annuity computation program 

Time between dates 

Day of year a particular date falls on 

Interest rate on lease 

Breakeven analysis 

Straightline depreciation 

Sum of the digits depreciation 

Declining balance depreciation 

Double declining balance depreciation 

Cash flow vs. depreciation tables 

Prints NEBS checks along with dairy register 

Checkbook maintenance program 

Mortgage amortization table 

Computes time needed for money to double, triple, 

Determines salvage value of an investment 

Rate of return on investment with variable inflows 

Rate of return on investment with constant inflows 

Effective interest rate of a loan 

Future value of an investment (compound interest) 

Present value of a future amount 

Amount of payment on a loan 

Equal withdrawals from investment to leave over 

Simple discount analysis 

Equivalent & nonequivalent dated values for oblig. 

Present value of deferred annuities 

% Markup analysis for items 

Sinking fund amortization program 

Value of a bond 

Depletion analysis 

Black Scholes options analysis 

Expected return on stock via discounts dividends 

Value of a warrant 

Value of a bond 

Estimate of future earnings per share for company 

Computes alpha and beta variables for stock 

Portfolio selection model-i.e. what stocks to hold 

Option writing computations 

Value of a right 

Expected value analysis 

Bayesian decisions 

Value of perfect information 

Value of additional information 

Derives utility function 

Linear programming solution by simplex method 

Transportation method for linear programming 

Economic order quantity inventory model 

Single server queueing (waiting line) model 

Cost-volume-profit analysis 

Conditional profit tables 

Opportunity loss tables 

Fixed quantity economic order quantity model 

DESCRIPTION 

As above but with shortages permitted 

As above but with quantity price breaks 

Cost-benefit waiting line analysis 

Net cash-flow analysis for simple investment 

Profitability index of a project 

Cap. Asset Pr Model analysis of project 



etc. 



59 WACC 

60 COMPBAL 

61 DISCBAL 

62 MERGANAL 

63 F1NRAT 

64 NPV 

65 PRINDLAS 

66 PRINDPA 

67 SEASIND 

68 TTMETR 

69 TIMEMOV 

70 FUPRINF ' 

71 MAILPAC 

72 LETWRT 

73 SORT3 

74 LABEL 1 

75 LABEL2 

76 BUSBUD 

77 TTMECLCK 

78 ACCTPAY 

79 INVOICE 

80 INVENT2 

81 TELDIR 

82 TIMtJSAN 

83 ASSIGN 

84 ACCTREC 

85 TERMSPAY 

86 PAYNET 

87 SELLPR 

88 ARBCOMP 

89 DEPRSF 

90 (JPSZONE 

91 ENVELOPE 

92 AUTOEXP 

93 1NSF1LE 

94 PAYROLL2 

95 DILANAL 

96 LOANAFFD 

97 RENTPRCH 

98 SALELEAS 

99 RRCONVBD 
100 PORTVAL9 



Weighted average cost of capital 

True rate on loan with compensating bal. required 

True rate on discounted loan 

Merger analysis computations 

Financial ratios for a firm 

Net present value of project 

Laspeyres price index 

Paasche price index 

Constructs seasonal quantity indices for company 

Time series analysis linear trend 

Time series analysis moving average trend 

Future price estimation with inflation 

Mailing list system 

Letter writing system-links with MAILPAC 

Sorts list of names 

Shipping label maker 

Name label maker 

DOME business bookkeeping system 

Computes weeks total hours from timeclock info. 

In memory accounts payable system-storage permitted 

Generate invoice on screen and print on printer 

In memory inventory control system 

Computerized telephone directory 

Time use analysis 

Use of assignment algorithm for optimal job assign. 

In memory accounts receivable system-storage ok 

Compares 3 methods of repayment of loans 

Computes gross pay required for given net 

Computes selling price for given after tax amount 

Arbitrage computations 

Sinking fund depreciation 

Finds UPS zones from zip code 

Types envelope including return address 

Automobile expense analysis 

Insurance policy file 

In memory payroll system 

Dilution analysis 

Loan amount a borrower can afford 

Purchase price for rental property 

Sale-leaseback analysis 

Investor's rate of return on convertable bond 

Stock market portfolio storage-valuation program 



CIRCLE 137 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



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Pick & Choose, continued... 

large number of different levels. Also, the 
volume control circuit must have a large 
number of settings available so the loudness 
changes will be smooth. The more expen- 
sive MCI 6 has 256 volume levels over a 
78 dB range, which gives it steps which 
are usually too small to hear; this makes 
for smooth fade-outs and a wide variety 
of sounds. The modestly priced MCI has 
1 6 volume levels over a 28 dB range; so 
the fade-outs aren't so smooth and the 
variety of sounds isn't as wide. 

Both cards do a reasonable job of mak- 
ing a variety of sounds, mostly thanks to 
the rapid and detailed volume control 
used to make the envelope patterns. 
Some control of timbre can also be 
achieved by using more than one channel 
per voice. For example, if you want to 
put in a second overtone (with a fre- 
quency twice that of the fundamental), 
you would play the melody on another 
channel but transposed up one octave. 
Since a one octave transposition gives a 
frequency twice as high, the fundamental 
of the second channel would be the sec- 
ond overtone for the first chnanel. It 
would also supply a sixth (2 x3) over- 
tone, a tenth ( 2 x 5 ) , a fourteenth (2x7) 
overtone, and so on since it has all odd 
overtones. Using this technique makes a 
sound which has true timbre (as opposed 
to an unchanging waveform) since dif- 
ferent envelope patterns can be used on 
each channel, making the ratio of the 
fundamental and the second overtone 
(for example) variable depending on the 
ratio of the envelope loudnesses at any 
given moment. 

Fortunately, the software makes it 
easy to play the same melody on two 
channels at once, even with different 
transpose values and envelopes, without 
having to enter identical melodies into 
each part separately. So, the ALF cards 
have a great deal of envelope control, 
and a modest amount of timbre control. 

Now let's take a look at the Micro 
Music card. It has four channels. With it, 
you can program the ratios of the various 
overtones to create a complex waveform. 
In order to have a wide variety of sounds, 
it is important to be able to select many 
overtones and to have a large number of 
volume settings available for each over- 
tone. To have control over timbre, it is 
necessary to change the volumes of the 
overtones during each note. 

Although I have an old version of the 
Micro Music card that allows only fixed 
overtone volumes, the new version ap- 
parently allows the volumes to change. 
Specifying the relative volumes of each 
desired overtone defines a particular 
waveform. In the new version, several 
waveforms can be defined which are 
played one at a time in sequence for each 
note. This allows the volumes of the 



overtones to change during a note, creat- 
ing a fatter and more unique sound than 
a single waveform. 

An important factor is the rate at 
which the different waveforms can be 
cycled through; the more waveforms per 
second you can use the smoother your 
timbre will be and the more varied it can 
be. Another factor is whether the se- 
quence of waveforms repeats, holds at 
the last waveform, repeats a small loop 
of waveforms at the end, or whatever. 
By defining the combined volumes of all 
overtones to follow the desired envelope 
pattern, Micro Music also uses this 
sequenced-waveform scheme to generate 
the envelope pattern. Unfortunately, the 
Micro Music card has very little hard- 
ware, placing all the computational bur- 
den on the software which is hard 
pressed to keep up. The waveforms se- 
quence through far too slowly to create 
detailed envelopes. So, the Micro Music 
card has a great deal of timbre control, 
and modest envelope control. 

Finally, let's look at the Mountain 
Computer card. It has 1 6 channels. Like 
the Micro Music card, it can create a 
complex waveform by setting volume 




ratios on overtones. However, it doesn't 
seem to have any provisions for sequen- 
cing through several waveforms to give 
versatile timbre control. Like the ALF 
card, the same melody can be played on 
several channels to expand the timbre 
control. The software has provisions for 
this. Although I don't know the details of 
their envelope generation, the card pro- 
vides very few different envelopes. So, it 
would appear that the Mountain Com- 
puter card has the envelope capabilities 
of the Micro Music card and the timbre 
control of the ALF card, plus generation 
of different waveforms (but only one at 
a time per channel). However, the 
Mountain Computer card has one draw- 
back. On the ALF and Micro Music 
cards (or more precisely, in their soft- 
ware), the user can define the envelope 
or timbre he wishes to use. Not so on the 
Mountain Computer card, where only six 
pre-programmed sounds are available. 



So, if creating a wide variety of sounds 
is important, then you can concentrate 
on the ALF cards, the Micro Music card, 
and all the similar cards. 

Another important feature in creating 
a variety of sounds is the number of 
sounds you can create in each song. On 
the Mountain Computer card, each 
channel is assigned one of the six avail- 
able sounds, and the waveform on a 
given channel cannot be changed from 
measure to measure. On the older Micro 
Music card, the same scheme was used. 
The newer one may allow changes, but 
in any case the amount of memory used 
by a timbre definition is very large and 
only a small number of definitions can be 
in memory for any given song. 

The ALF card, on the other hand, al- 
lows the envelope to be changed separ- 
ately for each voice and at any time dur- 
ing playback. Each envelope definition 
uses only a small amount of memory, 
and in any case specific elements of the 
definition can be changed individually so 
the whole definition need not be stored. 
So let's say the melody of a song starts off 
funky, changes to mellow, and then goes 
back to funky. 

On the Mountain Computer card, you 
would have to program the funky part on 
one voice, and the mellow part on an- 
other; at any given moment only one of 
two voices would be playing but both 
would be "used up." On the ALF card, 
you would define a funky envelope, pro- 
gram the funky part, then change the 
envelope to mellow, program the mellow 
part, go back to funky, and finish up; all 
using only one voice. On any system 
where the sound can be changed from 
note to note you can get much, much 
more variety of sound in each individual 
song. 

I just touched on an important point: 
Mountain Computer's and Micro Music's 
waveform/timbre definitions require a 
large amount of memory for each sound 
being defined, whereas ALF's envelope 
definitions require a smaller amount of 
memory. While there's an obvious ad- 
vantage to using less memory, you should 
also remember that someone has to de- 
fine what's in the memory. The process 
of defining a single overtone-based wave- 
form requires that the user specify more 
information than when defining a single 
envelope. And since Micro Music uses 
several waveforms in sequence, there's a 
lot of work in defining a single timbre! 
Mountain Computer bypasses this prob- 
lem by not allowing the user to define a 
new sound. 

On both the Micro Music card and the 
ALF card, you'll have to understand 
something about how the various specifi- 
cations affect the sound before you'll be 
very good at making up your own sounds 
— that will take some practice. Generally, 
the more information you have to specify 



94 



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CIRCLE 139 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



ZIP 



Pick & Choose, continued... 

to create a sound, the longer it will take 
you to learn how to do it. If you're plan- 
ning on using sounds that others have 
specified, that's easier on the Mountain 
Computer and Micro Music cards (since 
each sound can be read from disk and 
stuck to a particular channel) than on 
the ALF card (where you'd have to step 
through a pre-programmed song to find 
the envelope specifications used). 

Listen 

You'd get tired of songs that all sound 
the same, and that's why I've been stres- 
sing "variety of sound." Ideally, music 
cards would be so good at making any 
sound that you couldn't tell which card 
produced a given song. In actuality, an 
experienced listener can tell which music 
card (or at least which method of syn- 
thesis) has produced a given song. So, all 
the songs will have certain similarities. 

But how "wide" is a wide variety of 
sounds? That's difficult to answer. Since 
ALF sells two models of music cards, 
I'm often asked what the differences are. 
When I mention that one has 256 volume 
levels and the other \6, people say "So 
what?" Then if I say that one sounds 
smoother than the other, they say "Well, 
how much smoother?" (in a confused 
tone). One can hardly say "26.3 points 
smoother on the Hoffmeyer scale" or 



some similar flippant remark. I recom- 
mend that people listen to the two prod- 
ucts. That's your biggest tip in choosing 
a music card. If at all possible, find a 
dealer who will play both cards (or all 
cards) you're considering. Keep in mind 
that a dealer is not likely to have a very 
good stereo system available. (And most 
dealers prefer to carry only one brand ot 
music card, which makes comparisons 
difficult.) 

You probably won't be able to get a 
demonstration record or tape from the 
music card manufacturer. We've made 
several, and are always disappointed — 
tape recorders and records just can't 
capture the sound of digital music cards 
well. 

There are three things to listen/watch 
for. First, is the sound clean — free of 
"pops," steppiness, hissy noise, and so 
forth? Second, how much variation is 
there from song to song — can you hear 
different "instruments" in any given song 
and from song to song? (Some types of 
noise can be eliminated by using exces- 
sive filtering which eliminates certain 
frequency ranges. If all songs sound very 
damped or mellow, it may be that the 
higher frequencies have been cut off. If 
no songs play low, bassy notes, it may be 
that the card can't play low notes. 
Neither of these conditions will be in- 
dicated by a single song, since you can't 




expect each song to cover the full range 
of the card's capabilities.) Third, who 
programmed the songs you're hearing? 
If they're all done by the experts at the 
factory, will you be able to program your 
own? Obviously, new products will not 
have many songs programmed by cus- 
tomers; but any product that's been out 
for a few months should have some 
decent songs programmed by people 
other than the company that made it. 

To summarize the complicated idea of 
price/voice described above, I'd like to 
give my own personal opinion about the 
cards just described. Usually, only one 
channel is needed per voice on the Micro 
Music card; rarely two or more channels 
will be used. So count the Micro Music 
card as a four-voice card. With a price of 
$205, that's $5 1 .25 per voice. Four of the 
six sounds available on the Mountain 
Computer card require three channels 
per voice; one takes two channels per 
voice and the other only one. Songs on 
the Mountain Computer card usually 
take two channels per voice, often three, 
and rarely only one. So count the Moun- 
tain Computer card as an eight- to five- 
voice card. With a price of $545, that's 
$68.12 to $109.00 per voice. Both ALF 
cards usually use only one channel per 
voice, but often use two channels on one 
or two of the voices. So count the MCI 
as a seven- to nine-voice card. When 
you're using just one MCI 6 card you 
tend to use just one channel per voice, so 
count the MC 16 as a three-voice card, but 
count three MCI 6s used together as a 
seven- to nine-voice card like the MCI. 
With a price of $195, the MCI is $21.67 to 
$27.86 per voice. The MCI 6, with a price 
of $245, is $81.67 per voice but up to 
$105.00 per voice when using three cards. 

Range 

The remaining hardware considera- 
tions are less important that the ones just 
discussed. The first is the pitch range. A 
piano has 88 notes called halftones 
(there are 12 halftones in an octave), 
starting with an "A" three octaves below 
middle "C" and ending with a "C" four 
octaves above middle "C." This is 
roughly 27.5 Hz to 4,1 86 Hz; which may 
surprise you since "everyone knows" that 
human hearing (and good stereo equip- 
ment) goes up to about 20,000 Hz. Well, 
if you consider that the overtones of 
4,186 Hz are 8,372, 12,558, 16,744, 
20,930 Hz, and so on you'll see that you 
can get up to 20,000 pretty quickly with 
just a few overtones. (However, Moun- 
tain Computer filters out frequencies 
above about 1 3,000 Hz and Micro Music 
filters out frequencies above 3,500 Hz. 
This will make the audible frequency 
range above the filter frequency to 
20,000 Hz empty, creating "damped" 
sounds. ) 



96 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



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CIRCLE 306 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Pick & Choose, continued... 

The pitch range should be specified in 
octaves or halfsteps. The Micro Music 
card has a range of four octaves. On the 
ALF cards and the Mountain Computer 
card, it is a little more complicated, but 
ALF's MCI has a stated range of 72 
halfsteps (with 12 halfsteps per octave, 
that's six octaves), the MCI 6 a stated 
range of 96 halfsteps (eight octaves), 
and Mountain Computer a range of eight 
octaves. 

Tuning Inaccuracy 

The reason the pitch range is com- 
plicated has to do with tuning inac- 
curacy. ALF's MCI really has a pitch 
range from 62.5 Hz (about the "C" two 
octaves below middle "C") to 63,920 Hz 
(about two octaves above human hear- 
ing); the MC16 from 27.2 Hz (just be- 
low the lowest piano note) to 891,000 
Hz (over five octaves above human hear- 
ing) ; the Mountain Computer card about 
0.5 Hz (click, click, click) to 13,000 Hz 
(near the limit of human hearing) . 

So why don't these cards claim large 
pitch ranges? Because only certain fre- 
quencies can be produced, and some- 
times they aren't very close to the fre- 
quencies you want to produce. For ex- 
ample, the ALF MCI can produce 1,024 
different frequencies: about 63,920 Hz 
divided by any integer from 1 to 1,024. 
So if you want to produce an "A" at 440 
Hz, you can either use 63,920/145 which 
is 440.83 Hz or 63,920/146 which is 
437.81 Hz. — obviously you'd use the 
145 divisor. But either way you'll be 
slightly off the desired pitch. 

Musicians measure this difference in 
units they call "cents." A cent is one- 
hundredth of a halfstep. In other words, 
if you were trying to produce an "A" 
but were exactly 100 cents sharp, you'd 
be right on for producing an "A" sharp. 

To calculate the tuning accuracy, you 
divide the frequency you're actually pro- 
ducing by the frequency you want to 
produce, take the log of the result, divide 
that by the log of 2, and multiply every- 
thing by 1 200. Use any base log you like. 
For the previous example. (LOG (440.83 
/440) LOG(2))*1200 is 3.25. A posi- 
tive result means the pitch is sharp, a 
negative results means that the pitch is 
flat. 

The stated top pitch of the MCI is a 
"C" of about 4,186 Hz. But why not do 
the next higher "C" at 8,372 Hz? Well, 
you could either use 63,920/8 which is 
7,990 Hz and flat by 80.86 cents (!), or 
you could use 63,920/7 which is 9,1 3 1 .43 
Hz and sharp by 1 50.32 cents ( ! ! ) . Obvi- 
ously, the 150 cent error is totally un- 
usable, since it is even higher than "C" 
sharp. The 80 cent error is also no good, 
since the frequency would be closer to 
"B" than "C." In fact, an error of just 50 
cents would 1 mean the frequency is half 



30 

25 
20 
15 

t 10 

Sharp 

5 

Cents 

5 
Flat 

I 10 



15 

20 

25 

30 
27.5 Hz 



55 



110 



220 | 440 

Middle C 



880 



1760 



3520 



7040 



Graph 1. ALF MC16 



These graphs show how accurately an equal tempered scale can be produced. A 
flat line would indicate perfect tuning; a flat line at cents would mean perfect 
tuning at the standard A-440 tuning. The indicated frequencies (27.5 Hz, 55 Hz, and 
so on) are A's, each one octave apart. The twelve data points per octave have been 
connected by plotted lines to improve visualization. 

Graph 1 shows the tuning accuracy possible with ALF's MC16 (which uses a 16-bit 



30 
25 
20 
15 




15 
20 
25 
30 



27.5 Hz 55 



110 



220 | 440 

Middle C 



880 



1760 



3520 



7040 



Graph 2. Mountain Computer 



98 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



30 

25 

20 

15 

j 10 
Sharp 

5 

Cents 

5 
Flat 

\ 10 



15 

20 

25 

30 
27.5 Hz 




55 



110 220 | 440 880 

Middle C 



Graph 3. ALF MCI 



1760 



3520 



7040 



divider circuit). Graph 2 shows the accuracy possible with Mountain Computer's 
card (which uses a 16-bit cbunter circuit). Graph 3 shows the possible accuracy of 
ALF's MCI or any card using the Texas Instruments SN76 chips at the same clock 
frequency (the chip has a 10-bit divided circuit). Graph 4 shows a hypothetical card 
using a General Instrument AY-3 chip (which has a 12-bit divider), note especially 
the increased pitch range over the SN76 chip of graph 3. 



30 
25 

20 
15 

t io 

Sharp 

5 

Cents 

5 
Flat 

i 10 

15 
20 
25 
30 




27.5 Hz 55 



110 



220 | 440 

Middle C 



880 



1760 



3520 



7040 



Graph 4. General Instrument AY-3 



way between the note you want and the 
next note, so the listener would have to 
guess which note it is. 

In practice, the tuning inaccuracy must 
be far less than 50 cents or the song will 
sound horribly out of tune. Well then, is 
the inaccuracy of 3.25 cents mentioned 
in the A-440 example going to sound 
bad? It's hard to say. Experts generally 
agree that an error of 2 cents or less can 
be counted as "perfect" — people can 
rarely even tell which pitch is higher than 
the other when a pitch and a pitch sharp 
or flat by 2 cents are played one after 
the other. Probably anything less than 5 
cents can also be considered excellent. 
Errors of 1 cents become rather obvious 
at times. 

The tuning accuracy of the Micro 
Music card is hard to determine due to 
the method used to generate tones. Aside 
from an original version where every- 
thing was quite sharp ("intentionally"), 
the tuning doesn't seem bad but does 
have a lot of frequency "jitter." The tun- 
ing of the ALF cards and the Mountain 
Computer card is easy to determine since 
they both use a frequency division ap- 
proach. Its easy to see that near the bot- 
tom of the piano scale, where the fre- 
quencies are 27.5 Hz, 29.14, 30.87, 32.70 
Hz, and so on, a great deal of accuracy 
(in terms of Hz) is required, whereas 
near the top, where the frequencies are 
4,186 Hz, 3,951, 3,729, 3,520 Hz, and 
so on, little accuracy is required. 

The ALF cards have a lot of frequency 
resolution at the low end of the scale (the 
MC16 can produce frequencies of 
27.1912, 27.1916, 27.1920, 27.1924 HZ and 
so on) and little at the top end (where the 
MC16 goes 891,000, 594,000, 445,500, 
356,400 Hz and so on), so they fit the piano 
scale nicely . The worst cast tuning inaccur- 
acy in their lowest octave is 0.3 cents for 
the MC16 and 1.75 cents for the MCI. 
Both go more out of tune as the pitches 
get higher; the worst case in their highest 
octave is 1.5 cents for the MCI 6 and 33 
cents for the MC 1 . These figures include a 
plus-or-minus 0.015% inaccuracy for the 
crystal which provides the original fre- 
quency reference. 

Fortunately, the most "out of tune" 
frequencies of the ALF cards are above 
the piano scale range. Unfortunately for 
Mountain Computer, who uses a slightly 
different technique, their most "out of 
tune" frequencies are at the bottom of 
the piano scale. For example, the lowest 
piano scale note has a frequency of 27.5 
Hz, which you'd think you could get 
"right on" since Mountain Computer 
claims to produce any frequency in 0.5 
Hz steps, but really you get a choice of 
27.31 Hz or 27.80 Hz: 12.06 cents flat 
or 1 8.58 cents sharp! It does get progres- 
sively better (see the graphs). 

If you're using the music card as a 
frequency generator, you'll want to in- 



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Pick & Choose, continued... 

vestigate the frequencies available in de- 
tail. If you're playing music, you'll mostly 
want to consider the usable range and 
whether or not the tuning accuracy is 
reasonable. Remember that it may be 
harder to hear tuning inaccuracy at the 
ends of the scales than in the middle, 
where your hearing is good and most 
notes are played. However, if you're into 
ear-training or teaching perfect-pitch, 
you'll want really good tuning accuracy. 

Stereo 

Another hardware feature is stereo 
outputs. Having stereo (instead of 
mono) outputs does add a little to the 
music. No music card I've seen has 
elaborate stereo provisions (such as 
"pan" or pseudo-ambience), they just 
provide two audio outputs instead of one, 
with some method for putting certain 
channels on certain outputs. The ALF 
MCI 6 has only one output, and is there- 
fore mono. However, when you use two 
MC16's (to get six channels), there are 
two outputs, so three channels are on the 
"left" and three on the "right." If you 
use three MC16's (to get nine channels), 
it adds three more channels which are on 
both the left and right outputs, to create 
a "middle" effect. The MCI has the 
same stereo configuration you would get 
with three MC16's. The software for 
both ALF cards provides a com- 
mand to select which stereo position each 
channel will be on, but the stereo posi- 
tion of a channel cannot be changed from 
note to note. 

The Micro Music card I have does not 
allow stereo, although Micro Music says 
their new software allows stereo if you 
use two cards (although you would not 
get eight channels by using two four- 
channel cards) . The Mountain Computer 
card has eight channels on the left out- 
put and eight channels on the right, and 
positioning is set by command (like the 
ALF cards, position cannot change from 
note to note). However, let's say you're 
using one of the three channel per voice 
sounds. Two of these on the left and two 
more on the right would use six out of 
the eight channels for each output. Then, 
you wouldn't be able to get the fifth voice 
because neither output would have three 
channels left. Apparently there's some 
way to set the card to mono if you want 
to get that fifth voice. Very interesting 
effects can be made on any card by play- 
ing the same thing on two channels, one 
on the left and one on the right, and de- 
laying one channel by a very small 
amount. This is easier to do with some 
software than others; see the software 
descriptions. 

The ALF MCI 6, the Micro Music 
card, and the Mountain Computer card 
represent special designs; but many 







u 



Figure la. 



- 



Figure lb. 



Figures 1 and 2 show a greatly simplified view of the output signals of the two pop- 
ular 3-voice chips. 

Figure la shows the Texas Instruments SN76 output, generating a square wave 
frequency that varies between a positive ( + ) and negative (-) level. Figure lb shows 
the average voltage or D.C. offset. Figure 2a shows the General Instrument AY-3 
output, generating a square wave frequency that varies between a positive ( + ) level 
and ground (0). Figure 2b shows the average voltage or D.C. offset, which is always 
about half the amplitude of the square wave output. Each time the D.C. offset 
changes, a "click" or "pop" is heard; the larger the change, the louder the pop. 







uu 



Liian 



Figure 2a. 







T_ 



"T 



Figure 2b. 



102 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



SOFTWARE FOR THE MIND 






Human communication. The use of sight, sound and speech to express 

ideas and stimulate thought. 

Our software designers create programs that play on the senses to more 

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Look. Listen. People are talking about Advanced Operating Systems. 

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Pick & Choose, continued... 

music cards just rely on one of the three- 
channel synthesizer chips: the G.I. 
(General Instrument) AY-3-8910 
(or the functionally identical AY-3- 
8912) or the TI (Texas Instruments) 
SN/76489N (or its friends, the 
SN76489AN and SN76494N). 

There are two major differences in 
these two manufacturers' chips, but 
otherwise cards using these chips can be 

considered virtually identical from a 
strictly hardware capability viewpoint — 
about the only thing you can change is 
the master clock frequency, which slides 
the tuning inaccuracy around and 
changes the usable pitch range. 

Note that from a total hardware view- 
point, there can be many significant dif- 
ferences. Is the design correct? — will it 
work under all conditions, and not draw 
too much power or otherwise affect my 
Apple? Does it have a removable audio 
cable, on-board audio amplifier capabil- 
ity, or other features? On our ALF MCI, 
we spend a little extra and put latches on 
the board to protect the expensive chips 
from static and eliminate the need for 
"holding" the processor — some cards 
"hold" the processor during program- 
ming which gives the software less time 
to generate detailed envelopes or per- 
form other tasks. 

One difference is that the SN76 chips 
have a ten-bit frequency divider, whereas 
the AY-3 chips have a twelve-bit fre- 
quency divider; this gives the AY-3 chip 
boards better tuning accuracy (see the 
graphs). This sounds like a good reason 
to pick the AY-3 chip, but due to the 
other difference we at ALF picked the 
SN76489N for our MCI. The SN76 
chips have a symmetric output where the 
square wave alternates between a "plus" 
and a "minus" level, so the average out- 
put voltage (or D.C. offset) is always 
zero. The AY-3 chips do not: their out- 
puts alternate between a "plus" level and 
zero, so the average output voltage (or 
D.C. offset) is half the volume level; this 
creates unwanted clicks or "pops" at 
each volume change — very poor design. 
Who cares if your tuning is a bit more 
accurate if the sound quality is poor? 

THE SOFTWARE 

Software features can't be compared 
quite as "scientifically" as hardware 
features; and yet it is probably the soft- 
ware features that most determine 
whether or not a particular product will 
be good for you. Most companies seem 
to feel that hardware is easy to design — 
build it, and if it works you're done. 
Obviously, there's more to it than that — 
you want hardware that works all the 
time and in every Apple, that doesn't 
damage the Apple, that is reliable and as 
insensitive to static electricity as possible, 




that is low cost without being cheap, that 
is well "balanced" (isn't missing impor- 
tant features and doesn't have wasted 
"just looks good in the specs" features), 
and so on. But there is a certain amount 
of truth to the idea that hardware can be 
designed rather easily, especially com- 
pared to software. 

Software should be written to take the 
best advantage of the hardware. But 
everything has its good points and bad 
points — do the amazing advantages of 
feature #29 justify cutting down the 
maximum song length by 2K? And once 
you've picked which features should be 
implemented and in what manner, does 
the software work? How do you tell? 

I've seen plenty of music cards for the 
Apple, and I've always been able to find 
at least one error in the software. I don't 
know of any errors in the ALF Entry 
program, and no customer has every re- 
ported finding one, but does that mean 
there aren't any? I mentioned that I have 
an "old" version of the Micro Music 
card, but actually I think I have the most 
recent hardware, and Micro Music has 
come out with new software. 

Mountain Computer was nice enough 
to send their customers new software 
when they came out with a revision. 
Several other companies have also come 
out with new software for their cards; no 
doubt it's confusing to their customers. 
I've never liked people who keep coming 
out with "new" software, usually they're 
fixing errors they made in the original 



version rather than adding or refining 
features. Why didn't they find the errors 
before they released the original version? 
Probably they wanted to keep ahead of 
their competitors — the people who are 
actually testing their software before they 
send it out. 

One thing I dislike even more than 
"new" software is all that incredible soft- 
ware that's "going to be available." 
Here's a great tip for you: if you can't get 
it now, don't count on ever getting it. 
That's what I've been doing in this article, 
because I've seen too many promises. 
Software that's "going to be available" 
does everything, does it on a 4K system 
without a disk, and does it faster than an 
Apple III. 

As advertised, Mountain Computer's 
music card has "16 voices" with "wave- 
forms, envelopes, and amplitudes which 
are fully programmable for each voice," 
and will "print out sheet music with a 
graphics printer," plus a variety of other 
questionable statements. In fact, as pur- 
chased the card does have 1 6 "voices" to 
some degree, but they do not each have 
programmable waveforms and envelopes 
(as already mentioned, they're not pro- 
grammable by the user); and there's no 
provision at all for printing sheet music 
on a graphics printer. 

Most companies don't make claims 
that are simply false, usually they're just 
"stretched" a lot (probably because false 
claims aren't just unethical, they're il- 
legal). I talked to Mountain Computer's 



104 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



r 



ALF Music 

Synthesizer 



The ALF Apple Music Synthesizer (AMS) is an easy to 
use peripheral which allows you to program music into 
an Apple II computer using standard musical notation. 
The ALF kit includes the synthesizer board (plugs into any 
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extensive user manual. 

Sophisticated Music Entry Program 

Sheet music is easily entered using the Apple game 
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tals, etc.). One game paddle moves a cursor up and down 
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automatic— you don't have to keep writing in every sharp 

or flat! 

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required for stereo. A total of three synthesizers can be 
used simultaneously for a maximum of nine voices. By 
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different instrumental sounds can be simulated. 

Eight-octave Range 

The ALF Music Synthesizer has a pitch range of eight 
octaves— a wider range than a grand piano. The ALF can 
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between the keyboard notes of a piano. (The pitch range is 
from 27.5 to 55, 000 Hertz, well beyond the limits of human 
hearing.) Tuning accurancy is virtually perfect within 
two cents of pitch value. 

Every parameter of the ENTRY program can be changed 
again and again during a musical piece. For example, you 
can make changes in key, time signature, volume, and 
timbre (envelope). Parts can be edited at any time, also. 
Notes can be added or deleted, note length can be 
changed, as well as pitch, volume, etc. 

You can save songs on either cassette or disk, and play 
them back using either ENTRY or PLAY. The playback 
speed is adjusted with one of the game paddles, and can 
be varied during the playback, if you wish to change the 
overall tempo. 

Colorful Playback Display 

The ALF Music Synthesizer features a 16-color low-res 
graphic display during song playback. Each musical part 
is represented on a stylized piano "keyboard"— the 
intensity of the note determines the color, and the pitch is 
shown in relation to "middle C". 

The ALF Music Synthesizer requires the use of an 
external audio amplifier. Stereo programming is possible 
with the use of two or three synthesizer boards. 

The ALF software includes the ENTRY and PLAY 
programs, sample songs, an introduction to "envelope 
shaping", and demonstrations of advanced uses of the 
synthesizer. 




MIT © 



J J AW. . n* ~ 



INS ML Til 



SURE 



SUB 



9474 



SAUES 



With the ALF software, entry of music is easy, 
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Nine Voices for only $198 

The new ALF "AM-H" music synthesizer offers an 
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The AM-II uses the same excellent ENTRY and PLAY 
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The AM-II has stereo output (3 voices in left, 3 voices in 
the middle, 3 voices in the right). 

How can the AM-II offer so much for only $198.00? The 
two basic differences between the AM-II and the ALF 
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become increasingly inaccurate. Also, the AM-II has a 
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The AM-II is manufactured with the same high quality 
standards as other products from the ALF Corporation. 
No sacrifice has been made in reliability; the new AM-II is 
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Professional musicians will still want to use the original 
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volume controls (the AMS has a range of 8 octaves). But 
for the Apple owner who is interested in music as a hobby, 
the AM-II is the best music peripheral value available 
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Requires : 16K Apple II or Apple II Plus, cassette or Disk 
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cords are included). 

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Pick & Choose, continued... 

representative at a local store, and he as- 
sured me that we would receive software 
that allows sounds to be defined by the 
user "in October (1980)." A new soft- 
ware package and manual did indeed ar- 
rive in October ("Version 1.2"), but it 
only corrected a few errors; there were 
no new capabilities evident. I'll be really 
surprised if Mountain Computer ever 
comes out with software that prints sheet 
music where the printout really looks 
something like the sheet music (with 
proper beaming, flag direction, note and 
rest placement, slurs and other expres- 
sion marks, and so on). So take my tip 
and buy based on what you actually get. 
I hate to say that you shouldn't trust ad- 
vertising, since so many companies are 
very honest, but with the advertising I've 
seen there's no choice — look before you 
leap, let the buyer beware, and don't 
count your chickens before they hatch. 

Ease of Use 

Probably the most important aspect of 
software is ease of use. To illustrate, 
when I boot my "Super Sound Genera- 
tor Disk Version 1.0" from Symtec and 
press any key to get to the main program, 
I can then press control D to access the 
disk commands, then press L to load a 
song, type the song number and press re- 
turn. Everything's fine so far, the song 
loads and appears on the screen. Now 
if I just press B (for "backspace"), 
funny things start appearing on the 
screen; then one by one the disk drives 

on my Apple turn on and erase what- 
ever disk happens to be in them (unless 
they're write-protected). Since this sort 
of operation puts the user in a very 
"cautious" mood, fearful that the next 
keystroke will erase his song, he probably 
won't be feeling very creative. Any 
sort of annoyance tends to interfere 
with creativity; the smaller annoyances 
can probably be tolerated, but the bigger 
ones destroy the whole mood of music 
entry. 

So a big factor is song erasure. You 
want a system that doesn't erase or "lose" 
your song unless you really want it lost. 
All music systems have some commands 
that will erase your song, and mostly 
these commands are explained in the 
manual. But clearly Symtec didn't intend 
to have the backspace command erase 
my song! Generally, you can expect 
"sloppy" programs— ones that don't have 
a lot of user-input checking, that plot funny 
things on the screen when you ask for 
something strange, that are missing vital 
features, and so on— to accidentally lose 
your song in more ways than well-thought- 
out programs. 

In fact, any error that causes the pro- 
gram to die, winding up in Basic or the 
monitor, will leave you wondering how 



to save (or recover to some degree) the 
song you were working on at the time. 
Unfortunately, there's practically no way 
to tell whether the software you plan to 
buy is well written or not; and most 
people are reluctant to demand a refund 
when they do purchase software with 
"bugs" or errors. Remember that if the 
system you buy doesn't perform up to 
advertised specifications or has blatant 
errors, you have a legal right to a full 
refund— it's the only way things will start 
improving. 



You might be wondering what kind of 
commands erase your song on purpose. 
Well, the most obvious one is NEW, a 
popular command for erasing the current 
song 'so you can start over. Another one 
is LOAD (or READ, or control-D L, or 
whatever), the current song must be 
erased so the desired song can be loaded 
from disk (or tape in some cases). 

One of the most interesting ways to 
erase your song I've seen is on the Moun- 
tain Computer system. In order to play 
your song (a rather common operation), 



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Pick & Choose, continued... 

you must type QUIT to leave the editor, 
then a menu appears where you can se- 
lect the playback program. Unless you 
SAVE your song before you try to play 
it, it's gone. When you type QUIT the 
program shows VERIFY on the screen, 
but since the system is constantly show- 
ing VERIFY (and doing so whether or 
not your song is really about to be 
erased), you soon get used to im- 
mediately typing Y to go on past the 
"verify." 

Sometimes commands don't erase 
your song, they just mangle it beyond 
repair. An example is ALF's SPEED 
command, which can be used to do in- 
teresting things like make all the notes in 
your song the same length— good luck 
fixing that up! These commands make 
wondrous large-scale changes in your 
song, but they usually have a nasty 
tendency to do whatever you asked them 
to do, even if you've asked for something 
hopelessly stupid. The ALF manual rec- 
ommends that you save your song be- 
fore using the SPEED command, and 
this is good advice for all commands that 
have large-scale change possibilities (not 
just in music systems— you'd be wise to 
save a program before trying Applesoft or 
Integer Basic renumber). 

Blunder Repair 

That brings up the next important fea- 
ture to look for: getting out of blunders. 
Once you've made a mistake, how easily 
can you get back to where you were be- 
fore you made it? On nearly all systems, 
once you do a NEW or a LOAD your old 
song is past recovery. People with any 
experience at all don't seem to have any 
problem with inadvertent NEW's (and 
people who do have trouble will get lots 
of experience rather quickly). The more 
common mistakes are skipping a note, 
putting in an extra note, putting in the 
wrong key signature or forgetting to put 
it in, and so on. 

Usually, little things like skipping a 
note are rather simple to fix up. Leaving 



out the key signature tends to get real 
messy. When I went through Mountain 
Computer's example in their preliminary 
manual, it told me to put in the wrong 
key signature; being mostly absorbed in 
learning about their system I failed to 
notice that the key signature on the 
screen didn't match the key signature in 
the music they'd given. So, I merrily put 
in one voice, then saved the song and 
went off to the playback program. The 
mistake became rather obvious at that 
point. Then I went back to the editing 
program to correct the key signature, 
swearing at the manual and myself, only 
to discover that it wouldn't be very easy 
to correct. When I'd changed the key 
signature to the correct one, sharps ap- 
peared in front of all the notes that had 
been entered as sharp due to the old key 
(which had too many sharps), just as I'd 
expected. Now all I'd have to do is 
change the pitches of the notes that have 
sharp signs in the display, but not in the 
sheet music. 

Mountain Computer has a "change 
duration" command which changes the 
duration of a note without changing the 
pitch. They also have a "change pitch" 
command that I thought would change 
the pitch of a note without changing its 
duration— exactly which I wanted to do. 
I soon discovered, however, that "change 
pitch" simply deletes a note and requires 
you to enter it again— it doesn't just 
change the pitch. Clearly, it was easier to 
type NEW and reenter the song, so I did. 
This is the worst sort of blunder you can 
get into, where you pretty much have to 
start over. Correcting a key signature 
error isn't particularly easy with any 
music system I've seen. However, Moun- 
tain Computer could have made it easier 
by including all three modes of error cor- 
rection: replace, insert, and delete. 

The Mountain Computer system is al- 
ways in "insert" mode: if you put in a 
wrong note you have to delete it and 
then insert the correct note. Fortunately, 
they have a couple of ways to delete so 
that fixing an incorrect note is easy, es- 
pecially if it's the most recently entered 
note. They do not have a "replace" mode. 
In contrast, the ALF entry system is 
normally in "replace" mode, where the 



note under the cursor is replaced by any 
new note you might put in. (Most sys- 
tems have a "cursor" which is used like 
Apple's flashing text cursor, to indicate 
which letter, or note in this case, is being 
acted on.) Using replace mode, I could 
fix that incorrect key signature by step- 
ping the cursor through all the notes, and 
reentering any sharp notes without hav- 
ing to delete them first. (I would have to 
select the proper note duration too, just 
like with the Mountain Computer setup. ) 

The ALF entry system also has an "in- 
sert" mode, where all entered notes are 
inserted in front of the cursor, which can 
be turned on and off by the user. Delete 
commands are also available. 

The version I have of the Micro Music 
system has by far the worst editing of the 
three systems I've been focusing on, it 
has neither delete nor insert. If you make 
a mistake— forget it. Only certain types 
of errors can be laboriously edited, if you 
skip or duplicate a note you must start 
over from that point. A really good sys- 
tem will let you change any particular 
item or setting without having to change 
the others or start over. 

Finding blunders easily is the first step 
in fixing them. There are two main fea- 
tures that allow for easy checking. The 
first is audible pitch entry, where the note 
being entered plays through the music 
card. This allows you to hear a wrong 
note as soon as it is entered. ALF and 
Micro Music have this feature, Moun- 
tain Computer doesn't. The second is au- 
tomatic measure bars during entry. If the 
system will automatically draw measure 
bars where they belong according to the 
notes in the measure and the time signa- 
ture (meter), you'll be able to spot errors 
in note duration fairly quickly. For ex- 
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the music called for a quarter note, the 
measure bar drawn on the screen will be 
an eighth note (the desired quarter note 
minus the actual eighth note) further to 
the right than the measure bar in the 
sheet music. ALF has automatic meas- 
ure bars, Mountain Computer doesn't, 
and Micro Music only shows them when 
it's easy. 

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Pick & Choose, continued 




be able to spot and fix almost all errors 
as you go along. This is much easier than 
finding out there's a problem when you 
play the whole song, and then having to 
find it. 

Editing 

When you can find errors as you go, 
then fast, easy editing is important. With 
the ALF system and the Mountain Com- 
puter system, when an error is made you 
more or less just back up and fix it. With 
Micro Music system you must leave 
"compose" mode and then use the EDIT 
command to fix the problem (although, 
as already mentioned, some problems 
can be "fixed" only by reentering from 
the point the error occurred). 

When you're going back to fix an error 
you didn't notice, or maybe just to insert 
an embellishment, you'll need easy 
cursor movement. The Micro Music sys- 
tem allows you to play your song slowly, 
while the sheet music is displayed, and 
then stop it at any point. A reference 
number is displayed, and you can edit at 
that reference number. The Mountain 
Computer system allows you to step 
through the sheet music one note at a 
time (very slowly), plus has commands 
to go to the current position in any part, 
and a command to go to the beginning of 
any measure (in which case you must 
have manually entered measure bars at 
the correct places). 

The ALF system allows you to step 
through the sheet music one note at a 
time (quickly) either playing the pitches 
or not, plus has commands to go to the 
current measure in any part (or to the 
beginning of any part), and a command 
to go to the begining of any measure 
(and of course you don't have to put in 
the measure bars since they're auto- 



matic). Look for both these features: 
step through note-by -note, and zip over 
to a particular measure. 

Another factor in editing is program 
speed. If you constantly have to wait for 
the program to get finished with what 
you did last, you'll get quite annoyed. 
Expect programs written in Basic to be 
the slowest, and programs written in 
assembly language to be fastest. This is 
not always the case, however. The Micro 
Music software, written in Basic, seems 
to be faster than the Mountain Computer 
software, which is written in XPLO (a 
low-level relatively fast language written 
by some people out in my neck of the 
woods— Denver). The ALF software 
is written in 6502 Assembly Language 
and is considerably faster. Most systems 
keep the main program and the song 
you're entering in memory. Mountain 
Computer is one of the rare exceptions. 

Apparently Mountain Computer 
couldn't get everything to fit, so they 
store the parts they're not using at the 
moment on disk. This is probably the 
biggest annoyance in using the Moun- 
tain Computer system. If you use an ob- 
scure command, you have to wait while 
it reads it from disk; then when you go 
back to non-obscure commands, you 
have to wait while it reads them from 
disk! Just to play your song, you have to 
save it on disk, read in the menu program 
from disk, use it to read in the playback 
program from disk, read your song from 
disk, read the sound definitions from 
disk, and (finally!) play the song. Then 
to get back you have to read the menu 
program from disk, it reads the editor 
program (or at least part of it) from disk, 
then you can load your song from disk. 
Not including playback time, it takes 
about half a minute for even the smallest 
song. So, look for a system which doesn't 
use the disk once it gets going (except 
for saving and loading songs, of course) 
and which doesn't have annoying execu- 
tion pauses. 



Accidentals 

Another factor which plays a big part 
in ease of entering is accidental han- 
dling. Insist on automatic key signatures. 
This lets you specify the key signature, 
and notes will automatically be sharped 
or flatted as indicated by the key. Just 
about everybody has it, although some 
allow only one key signature, which is 
used throughout the song, and some al- 
low you to change the key at will. One 
interesting point is that the Mountain 
Computer system allows up to seven 
sharps or flats, while the ALF systems 
allow only six for some strange reason. 
Even once you've got the key signature 
going for you, there will still be some 
notes, called "accidentals," which are 

110 



sharp or flat regardless of the key signa- 
ture, or natural to cancel out a sharp or 
flat. I think everyone allows you to enter 
notes as sharp, flat, or natural; but some 
systems display only sharps (or only 
flats, or only whatever the key signature 
is using). The reasoning behind this is 
that, for example, "A" sharp and "B" flat 
have the same frequency (in an equal 
tempered scale), so why bother with two 
notations? Musicians turn purple and 
scream incoherently when you mention 
turning sharps into flats, but the average 
user should only be concerned with 
whether or not he'll be able to compare 
the sheet music and the screen easily 
when the notes are changed on him. We 
found no difficulty in displaying the 
notes as entered, sharp or flat, but Moun- 
tain Computer changes everything to 
whatever the key is using. On the other 
hand, Mountain Computer allows direct 
entry of double sharps and double flats, 
whereas on the ALF system you'd have 
to go up (or down) a half-step yourself. 

[I'd like to digress a moment to men- 
tion a recent letter I received claiming 
our ad which joked "Announcing the 
music card that turns you into a Rock 
Star. Girls will climb over each other to 
kiss your feet" in the September '80 issue 
of Creative Computing, was "sexist" and 
implied that only males could operate 
music cards. Actually, having pictured 
a male we could hardly say "Boys" will 
climb over each other" and "People will 
climb over each other" doesn't seem to 
make it. So before you all write to me 
about "he'll be able" and "changed on 
him," dig out your dictionaries, because 
it's not sexist. The masculine forms in- 
clude the feminine when speaking in 
general (and thanks, Heinlein, for point- 
ing that out). So take heart and quit 
perverting English with s/he's!] 

Standard sheet music requires that any 
accidental continue throughout the 
measure. That is, if a note is sharp, it 
should stay sharp throughout the measure 




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Pick & Choose, continued... 

unless counteracted by a flat or natural 
sign. There is disagreement on whether 
or not this should affect all octaves, like 
the key signature does; in the ALF sys- 
tem we don't have it apply to all octaves. 
Although very few systems have this fea- 
ture, it is handy and you'll almost cer- 
tainly make a lot of mistakes if your sys- 
tem doesn't have it. If the system has 
this feature but not automatic measure 
bars, you'll have to be extra careful to 
get the measure bars in the right places. 

Pitch Range 

Enough about editing, let's get on to 
song features. Pitch range, as discussed 
above for hardware, is important. Eight 
octaves, if they start at about the same 
place as a piano, are enough for almost 
anything. Fewer octaves, preferably right 
around middle "C," limit you somewhat. 
Most systems let you position a note on 
displayed staves to set the pitch. Some 
require you to type note codes, like CS4 
for "C" Sharp in the fourth octave. 



Octave numbers can get to be annoying, 
and you'll find you have a lot of notes 
that are off an octave or two (these can 
be really difficult to hear or find). The 
most amusing scheme I've seen is Moun- 
tain Computer's, which uses both staves 
and octave numbers. The displayed 
music on this system may look like the 
sheet music, but it's only right if the 
octave number shown on the screen has 
the right value— and they don't bother 
to tell you what the octave numbers mean 
(with respect to frequency in Hz or 
standard pitch names) or which number 
is the right one! I had to find out by play- 
ing a note and comparing it to another 
music card. So, look for a system which 
displays pitches in standard positional 
notation, so it is easy to compare what 
you've entered with the sheet music. 

Another feature is note durations. 
Most music is made up of whole notes, 
half notes, quarter notes, eighth notes, 
and sixteenth notes. A half note plays 
half as long as a whole note, a quarter 
note a quarter as long as a whole note, 




and so on. Many songs also use even 
shorter notes, thirty-second notes, sixty- 
fourth notes, and so on. Lots of songs 
use dotted notes. A dotted note plays 
three-halves as long as a non-dotted note. 

For example a dotted quarter note 
plays as long as a quarter note and an 
eighth note combined. These note dura- 
itons are pretty much required for 
normal music entry. 

You'll quite often also find notes that 
are "tied" together, which means to play 
two or more notes as if they were one 
(they all have the same pitch, otherwise 
they're "slurred" notes). Tied notes serve 
two purposes: to make notes longer than 
whole notes (for instance, tying several 
whole notes together to make a note that 
plays for several measures), and to make 
more complex note durations (for in- 
stance, tying a quarter note and a six- 
teenth note to make a note that plays a 
little longer than a quarter note). 

Another popular note duration in- 
volves "triplets." A triplet note plays for 
two-thirds as long as a non-triplet note. 
This lets you play three notes in the space 
of two. Look for a system that has as 
many different note durations as 
possible. 

Generally, rests can be entered with 
any note duration available for notes. 
The ALF system has a particularly 
clever/ obvious system for note dura- 
tions: each note has a stored duration in 
"time periods," each time period being 
variable in duration at playback, but 
roughly 1 /400th of a second. Usually a 
quarter note is stored as having 240 
time periods, so an eighth note would 
have 120 and so on. A triplet quarter 
note would have 160 time periods. A big 
advantage of this scheme is that unusual 
note durations can be obtained. For ex- 
ample, if you want five notes to play in 
the space of one quarter note, you can 
enter notes that are each 48 (240/5) 
time periods long. Just about any ob- 
scure notation can be constructed. Addi- 
tionally, you can change the 240 time 
periods to a quarter note scheme and 
make a quarter note have any desired 
number of time periods (the other dura- 
tions change proportionately) to change 
the song speed. 

Another important aspect of note 
duration has to do with delays. I've men- 
tioned before that timbre changes and 
echo, reverb, and similar effects can be 
achieved by playing the same thing on 
two channels, but with one channel de- 
layed. The delay is almost always done 
by using a very short rest. If your 
smallest note is a thirty-second note, 
you'll only be able to get a delay that's 
l/8th as long as a quarter note. Using 
ALF's "time periods" scheme, a one time 
period delay creates a delay 1 /240th as 
long as a quarter note! This gives you 
more leeway in choosing delay values. 



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Subroutines 

The next feature to consider is sub- 
routines or whatever the system uses to 
repeat sections. Music often involves 
long repeated sections. Sometimes all 
parts (voices) will repeat a section, that's 
the classic "repeat"— great for songs 
with several verses, Sometimes the back- 
ground parts, maybe just the bass line, 
will repeat over and over again through- 
out the song, maybe deviating for a 
measure or two every once in a while. 
Sometimes one part will play a theme, 
and then another part will; when they 
overlap it's called a "round" or fugue. 
The first inclination is to use the "start of 
repeat" and "end of repeat" marks that 
standard music notation uses (plus "first 
ending," "second ending" and the like). 
Fortunately most people don't actually 
use this scheme. It would be very 
limiting. 

Definitely look for a system that has 
some way to repeat sections, preferably 
for the three types of repetition listed 
above. Otherwise you'll have to re-enter 
each section as it is repeated, which takes 
lots of time and consumes lots of 
memory. The best method I've seen 
simply steals the idea of "subroutines" 
from Basic or Assembly Language, or 
about any language. The only trick is 
that the person writing the system has to 
be sure the subroutines are re-entrant so 
they can be called from several parts at 
the same time (or at overlapping times). 
In the ALF system, you're allowed 100 
subroutines which are numbered to 



99. You can program a melody, or 
changes in an envelope, or whatever, in 
each subroutine. These subroutines can 
be "called" from any part or from an- 
other subroutine. During playback, what- 
ever is programmed in the subroutine 
plays (or changes the envelope, etc.) 
when it is called. If you program an en- 
tire melody in a subroutine and call it 
from all parts, but put longer and longer 
rests in front of each part, you've got a 
round. Put a melody in a subroutine and 
call it from two parts after setting dif- 
ferent sound parameters in each part, 
and you've got a more complex sound. 

Some systems have features like vari- 
able transpose, which lets you play a 
subroutine with the pitch raised or low- 
ered by a certain amount; this lets you 
play a melody as written in one part (or 
at one time) and, say, an octave higher 
on another part (or at another time). 
Look for a system with advanced sub- 
routine or other repeat features, and also 
watch for features like variable 
transpose. 

Another feature is tempo control. You 
may want to have some sections of your 
song play at different speeds (tempos) 
than other parts. Mountain Computer 
seems to have the most tempo control, 
featuring both "set tempo" commands 
(in Italian or with numbers) and "in- 
crease" and "decrease" commands. Most 
systems have no tempo provisions (ex- 
cept a way to vary the speed of the entire 
song), or clumsy ones, like ALF's 
scheme for changing the time period note 



length base. ALF's MCI 6 has a variable 
tempo control which uses a hardware 
timer, but it requires additional hardware 
which is sold separately. Obviously, the 
more tempo control you can get, the 
better. 

Most systems use a "one voice at a 
time" entry scheme, where you break the 
music down into separate voices, and 
enter each voice separately. There are 
many good reasons for doing it this way, 
but musicians complain (loudly) that it 
is difficult to read/ understand music dis- 
played one voice at a time. One of the 
main reasons for doing this is that it lets 
you specify the volume, for example, of 
each voice separately without having to 
assign the volume to each note sepa- 
rately. This assumes that you break the 
song down into parts in a consistent and 
reasonable fashion. 

One unusual scheme is Mountain 
Computer's which mainly uses a one- 
part-at-a-time scheme, but also allows 
chords to be input. If the same number 
of notes are used in each chord, in a 
chord-progression background for ex- 
ample, this can simplify entry consider- 
ably. You have to be careful not to use 
it to put in an occasional chord in a 
melody or you'll run out of channels 
rapidly. Naturally, all notes in the chord 
must have the same duration. Having 
used both the one-voice-at-a-time 
method and the all-voice-at-once method, 
I can strongly recommend that you use 
the one-voice-at-a-time system (or a 
combination like Mountain Computer's) . 



114 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



SPECIAL FUNCTIONS AND 
ACCESSORIES 

Probably the most popular special 
function is sequenced playback, which 
allows you to play several songs in a 
row. It is available under various names, 
ALFs is called DISCO and is supplied 
with each card, Micro Music's is called 
Auto Digisong Player and is sold sepa- 
rately. Some cards have playback sub- 
routines available which are subroutines 
you can add to (or call from) your own 
Basic programs; their uses range from 
sound effects to full song playback. 
Again, ALF cards are supplied with a 
playback subroutine (the MCI 6 has two, 
one for chromatic sounds and one for 
full playback) and the Micro Music one 
is sold separately. (The Mountain Com- 
puter card is a little too new to have 
these features available.) Some cards are 
supplied with tutoring programs that de- 
scribe synthesizer features while playing 

them. 

The most popular accessories are 
pre-programmed albums which consist 
of songs already programmed that can 
be loaded and played back easily. The 
smaller companies don't usually have 
many song disks available because it is 
difficult to decipher the "compulsory 
license" provisions in the U.S. coypright 
law. (Despite the controversy surround- 
ing copyright of computer programs, 
pre-programmed songs are simply a 
complex method of sound recording. 
They therefore qualify for the "circle 
P" sound recording copyright law, which 
most companies take advantage of. This 
law is quite clear, and if you plan to make 
a mint copying other people's songs, 
you're in for large scale trouble.) 

Right now, the largest collections of 
songs seem to be available from ALF 
and Micro Music. ALF's "Album O" in- 
cludes a program which lets you buy 
Micro Music's songs and play them on 
your ALF cards, assuming Micro Music 
hasn't changed their format. Micro 
Music's songs are grouped by flavor, I've 
seen "Christmas Wonderland," "Dixie- 
land Swingers," "Hymn Favorites," 
"Disco, Rock & Jazz," and "Red Hot 
Bach"; price was $19.95 each. Some 
ALF "Albums" are grouped: Album 
and Album 4 are both Christmas songs, 
Album 5 and Album 6 are "single artist" 
albums where the songs were entered by 
approximately one programmer. ALF 
buys songs that are submitted by cus- 
tomers, and many of the Album songs 
were obtained that way. The "non-ALF" 
people are listed at the bottom on the 
back of each album, so you can tell which 
songs are customer songs and get an idea 
of what people have done on their own. 
ALF Albums sell for $14.95. Both Micro 
Music and ALF song disks seem to have 
around a dozen songs on each disk. 

CREATIVE COMPUTING 



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Some of the albums available for the ALF MCI 
and MC16 synthesizers. 

Another popular accessory is pro- 
gramming aids. Micro Music offers their 
do-it-yourself subroutines (mentioned 
above) and their envelope shaper pack- 
age. ALF offers a set of six programs in 
a package called "Process & Other Pro- 
grams" that vary from a tutorial program 
on envelopes to a move big-chunks- 
around editor. American Micro Products 
offers "Flash and Crash Sound Effects" 
and their "Advanced Music Editor." 

Demo records are often available, al- 
though as I've mentioned they usually 
have so much noise (and other pro- 
blems) that they don't give you a good 
idea of what the music card sounds like. 
ALF offers a seven inch record of the 
MCI music card for $1, and Micro 
Music offers a cassette for $5. Creative 
Computing sells a high-quality twelve- 
inch record of the First Philadelphia 
Computer Music Festival for $6. 

Educational software is also popular. 
Micro Music has the biggest selection, 
with "Maestro's Magic Speller," "Music 
Lover's Guide to Musical Symbols," 
"Music Lover's Guide to Italian Terms," 
"Music Lover's Guide to Musical Instru- 
ments," "Music Lover's Guide to Gen- 
eral Terms," "Melodious Dictator," 



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DISCO. ROCK 
& JAZZ 


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Kfd H<>1 Bach: 


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Magic Speller 

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WONDERLAND 

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Dictator 





A selection of albums available for the Micro Music 
Composer. 

115 



"Rhythmical Dictator," "Harmonious 
Dictator," "Interval Mania," and "Chord 
Mania." Prices on the first ones are 
around $39, but many people balk at the 
$120 price tag on each of the dictator/ 
mania series. ALF has a disk of four pro- 
grams for $50 called "Basic Ear Training 
Skills" which starts at the very beginning 
of ear training. 

There are some unusual accessories. 
Symtec offers a BSR Home Control Sys- 
tem interface (although any synthesizer 
with a high enough pitch range can con- 
trol the BSR system by emitting ultra- 
sonic control signals, or you can connect 
an ultrasonic transducer to the Apple 
game I/O connector and do it with soft- 
ware). Stereo music cards can be con- 
nected to an oscilloscope in XY mode to 
make pretty images, although no one 
sells songs just for that purpose yet. 
Micro Music offers a band uniform in- 
ventory program. It's rumored that 
Clone Software is working on a Sound- 
activated hypnosis program using a spe- 
cial circuit card and headphones. 



Finally 

One last tip for making your choice. 
If you're getting a demo at a local dealer, 
ask to read the owner's manual. If you 
can't borrow it from a dealer, you can 
probably purchase one from the man- 
ufacturer (be prepared to pay $5 to $10 
—you wouldn't believe what manuals 
cost to print!). It will give you some in- 
sight into the particular hardware/ soft- 
ware setup, and show you how to pro- 
gram songs. And since it's written by the 
manufacturer and not by the competitor, 
it will show the system in its best light. □ 



This article was prepared in January, 
1981, and evaluates the products based 
on the features available at that time. The 
field of music synthesis is changing 
rapidly, and readers are advised to check 
with dealers or manufacturers regarding 
updates and changes in hardware and 
software. 




Plotters: 

Large and Small 
Simple and Sophisticated 



Carl Warren 








Figure 1. The Calma system. 



Plotting systems which were once 
thought of as large flat bed systems 
supported by large computers, or on the 
low-end relegated to data logging chores, 
are finding use in such diverse applications 
as automobile design and simple display 
advertising layout. 

Users ranging from General Motors to 
small electronics shops are finding that 
the new units provide greater productivity 
in design work. Moreover, in the case of 
the small desktop plotters, users find that 
heretofore dull data can be depicted in a 
much more palatable and understandable 
manner— through four-color graphics. 

This ability to create meaningful graphics 
from digital data isn't the only feature 
these instruments provide, however. 
Regardless of size, plotters offer many 
attributes, of which some are application 
dependent. These attributes include: 

• Fine resolution. This is the smallest 
addressable move the plotter writing head 
can make. 

• High plotting speed. This varies 
depending on the type of plotter. 

• Plotting bed sizes that range from 
room size to units that use an 8.5" x 11" 
standard sheet of paper. 

• The ability to use a variety of drawing 
material from paper to plastic. 




Figure 2. The Calcomp plotter. 



Typically, plotting systems range in price 
from over $100,000 to less than $1200, 
depending, of course, on their capabil- 
ities. 

An example of a large computer-aided 
design/computer aided manufacturing 
(CAD/CAM) system is that offered by 
Calma (Santa Clara, CA). This company 
combines plotters from a variety of manu- 
facturers into a complete system with 
minicomputer support and digital drafting 
input (Figure 1). 

Systems such as that offered by Calma, 
aid designers in such diverse areas as 



Figure 3. The Houston Instruments CPS-14. 



mechanical design and printed circuit board 
layout. By employing the power of a 
minicomputer combined with digital draw- 
ing boards, designers are able to develop 
designs, and create drawings in a fraction 
of the time it would take using manual 
methods. 

Manufacturers such as Calcomp provide 
a wide range of plotters from large full 
sized bed plotters (Figure 2) to smaller 
desktop units. The Calcomp units are used 
by integrators like Calma in CAD/CAM 
applications. 

Of course, not all high-end plotters are 
of the full bed size, many units aren't 
much larger than a standard line printer. 
Hewlett-Packard and Houston Instruments, 
for example, offer plotters with similar 
looks and attributes (Figures 3 and 4). 
Both units solve the traditional problem 
of full-sized bed plotting in a non-traditional 
manner by using an airfoil to move the 
paper, rather than moving the plotting 
carriage. 

Both the HP 7580A and the Houston 
Instruments CPS-14 move the medium in 
one direction over the airfoil-shaped bed 
while a light weight pen carriage moves 
perpendicularly to the direction of motion 



Figure 4. The Hewlett Packard 7580 A. 



Carl Warren, 2980 W. 235th #12, Torrance. CA 
90505. 




116 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



COLOR COMPUTER OWNERS! 
CLOAD INC. ANNOUNCES 



CHROMASETTE MAGAZINE! 

A monthly magazine-on-cassette for your 
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Magazine gets rid of the 
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Put a rosy color in you and 
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stop reading these old 
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tion to CHROMASETTE 
Magazine. 

Please Write tor Foreign Rates 
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months. $5.00 single issue, or 
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putting a rainbow of ready-to-load programs on 

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Plotters, continued... 



A Plotter Glossary 

Addressable step size— The smallest 
move that a plotter can make and still 
maintain accuracy. 

Motor resolution— Parameter that 
affects the accuracy of a plotter; 
measures the degree to which the 
positioning motor can achieve a speci- 
fied step. 

Plotting accuracy — Specifies how 
closely a drawing created by a plotter 
adheres to the actual data. Typically 
expressed in terms of percent of deflec- 
tion for a given point. Takes into 
account such factors as linearity and 
repeatability. 

Printhead or plotting speed — The 
speed at which a plotter can lay down 
a line of data. Expressed in terms of 
inches per second for both a linear 
path and a 45° angle. 

Repeatability — Measures to what 
degree of plotting accuracy a point 
can be repeated. Expressed as a linear 
dimension. 

Window plotting— Handling of off- 
scale data. Smart plotters calculate the 
mechanical limits available to them, 
thus preventing the unit from trying to 
plot data outside the physical limitations 
of the unit. 



Figure 5. 
The Gerber Scientific Model 42 





of the medium. Typically, the units exhibit 
resolutions of 0.001" with speeds up to 24 
ips. 

Units such as this handle a full range of 
pens from fiber-tip to drafting pens. 
Moreover, both units can be manipulated 
using either the built-in front panels or 
host system control. 

If you like a drum plotter and seek high 
speed, you might want to consider Gerber 
Scientific's Model 42 (Figure 5). This high- 
performance system sports a maximum 
plotting speed of 1200 ipm, on a medium 
that can be as large as 36" x 48". Further- 
more, the unit can produce either color 
or black and white plots. 

Nicolet Zeta Corp. produces a plotter 
that can be viewed as a bridge between 
the large systems and the desktop units. 



Figure 6. The Nicolet Zeta Model 1453 B. 



The Model 1453B four-pen plotter (Figure 
6) is designed for business and engineering 
applications. The Model 1453B sports a 
fairly healthy price tag of $8950 and an 
impressive lineup of features. Some of 
the features include; programmable four- 
pen plotting with full 11" wide plotting 
area, continuous feed paper for unattended 
multiple-plot operation, built-in micro- 
processor controller, and both RS-232 and 
IEEE-488 interfaces. 

A plotter like the Model 1453B is 
excellent for producing cartographic (map) 
plots similar to the one in Figure 7 (page 
120). Notice that in this type of plot, 
lettering, shading and finite resolution are 
combined to create the desired graphic 
representation. 



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Invasion Orion T 

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AVALON HILL 

Conflict 2500 T 

* IMAGE COMPUTING * 

* DATASOFT 
PERSONAL SOFTWARE 

Visicalc D 

Checker King T 

Micro Chess T 

USA 

Survival Adventure D 

3 D Super Graphics D 

3 D Super Graphics T 

* VERSA COMPUTING 

• COMMODORE PET 

* AVALON HILL * PERSONAL SOFTWARE 

* AUTOMATED * UNITED SOFTWARE 
SIMULATIONS OF AMERICA 

TRS-80 

ACORN SOFTWARE 

Invaders from Space T 

Duel-N Droids T 

Everest Explorer T 

* ADVENTURE INTERNATIONAL 

* AUTOMATED SIMULATIONS 

Hellfire Warrior DT 39.95 

Starwarrior DT 39.95 

Datestones of Ryn DT 19.95 

* AVALON HILL SEE APPLE 

BIG FIVE SOFTWARE 

Super Nova T 

Galaxy Invasion T 

Attack Force T 

Cosmic Fighter T 

BRODERBUND SOFTWARE 

Galactic Empire T 

Galactic Trader T 

Galactic Revolution T 

Galactic Trilogy D 

* DATASOFT 



14.95 
14.95 
14.95 



15.95 
15.95 
15.95 
15.95 

14.95 
14.95 
14.95 
39.95 



11.95 
11.95 
11.95 



31.95 
31.95 
15.95 



12.95 
12 95 
12.95 
12.95 

11.95 
11.95 
11.95 
31.95 



* HAYDEN 
SOFTWARE 

* MICROSOFT 



* PERSONAL SOFTWARE 

* STRATEGIC 
SIMULATIONS 

* VOYAGER 



DIRECT ORDER INQUIRIES TO: 
DISCOUNT DATA PRODUCTS 

P.O. BOX 19674-1 

SAN DIEGO, CA 92119 

714-287-0190 



CIRCLE 158 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Plotters, continued... 



1 



4466 



4465 




\ ,,M '/ 



1/4 



SCALE 1:12500 

1/2 



3/4 



ID 
o 

CO 



— r 



1 MILE 



TH30T 

<-em 



he — r 

o 

I CO 



o 

CD 



TAi 9/30/1980 NO. 3 -SELECT I ON HAP 
LABELS i2*3TAN0 TTPE. AREA 




HIGH STOCKING 

ecti 

CU 5804 



ED HCSOG ED HCSOG HC i HC06 LUl MC06 EH HC 
1 1 12Q 



TAi 0/30/1980 NO. 4 -SELECT I ON HAP 
LABELS t2*3TAN0 TTPE. AREA 



LOU STOCKING 

ECtJ 

CU 5804 



B 



PPS ® HC0 E PP3 IE PP-BO 
1110 



TRt 9/25/1980 NO. 6-SELECTI0N MAP 
LABELS t2»STAND TTPE. AREA 




N0NF0RE5 T 

ECU 

CU 5804 



TR: 9/19/1980 NO. 3-3ELECTI0N HAP 
LABEL :AHEA 




RLL STflHS HO 80S 

EC:1 

CU 5804 



TAi 9/ 5/1980 NO. 8-SELECTI0N HAP 
LABEL :AREA 




SHfisra R0AP5 
ecu 

CU 5804 



Figure 7. A four-color cartographic plot produced by the Nicolet Zeta 1453 B. 



120 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



High-Resolution Color Graphics 
for the Apple and Atari 



Graphics 
Breakthrough 




How many programs have you written 
that would benefit from animated high- 
resolution graphics? Probably several. It is 
this kind of dramatic graphics that distinguish 
outstanding programs from ordinary ones. 
But if you've ever agonized for hours or 
days just to get one image perfected, you're 
probably not anxious to do it again. Now 
there's a better way. 

New Graphics Entry System 

Today there is a new graphics system 
available that is not only amazingly user- 
oriented but surprisingly economical. Called 
VersaWriter, it starts with an ingeniously 
simple entry board consisting of a 1 4" X 1 2" 
high impact plastic bed with a tough clear 
plastic overlay sheet. The original drawing 
or diagram is fastened with masking tape to 
the plastic bed and then covered with the 
clear sheet. Instead of using a light pen or 
complicated electronic X-Y head, the Versa- 
Writer uses a double jointed arm attached 
to the top of the entry board at one end and 
a magnifying lens with crosshairs at the 
other end. The VersaWriter resembles a 
draftsman's pantograph on a smaller scale. 

At each joint in the arm of the VersaWriter 
is a potentiometer. A cable from these 
pontentiometers connects to the paddle input 
of the computer. No special interface 
electronics or board is needed. Since the 
arm of the VersaWriter bends only in one 
direction, each point on the plotting head 
corresponds to a unique set of resistances 
on the potentiometers. All that's needed 
now is software to translate these resistances 
into usable screen coordinates. 

Exceptionally powerful software 

It is in the software where VersaWriter 
really stands out. VersaWriter comes with 
two full disks of user-oriented software. First 
it has sets of "low level" commands for 
entering, creating and copying drawings 
and diagrams. Secondly, it has extensive 
sets of application routines for moving, 
enlarging, rotating, coloring or animating 
drawings that the user has created. 



Graphics Systems 

Versa Writer $249.00 

Kurta Graphics Tablet 695.00 

Summagraphics Digitizer 745.00 

Houston Instruments Hi Pad 795.00 

Apple Graphics Tablet 795.00 



Of course the basic commands let you 
enter a drawing freehand or by tracing it. 
Want a wider "brush stroke"? Six widths are 
available. Drawings can be independently 
scaled in both the vertical and horizontal 
directions. An enclosed shape may be filled 
in with any of 21 2 colors. No, that is not a 
misprint— by the same technique that a 
printing press can create hundreds of colors 
from three primary ones, so can Vera- 
Writer. 




Here a shape (the letter A) is being 
scanned. After putting it in a shape table 
it may be used in other programs. 




From the shape table, a shape (the letter 
A) may be enlarged, shrunk, rotated, 
colored or moved about the screen. 

Create Animation for Other Programs 

The shapes you create with VersaWriter 
can be used and manipulated with ease in 
other programs. Up to 255 shapes can be 
entered into a shape table. These shapes 
may then be placed on the screen in any 
position or may be overlaid on a full or 
partial screen image. Animation is produced 
easily by moving about a portion of the 
image created by VersaWriter. For example, 
by alternating between two images of an 
airplane propeller it will appear to be spinning. 



Other VersaWriter software includes text- 
writer with which text can be added to 
graphics. Upper and lower case, choice of 
color, text size, direction and starting point 
all may be specified. 

The Area/Distance program lets you 
calculate distances (or perimeters) by enter- 
ing a scale and tracing a shape or map route 
with the drawing arm. Areas of figures, open 
and irregular, can be similarly calculated. 

The software also includes sets of elec- 
tronic and computer logic shapes. In addition, 
an entire disk of dramatic demonstration 
graphics is included. These twelve full-screen 
graphics run the gamut from a fully labeled 
cross section of a human skull to colored 
maps to animated cartoons to an electronics 
schematic. 

Free Software Updates 

You may have read a review of VersaWriter 
that indicated that the color fill routine was 
slow. It was. But not anymore. Several new 
routines and improvements were added to 
the VersaWriter software since its introduc- 
tion. All customers of Peripherals Plus 
received these changes free. 

As new updates are developed, Peripherals 
Plus will furnish them free to all customers 
FOREVER. We make this unique guarantee 
because it is in our best interest to have you 
make the best use of your computer. We're 
convinced that if other people see your 
VersaWriter in use, they'll want one too. 

Best Performance and Price 

At Peripherals Plus, we evaluated every 
graphics entry device. We wanted to handle 
the best one regardless of price. VersaWriter 
has the best performance bar none. 
Surprisingly it also has the lowest price, 
just $249.00 for the Apple version. 

VersaWriter requires an Apple II with 
Applesoft in ROM (or an Apple II Plus), disk, 
and 48K of memory. The Atari version 
requires an Atari 800, disk and at least 32K. 
It is priced at $300. 

VersaWriter comes complete with two disks 
of software, a comprehensive instruction 
manual, a 90-day limited warranty and 
Peripherals Plus unique guarantee of soft- 
ware updates forever. 

Try VersaWriter for 30 days. If you are not 
completely satisfied we'll give you a prompt 
and courteous refund of the full price plus 
shipping both ways. 

To order, specify Apple or Atari version, 
send payment plus $3.00 shipping and han- 
dling to Peripherals Plus, 39 East Hanover 
Ave., Morris Plains, NJ 07950. (New Jersey 
residents please add 5% Sales tax.) Credit 
card customers should include card number 
and expiration date of Visa, MasterCard or 
American Express card. Credit card cus- 
tomers may also call toll-free 800-631-81 1 2 
(in NJ 201-540-0445). 

For spectacular graphics on your computer, 
order VersaWriter today. 




39 E. Hanover Ave., 

Morris Plains, NJ 07950 

Toll-free 800-631 -81 12 

(In NJ 201-540-0445) 



Apple ia the registered tredemar* of Apple Computer. Inc 



CIRCLE 239 ON READER SERVICE CARD 






M HI &'82 




Attend the biggest public computer shows in the country. 
Each show has 100,000 square feet of display space fea- 
turing over 50 Million Dollars worth of software and hard- 
ware for business, industry, government, education, home 
and personal use. 
You'll see computers costing $150 to $250,000 including 
mini and micro computers, software, graphics, data and word s 
processing equipment, telecommunications, office machines, 
electronic typewriters, peripheral equipment, supplies and com- 
puter services. 

All the major names are there including; IBM, Wang, DEC, 
Xerox, Burroughs, Data General, Qantel, Nixdorf, NEC, Radio 
Shack, Heathkit, Apple, RCA, Vector Graphic, and Commo- 
I dore Pet. Plus, computerized video games, robots, com- 

%* puter art, electronic gadgetry, and computer music to 

entertain, enthrall and educate kids, spouses and peo- 
ple who don't know a program from a memory disk. 
Don't miss the Coming Of The New Computers- 
Show Up For The Show that mixes business with 
pleasure. Admission is $5 for adults and $2 for chil- 
dren under 12 when accompanied by an adult. 

THE THE 



Ticket Information 

Send $5 per person with the name of the show 
you will attend to National Computer Shows, 
824 Boylston Street, Chestnut Hill, Mass. 02167. 
Tel. 617 739 2000. Tickets can also be purchased 
at the show. 









CHICAGO 
McCormick Place 

SCHOESSLING HALL 
23rd & THE LAKE 

THURS-SUN 
SEPT 10-13, 1981 

1 1 AM TO 7PM WEEKDAYS 
11 AM TO 6PM WEEKENDS 



s : r 



WASHINGTON, DC 
DC Armory/Starplex 

2001 E. CAPITAL ST. SE 

(ECAP. ST. EXIT OFF 1 295 

-KENILWORTH FRWY) 

ACROSS FROM RFK 

STADIUM 

THURS-SUN 
SEPT 24-27, 1981 

1 1 AM TO 7PM WEEKDAYS 
1 1 AM TO 6PM WEEKENDS 



THE 






BOSTON 
Hynes Auditorium 

PRUDENTIAL CENTER 

THURS-SUN 
OCT 1 5-1 8, 1 981 

1 1 AM TO 7PM WEEKDAYS 
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v s = :=_s :_r s 

~s*=— _= fcn 



ATLANTA 
Atlanta Civic Center 

395 PIEDMONT AVE NE AT 
RALPH McGILL BLVD 

THURS-SUN 
OCT 29440V 1,1981 

1 1 AM TO 7PM WEEKDAYS 
1 1 AM TO 6PM WEEKENDS 



THE 

SOUTHERN 

CALIFORNIA 

COMPUTER 






LOS ANGELES 
LA Convention Center 

1 201 SOUTH FIGUEROA 

THURS-SUN 
MAY 6-9, 1982 

1 1 AM TO 7PM WEEKDAYS 
1 1 AM TO 6PM WEEKENDS 



Plotters, continued... 



They Get Smaller Still 

As capable as the large plotters are, the 
real excitement is with the smaller desktop 
units. Previously, small plotting systems 
were nothing but XY records used with 
data-logging systems. Now, by incorpora- 
ting microprocessor control and better 
software, the small desktop systems sport 
resolutions as fine as 0.001", have writing 
speeds up to 15 ips, and can handle the 
same media as the larger units. 

To appreciate modern digital desktop 
plotters fully, you must realize that as 
Houston Instruments Marketing Manager 
Roy Bower puts it, "a digital plotter is not 
an XY recorder. The latter is an analog 
instrument, usually employed in high-usage 
data-logging applications such as seismic 



As capable as the large 

plotters are, the real 

excitement is with the 

smaller desktop units. 



reading. XY recorders incorporate servo 
motors and, unlike plotters, cannot handle 
perspective in the data presentation." 

Furthermore, the XY recorder doesn't 
have the accuracy of a digital recorder 
due to the fact that servo motors operate 
in a closed loop. Accuracy, therefore, is a 
small percent of the recorder's full-scale 
move. 

Typically, two types of technology are 
employed in a digital plotter. For high- 
use applications, such as printing weather 
maps, electrostatic printing is used. These 
plotters carry price tags in excess of $10,000 
even for low-end units. 

Plotters that are designed to operate in 
desktop environments normally use some 
type of pen arrangement. The Tektronix 
Model 4662 (Figure 8), for example, uses 
a multiple pen arrangement. One pen at a 
time is in contact with the paper; the 



Figure 8. The Tektronix Model 4662. 





Heathkit 
Catalog 

featuring computers, 
peripherals and software 
for home and business. 

Build it yourself and save — up to 30% over comparable 
assembled units. 

Build it yourself and learn — know your system from the inside 
out, know how to make it grow as your skills grow, change as 
your needs change. 

Build it yourself the easy Heathkit way — with step-by-step 
assembly manuals, friendly over-the-phone assistance and 56 
service locations nationwide. 

Your Heathkit Catalog offers you: 

• Complete computer systems, thoroughly 
documented 

• Typewriter-quality printers, smart video 
terminals, color graphics generator 

• Disk storage systems, up to 2 megabytes 

• Innovative software for fun and business, 
including word processing 

• Selection of operating systems, 
including CP/M® 

• Self-study courses for writing < — i 
your own programs 

• Complete accessories and supplies 





If coupon is 

missing, write 

Heath Co., Dept. 

356-812, Benton 

Harbor, Ml 49022 

In Canada, write 
Heath Co., 1480 
Dundas Highway 
East, Mississauga, 
Ontario L4X 2R7 



Please send my free Heathkit Catalog. I am 
not currently receiving one. 

Send to: Heath Co., Dept. 356-812. 
Benton Harbor, Ml 49022 



Name 

Address. 
City 



I 



.State. 



CP-197 



Zip- 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



123 



GREAT 
GAMES 

For TRS-80 l/IM 
and Atari 

Manhattan Software puts a shrewd, 
sophisticated card player behind the 
screen of your computer, to match wits 
with you at Gin Rummy and Cribbage. At 
the Blackjack table there's a tireless 
dealer and expert card counter to teach 
you how to beat the casino. These aren't 
programs that 'sort of play, but real card 
playing opponents, who play full regula- 
tion games, keep score, and challenge you 
to beat them. 



Gin Rummy 3.0 

Card graphics and fast, expert play. Real 
Gin, knocking at ten points or less. Keeps 
score to game level. The disk version 
keeps score from game to game, so you 
can start another session where you left 
off. TRS-80 Mod l/lll Cass. $16.95, Mod I 
Disk $21.95. Atari Cass. (24K) $19.95, Disk 
$24.95. 



Cribbage Master 

Excellent screen graphics, and plays hard 
for every point. Makes no counting 
mistakes, and will Muggins you if you do. 
User engineered for easy play, with order 
of cards shown for in-play scoring. 
Cassette version will not run in Disk Basic. 
TRS-80 Mod l/lll Cass. $14.95, Mod I Disk 
$19.95. Atari version available soon. 



Casino Blackjack/Counter 

Learn card counting and beat the house at 
its own game! You play one of five hands 
(the computer plays the others) — and 
practice card counting as the cards are 
dealt, or just follow the recommended 
bets. Choose up to 6 decks to play against, 
and set the dealing speed to slow, 
medium, or fast. TRS-80 Mod l/lll Cass. 
$14.95, Mod I Disk $19.95. Atari Cass. 
(24K) $19.95, Disk $24.95. 



TRS-80 3-Game Pack 

The three great card games above, on a 
single disk, and at a substantial savings. 
Mod I Disk $39.95. 






Atari Game Pack 

Gin Rummy, Casino Blackjack and the 
fascinating Concentration game on a 
single disk. $49.95. 



AT YOUR DEALER OR DIRECT FROM: 

MANHATTAN SOFTWARE 

P.O. BOX 1063 
WOODLAND HILLS, CA 91365 

California residents add 6% tax 
24-Hour Visa/ MasterCard Order Line: 

(213) 704-8495 

Write for Software Catalog 
CIRCLE 320 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Plotters, continued... 

others are automatically picked up. Other 
plotters such as the Houston Instruments 
Model DP-3 (Figure 9) are designed for 
dedicated applications and use only one 
pen. Both plotters are priced under 
$7000. 




Figure 9. The Houston Instruments Model DP-3. 




Figure 10. The Watanabe Model WX4675. 



Using a similar interchangeable pen 
approach is the Watanabe Model WX4675 
(Figure 10). This $1700 plotter uses a simple 
system to pick any of six pens, and operates 
at a fairly quick plotting speed of 50 
mm/sec. In addition, the plotter interfaces 
to the host via a Centronics-like 8-bit 
parallel port. To further enhance the plotter 
a series of plotting commands is included 
in this firmware of the unit. 

The complete system approach to the 
graphics world is offered by Hewlett 
Packard (Figure 11). This system, which 



Basics of 
Plotting Software 

Although most of the software avail- 
able for plotter systems, is written in 
Fortran, the small desktop units work 
equally well with routines written in 
the popular Basic language. 

For the most part, the desktop units 
employ a fair amount of intelligence 
and have as part of their operating 
repertoire a full plot command list as 
well as unique character sets. For this 
reason, simple Basic language routines 
can be written to invoke needed func- 
tions. 

Take for example a data list, that 
draws a garden variety business graph. 
If the plotter was dumb, the programmer 
would be required to tell the plotter to 
drop its printhead to plot and raise it 
when done. Each point would have to 
be taken into account and a fairly long 
program would be required. By using 
the built-in smartness, a typical routine 
might look like this: 

10 CLEAR: CLOSE: 

20 G="PLOT M :Gl ="CIRCLE":G2= 

"BAR":G3="SCALE" 
30 OPEN 'T\ 1, "WORK.DTA" 
40 READ 1, A 
50 OUT 2, G3 'FIRST VARIABLE 

SETS SCALE 
60OUT2,G,G2 'BEGIN PLOT 

MAKE BAR GRAPH 
70 END 

Even though this isn't a working 
program, it illustrates the use of graphic 
primitives. 

Interestingly, even though the plotter 
can handle a good percentage of the 
graphic need by calling routines from 
the character set PROM, it frequently 
is useful to do the necessary calculations 
in system memory and send nothing 
more than a data stream interspersed 
with plot commands to the plotter. 

When this method is employed, 
extremely difficult plots can be carried 
out on even the most inexpensive 
plotters. Software for doing such calcula- 
tions, can be found on such time sharing 
systems as Micronet and The Source. 



Figure 11. The Hewlett Packard HP-85 with graphics tablet and plotter 




124 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Here's the KEY 
to your Apple®! 




Computer Station's 

Programmer's 
Handbook 

to the 

Apple II C 



Computer 

Station's 
Programmers 

i Handbook 

a 

for the 
Apple® 



Retail Price 

29.95 



Indexed Looseleaf notebook (7V2" x 9") 
containing all the reference material found in our 
popular Programmers Guide to the Apple II ? 



• Applesoft" & Integer 

• CP/M Digital 
Research, Inc. 



• Basic-80 Microsoft 

• Pascal 



• 6502 Assembly Language 

• DOS 3.3 

• DOS Tool Kit 

• Monitor 



Including Command References for 



• Applewriter* * 

• Visicalc Personal Software 



• Macro-Seed 



Hardware Configurations & 
Software Commands for 



Spinwriter 
PaperTiger 



Silentype 
Special ROMs 



Two diskette pockets in front & back. Notebook 

format allows user to add personal comments. A 

must for every Apple R owner. Available from your 

local Apple '" Dealer or from : 

Computer Station 

11610 Page Service Dr. 

St. Louis, MO. 63141 

(314)432-7019 

Direct order will incur a $2.00 shipping/handling 
charge plus sales tax where applicable 

Apple. Apple II and Applesoft are the registered trademarks of 

Apple Computer. Inc. 



CIRCLE 149 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



SOFTWARE 

for the ATARI 800* 
and ATARI 400* 

from QuaLrry software 






STARBASE 
HYPERION" 

By Don Ursem 

Become absorbed in this intri- 
guing, original space simulation 
of war in the far future. Use 
strategy to defend a front line 
Star Fortress against invasion 
forces of an alien empire. You 
create, deploy, and command a 
fleet of various classes of space 
ships, while managing limited 
resources including power 
generators, shields and probes. 
Real time responses are 
sometimes required to take 
advantage of special tactical 
opportunities. Use of color, 
sound, and special graphics 
add to the enjoyment of this program. At least 24K of RAM is required. 

On Cassette — $19.95 On Diskette — $22.95 



JfflfHQk 



mim 



NAME THAT SONG 

By Jerry White 

Here is great entertainment for everyone! 

Two players listen while the Atari starts 

playing a tune. As soon as a player thinks 

he knows the name of the song, he 

presses his assigned key or joystick 

button. There are two ways to play. The 

first way requires you to type in the name 

of the song. Optionally, you can play 

multiple choice, where the computer 

asks you to select the title from four possibilities. The standard version requires 24K of 

RAM (32K on diskette) and has over 150 songs on it. You also get a 16K version that has 

more than 85 songs. The instructions explain how you can add songs to the program, if 

you wish. Written in BASIC. 

On Cassette — $14.95 On Diskette — $17.95 




QS FORTH 

By James Albanese 

Want to go beyond BASIC? The remarkably efficient FORTH programming language may 
be just for you. We have taken the popular fig-FORTH model from the FORTH Interest 
Group and expanded it for use with the Atari Personal Computer. Best of all we have 
written substantial documentation, packaged in a three ring binder, that includes a 
tutorial introduction to FORTH and numerous examples. QS FORTH is a disk based 
system that requires at least 24K of RAM and at least one disk drive. Five modules that 
may be loaded separately from disk are the fig-FORTH kernel, extensions to standard 
fig-FORTH, an on-screen editor, an I/O module that accesses Atari's operating system, 
and a FORTH assembler. 

Diskette and Manual — $79.95 Manual Only — $39.95 



FOR OUR COMPLETE LINE OF ATARI SOFTWARE 
PLEASE WRITE FOR OUR CATALOG 




QUTILITy SOFTWARE 

6660 Reseda Blvd., Suite 105, Reseda, CA 91335 

(213) 344h3599 



ASK FOR QUALITY SOFTWARE products at your favorite computer store. If necessary 
you may order directly from us. MasterCard and Visa cardholders may place orders by 
calling us at (213) 344-6599. Or mail your check or bankcard number to the address 
above. California residents add 6% sales tax. Shipping Charges: Within North America 
orders must include $1.50 for shipping and handling. Outside North America the 
charge for airmail shipping and handling is $5.00. Pay in U.S. currency. 

•Indicates trademarks of Atari. 



CIRCLE 194 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



IF YOU DIDN'T BUY 

FROM CPI 

YOU PAID TOO MUCH! 



SEPTEMBER 
SUPER SAVER 



Available 
for 

uj CD — 
Q- a- Q. 



Purchase RESCUE AT RIGAL 

or SPACE EGGS for $19.90 

with orders over $50.00 and 

postmarked in September 



g°"< Games, .for openers! 



•• • 
•• • 
•• • 
•• 
••• 
••• 
•• • 
•••• 
••• 
•• 
•• 
•• 
•• 
•• 
• 






CPI 

Scott Adams Adventure /CI, 2, &3 32.00 

Scott Adams Advenutre #4,5. &6 32.00 

Scott Adams Adventure #7, 8, &9 32.00 

Scott Adams Adventure #10 16.50 

Temple of Apshai 32.00 

Hellf ire Warrior 32.00 

Star Warrior 32.00 

Invasion Orion 20.00 

Morloc's Tower 16.00 

Empire of the Overmind 28.00 

Major League Baseball 24.00 

Tanktics 23.50 

Zork (Personal Software) 33.00 

Olympic Decathlon (Microsoft) 20 00 

Galactic Trilogy (Broderbund) 32.00 

Micro Chess 18.50 

Conflict 2500 (Avon Hill) 12.00 

Sargonll 28.00 

Blackjack Master 24.00 

Lets get Personal 



Reg. 

39.95 
39.95 
39.95 
20.95 
39.95 
39.95 
3995 
24.95 
1995 
35.00 
3000 
29.00 
39.95 
24.95 
39.95 
24.95 
15.00 
34.95 
29.95 



19.95 
125.00 
195.00 
74.95 
99.95 
34.95 
95.00 
49.95 
49.95 
40.00 
19.95 
79.95 
30.00 
79.50 
150.00 



APPLES? 



Typing Tutor (Microsoft) 16.00 

A.L.D.S. (Microsoft) 100.00 

Fortran 80 (Microsoft) 156.00 

TRS 80 Mumath (Microsoft) 60.00 

KRAM 80.00 

Home Money Minder (Continental) 28.00 

Personal Filing System 76.00 

EZ Draw 3.3 40 00 

Bright Pen (Sof tape) 40.00 

Higher Text II 32.00 

MCAT2.0 16.00 

LISA Assem. (On Line) 64.00 

Star Gazer's Guide 24.00 

Modifiable Database ( ♦ Mods 1 & 2) 64.00 

Modifiable Database II 120.00 

How do you like these 

Raster Blaster (NEW from Budge Co.) 24.00 29.95 

Snoggle (like Puckman) 20.00 24.95 

Alien Rain (like Galaxian) 20.00 24.95 

Hi Res Adventure 16.00 19.95 

Hi Res Adventure 1 20.00 24.95 

Hi Res Adventure 2 (New) 26.50 32.95 

Hi Res Adventure 3 (New) 28.00 34 95 

Warp Factor 32 00 39.95 

Compu Read (Edu ware) 24.00 29.95 

Compu Spell System (Edu ware) 24.00 29.95 

Edu Pak I (Edu ware) 32.00 39.95 

The Prisoner (Edu ware) 24.00 29.95 

Creature Venture (Hilands) 20.00 24.95 

Alien Typhoon 20.00 24.95 

Phantoms 5 (New) 24.00 29.95 

Pool 1.5 (New) 28.00 34.95 

The Book (of Software) 16.00 19.95 

Micro Soft RAM Card 1 56.00 195.00 

TG Game Paddles 32.00 39.95 

TG Joystick 48 00 59.95 

Ready for business? 

Desktop Plan II 168.00 199.95 

• Visicalc (New Version) 168.00 199.95 

Visiterm (New) 126.00 149.95 

VisidexINew) 168.00 199.95 

Visiplot (New) 151.00 179.95 

Continental CPA General Ledger 137.00 175.00 

Continental CPA Accounts Payable 137.00 175.00 

Continental CPA Accounts Receivable 137.00 175.00 

Continental CPA Payroll 137.00 175.00 

Continental The Mallroom 28.00 34 95 

Super Scribe Word Processor (on line) 72.00 89.95 

WordStar (Microsoft) 280.00 350.00 

Typing Tutor (Microsoft) 16.00 19.95 

Mailing List Database (Synergistic) 40.00 50 00 



Didn't find it? Send for catalog. 

ORDERING INFORMATION 

Indicate type of computer & disk or cassette. 
We accept VISA and MASTERCARD, Money 
Orders, checks, or COD. For charge cards, 
indicate number, expiration date and phone number. 
Include $2.50 handling charge. California residents 
add 6% sales tax. 

Computer Products Int'l 

P.O. Box 459 
Temple City, CA 91780 

CIRCLE 222 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Plotters, continued... 



is priced under $15,000, includes the HP- 
85 personal computer, a graphics tablet, 
and the plotter, all designed to fit on the 
table top. 

An important feature of the HP system 
is that it is available with a variety of 
software designed to solve a wide range 
of problems. 




„■>*: ^J£ iST 






'■>,:. >■"■: 







Figure 12. Close-up view of the Calcomp print 
mechanism. 



Accuracy, A Dual Matter 

Since accuracy can be critical to various 
types of plotted graphs, plotter manu- 
facturers employ several methods to ensure 
that a plot is as accurate as possible. For 
example, Calcomp employs a multiple 
printing mechanism to increase plot 
throughput, but also to ensure that multiple 
lines are laid down in exact accordance 
with other lines (Figure 12). The resulting 
plot, such as the one shown in Figure 13 
is usually accurate to within several 
thousandths of an inch. 

Of course the mechanics of the plotter 
are only a small part of the accuracy or 
the ability of the plotter to create the 
graphics picture. 

The plotter manufacturers are realizing 
that, as with other types of peripherals, 



most users want smarter units. Conse- 
quently, most of the units, including the 
large bed plotters, incorporate micro- 
processor control, as well as character 
generators that can produce unique char- 
acter fonts. Some units even include special 
microcoded PROMs for complete system 
control. 

Nicolet Zeta's VP for marketing, Gary 
Hasenfus explains: "Since plotters are being 
used in applications that no one would 
have thought of five years ago, they must 
be a lot smarter and more accurate." 



Software 

Several software houses have developed 
software packages to take advantage of 
the intelligence that the manufacturers 
have built-in to the units. 

To enhance the usability of their plotters, 
Nicolet Zeta offers several software 
packages. For example, the Fundamental 
Plotting Subroutines (FPS), is a Fortran 
package which provides such primitives 
as PLOT, LINE, AXIS, SCALE, and 
SYMBOL. Other packages include a $750 
business graphics package called ZCHART 
designed to enhance business presentations, 
and a really unique package dubbed 
TYPSET. This $500 software treat lets 
the user produce well over 1300 different 
characters from Cyrillic to punctuation 
marks. 

Not to be left out in the cold, Watanabe, 
working in concert with West Coast 
Consultants, has developed packages for 
the Apple, Commodore PET, TRS-80, 
Atari, and NEC (PC8001) microcomputers. 
These packages carry a price tag of $200 
and offer such capabilities as developing 
curves and translating other digital data 
to understandable graphs. 

Taking advantage of the capability of 
desktop plotters, is Sorcim (Santa Clara, 



Figure 13. A plot produced by the Calcomp plotter. 




126 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



SOFTWARE PRICE WAR 




CSCR is offering its fully integrated user- 
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OUR GURRRNT€€ — Buy both our software and 
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Our integrated business software 
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COMPUT6R S€RVIC€S CORPORATION of AM6RICA 

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CIRCLE 321 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Disk Size □ 5 I/a " double density D8" single density 
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Plotters, continued... 



CA). According to company president 
Richard Frank, the firm's latest product, 
SuperCalc for CP/M, not only handles 
tabular information in a manner similar 
to that of Personal Software's VisiCalc, 
but will produce graphs, and charts on a 
digital plotter. Mr. Frank, feels that since 
more small computer systems employ a 
serial terminal, rather than one with 
graphics features, it was only logical to 
build in this capability to a package like 
SuperCalc. 

Unfortunately, most of the available 
plotter software is for larger systems, with 
only minor attention being paid to the 
smaller desktop units. This is changing, 
though, since not only are users seeing 
the versatility of the small plotters, but so 
are numerous systems houses. One industry 
watcher speculates that within two years 
most systems will be offered with some 
sort of plotting option as standard equip- 
ment. 

(For a review of the small computer 
oriented Houston Instruments HiPlot 
Plotter, see Creative Computing, Vol. 5, 
No. 6, pg. 28). 



One industry watcher 

speculates that within 

two years most systems 

will be offered with 

some sort of plotting 

option as standard 

equipment 



For More Information 

For more information on the plotters 
discussed in this article, contact the 
following manufacturers directly: 

Calcomp, 2411 W. LaPalma Ave., 
Anaheim, CA 92801. (714) 821-2011. 

Gerber Scientific Instrument Co., P.O. 
Box 305, Hartford, CT 06101. (203) 644- 
1551. 

Hewlett-Packard Co., 1507 Page Mill 
Rd., Palo Alto, CA 94304. 

Houston Instruments, 1 Houston Square, 
Austin, TX 78753. (512) 837-2820. 

Nicolet Zeta Corp., 2300 Stanwell Dr., 
Concord, CA 94520. (415) 671-0600. 

Tektronix Inc., P.O. Box 500, Beaverton, 
OR 97007. (503) 644-0161. 

Watanabe Instrument Corp., 3186 
Airway, Bldg D, Costa Mesa, CA 92626. 
(714) 546-5344. □ 



r 



A one-hour LP record of eight synthesizers may 
change your views about computer music forever 

Binary Beatles 



by David Ahl 

Computer music. Who needs it? Its mostly 
boring beep, beep, beeps or wildly modern 
stuff. Its certainly nothing you'd want to 
listen to more than once. That's what I thought 
about computer music and most of my friends 
agreed. 

In 1978 1 entered Yankee Doodle Dandy 
into my Software Technology system just 
to be different. Dick Moberg heard of it and 
asked me to perform in the Philadelphia 
Computer Music Festival. I agreed expecting 
to be the only one with something out of 
the ordinary. I was wrong. 

Computer Accompanist 

Nine individuals and groups performed 
in the festival. There were the usual Bach 
pieces but even they were different. Gooitzen 
van der Wal performed the last movement 
of the 2nd Bach Suite in a unique way. He 
played the flute solo while using the computer 
as accompaniment. 

Then Dorothy Siegel did the same thing, 
playing the clarinet solo part of Wanhal's 
Sonata in b flat. The audience went wild. 

Hal Chamberlin played Bach's Tocatta 
and Fugue in d minor. But also with a differ- 
ence. He used a large computer before 
hand to "compute" the waveform of every 



instrument playing every note. It took one 
hour of computation time for each two min- 
utes of playback time. The result could hardly 
be distinguished from the organ in the 
Hapsburg Cathedral. 

Don Schertz had a home brewed synthe- 
sizer truly mounted on a breadboard that 
allowed him to control 25 parameters of 
each note. It produced spectacular sounds 
in his arrangement of Red Wing. 

Singing Computer 

In 1962, D.H. Van Lenten at Bell Labora- 
tories produced the first talking computer. 
Bell engineers taught it to recite the soliloquy 
from Hamlet. Then they went one step further 
and taught it to sing Daisy both alone and 
accompanied by another computer. This 
was also performed at the festival. 

Yes, the Beatles were represented. Andrew 
Molda played Hey Jude on his COSMAC 
VIP system with a program called PIN-8 
(Play it Now). 

Superb Quality Recording 

All these pieces and twelve others were 
recorded with broadcast quality equipment. 
Because of audience noise, eight were re- 
recorded later in a studio. We then took 
these tapes to Tru-Tone, a top recording 



studio and cut a lacquer master. It was a 
long session since the recording engineers 
insisted upon analyzing the sound from every 
source and setting up the equilization curves 
accordingly. It took over 1 2 hours to produce 
a one-hour lacquer master. 

Finished recordings were then pressed 
on top-quality vinyl and inserted into liners 
and record jackets. These were then shrink 
wrapped in plastic for maximum protection. 
We guaranteee that every LP record is free 
from defects or we will replace it free of 
charge. 

The extensive descriptions, of each of the 
eight synthesizers and the festival would 
not all fit on the jacket so we've included an 
extra sheet with each record. This entire 
package is mailed in a protective corrugated 
package to insure that it reaches you in 
mint condition. The cost is a modest $6.00 
postpaid in the U.S. and $7.00 foreign. Send 
order with payment or Visa, MasterCard or 
American Express number to Creative Com- 
puting, Morris Plains, NJ 07950. 

This LP record contains one hour of eight 
computer music synthesizers that you'll listen 
to over and over again. Send in your order 
today at no risk whatsoever. 

creative 
computing 

Morris Plains, NJ 07950 

Toll-free 800-631 -81 12 

(In NJ 201-540-0445) 



CIRCLE 350 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



128 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



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/* 



Before you spend $200 — or $ 
on a computer system that won't 
meet your needs, read this. 



Ill 



Straight Talk About 
Buying A Small Computer 



A personal computer. If you don't already 
have one you're probably thinking about it. 

The Plunge 

Spending a couple of thousand or even a 
few hundred dollars is not something you 
do lightly. Making a decision about which 
computer to buy is not easy. Deciding 
about peripherals is even harder. And 
making intelligent decisions about soft- 
ware is nearly impossible. 

But there's a way. Creative Computing. 
It's the magazine with the toughest evalua- 
tions in the industry. 

In an industry prone to dazzling sales 
pitches filled with technical doubletalk, 
some straight advice from an unbiased 
source could make a lot of difference. 
Some of the newest computers on the mar- 
ket will be extinct before the first orders are 
filled; others will achieve astounding popu- 
larity. Which would you rather own? 

Why Buy One? 

The uses of a personal computer would 
fill several books. Some people have a spe- 
cific use in mind, others just a general 
desire to join the computer age. In general, 
it's advisable to have a good idea of at least 
one or two things you want a computer to 
do for you. If you want to analyze stock 
options, for example, you'll want a compu- 
ter for which a stock option package is 
available. If you want to work with color 
graphics your choice of computer is nar- 
rowed to those units with high resolution 
color output. Even after you've chosen 
some applications, the choice of a machine 
isn't easy. Here are a few things that might 
help. 

Hard and Soft 

Besides encountering hard and soft 
sells, you'll also encounter the terms "hard- 
ware'' and "software.'* Hardware refers to 
the electronic parts of a computer system, 
the circuit boards, chips, peripherals, and 
other components. 

An important part of hardware is mem- 
ory. The amount of memory a computer has 
determines how much it can do. Most 
people start out with systems having 16K 
(K is short for kilobyte, which means 1024 
bytes, or characters like a letter or number) 
of memory. Later, many people decide to 
expand their systems, and buy more mem- 
ory. 

Some of the new computers can be pur- 
chased with as little as 1 K of memory. They 
can usually be expanded, but the upper 
limit varies. If you want to play games and 
write short programs, 16K is adequate. If 



you want to add a disk drive, or do word 
processing, you'll probably need 48K or 

more. 

By themselves, these parts are rather 
dumb. The programs that instruct the com- 
puter how to do the more interesting appli- 
cations (stock option analysis, animation, 
play a game) are usually contained on mag- 
netic tape or disks. This is software. 

Both hardware and software are impor- 
tant. A system with the wrong hardware can 
be as worthless to you as a sports car would 
be for a six-member family. Some compu- 
ters cannot be connected to a printer. 
Others can't be expanded without a great 
deal of additional expense. You may not 
need these extras now, but if you anticipate 
needing them later, you'll want to select an 
appropriate system now. And a computer 
without good software is just an expensive 
dust catcher. 

The Software Cycle 

When a computer first hits the market, 
the only software available will be from the 
manufacturer. This limits the uses of the 
machine. As soon as a computer becomes 
popular, new software pours from dozens 
of sources. But there is a catch. People 
won't buy a computer until there is plenty of 
software available. And vendors won't pro- 
duce the software until people start buying 
the computer. Where does this leave you? 
You can go with one of the established 
computers, or take a chance on a new 
machine. 

The Newcomers 

New computers are appearing almost 
monthly. One might be right for you. Can 
anyone tell for sure which will survive? 
Probably not. But the new machines can be 
compared against the old. If a computer 
does everything and more than another 
does, and costs less, it has a good chance 
of catching on. If it does less than existing 
computers, and costs about the same, it is 
probably doomed. 

The Survivors 

A few computers currently have the 
majority of the market. They all have good 
points and disadvantages. One costs less 
to start with, but costs more to expand. 
Another has great graphics but no lower- 
case letters— a bit of a problem if you want 
to do word processing. The limitations of 
any machine can be overcome, for a price. 
But it is better to get what you want at the 
start. If you know what you plan to use the 
computer for, the first step is to determine 
what that use requires. Do you want to play 



games? Then you have to decide how 
important joysticks, paddles, and other 
controls are. Some computers are supplied 
with these attachments. Some companies 
sell these attachments as extras. Do you 
want to use your own television? Or would 
you prefer a computer that comes with its 
own monitor? Will you demand compli- 
cated math capabilities from your compu- 
ter? Certain computers can only handle 
integers. 

Your Choice 

Where does this leave you? If you've 
read this far, you are probably concerned 
about making the right choice. The follow- 
ing hints could be a good starting place. 
Take your time, and don't let your first 
impression of any computer prevent you 
from taking an honest look at its good and 
bad points. All computers seem impressive 
at first. Once you've looked at a few, you'll 
find that the initial awe is replaced by cold 
comparison. If you have a specific applica- 
tion in mind, ask to see the computer per- 
form that application. If the salesman starts 
talking in technical terms while assuring 
you the machine will do what you want with 
only a few modifications, find another 
store. Ask about warranties. Will it be 
repaired at the store or sent out? Will they 
provide a loaner during repairs? Is the 
dealer authorized by the manufacturer? 

We Don't Sell Computers 

We have good reason to hope you buy a 
computer. Every new owner represents a 
potential reader for Creative Computing, 
the number one magazine of applications 
and software. We give the beginner a 
wealth of useful articles, tutorials, games, 
and ideas for his computer. And when the 
beginner becomes an expert, we still have 
a lot to offer; in-depth articles on program- 
ming, reviews of the latest products, high- 
lights of important events in computer 
community and much more. 

One beginner who became an expert, 
David Gerrold of Star Trek fame, had this to 
say, Creative Computing with its unpre- 
tentious, down-to-earth lucidity encour- 
ages the computer user to have fun. Crea- 
tive Computing makes it possible for me to 
learn basic programming skills and use the 
computer better than any other source.'' 

Why not join over 90,000 readers and 
subscribe? One year ( 1 2 issues) costs only 
$20 and saves you $10 compared to the 
newsstand price. To subscribe, call toll- 
free from 9 AM to 6 PM 800-631-8112. In 
New Jersey, call 201-540-0445. Or write to 
Creative Computing, Morris Plains, NJ 
07950. We accept Visa, MasterCard, and 
American Express. 

First Get the Facts 

The first step to making intelligent buy- 
ing decisions about computers, peripher- 
als and software is arming yourself with the 
unbiased facts. You'll find these facts pre- 
sented in a down-to-earth style in Creative 
Computing. Take the first step and sub- 
scribe today. 

creative compafciRg 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



129 






_! m. S_>. 


treat we 


T fir ii 


■ -' • 1 iN ' III 









III 



Strobe Model 1 
Graphics Plotter 



Most microcomputerists know that the 
old cliche "a picture is worth a thousand 
words" very much applies to them. Owners 
of TRS-80, PET, Apple, Atari and other 
micros enjoy the enhanced communicative 
power of programs rich in graphic images, 
and increasingly sophisticated graphics 
interfaces are becoming available for S- 
100 and other more powerful units. 

Business and scientific users have long 
employed graphics for presentation of 
complex interrelationships and trends. 
Analytic insights which are hidden in dry 
tables of output often become immediately 
clear when displayed graphically. 

The trend toward use of microcom- 
puters as personal management tools has 
resulted in the recent release of many 
useful plotting and graphics programs. 
Often using the color graphics capabilities 
available with micros, these programs can 
be extremely valuable and productive. 

A major drawback, however, is the 
video-oriented nature of graphic displays. 
Without some way to save the image 
produced, the graphic is transient and its 
utility to management is reduced by the 
inability to circulate the results. 

Various methods are available to trans- 
fer the image to a permanent, hard copy 
form. One way is actually to photograph 
the screen. This often doesn't work too 
well for microcomputers, since taking an 
undistorted, correctly exposed photograph 
of a CRT display is complicated by 
scanning rates, low brightness of the CRT 
image, the need to focus closer than some 
lenses allow and with great accuracy, etc. 
While this is a viable method with special 
photographic equipment designed speci- 
fically for this purpose, the cost of such 
devices is out of the range of micro users. 

Some printers have the ability to print 
dots under software control and can 
produce reasonable and sometimes 
impressive hard graphics. Most daisy wheel 

Glenn A. Hart, 51 Church Road, Monsey, NY 
10952. 



printers (Diablo/Xerox, Qume, NEC Spin- 
writer and others) include a graphics mode 
which can print up to 120 dots per inch 
horizontally and 60 dots per inch vertically. 
One excellent software package which 
allows such graphics with Diablo printers 
is Escape Plot from Escape, Ltd. in Atlanta 
(the subject of a future evolution). Unfor- 
tunately, this package is written in and 
requires knowledge of Fortran, but other- 
wise owners of Diablos will find it worth 
investigating. 

Inclusion of dot raster graphics is 
increasing among dot matrix printers in a 
wide range of prices. Various printers from 
IDS (the Paper Tiger series), Epson, 
Malibu and many others will produce 
graphic images, but in general there is 
little software to handle the process. In 
addition, serious vertical registration 
problems caused by simple paper-handling 
mechanics often result in mediocre to 
poor results. 

Enter The Plotter 

A far better solution is a plotter designed 
specifically for the preparation of graphics. 
There are two main types of plotters. The 
flat bed design holds paper on a flat 
platform while a pen is moved about the 
paper surface in two dimensions to draw 
the image, much as a human hand would. 
Drum plotters wrap the paper around the 
cylinder which rotates to provide vertical 
positioning while a pen moves horizontally 
over the paper surface. 

Plotters of both types are available for 
connection to microcomputers. Most use 
simple parallel interfaces, although there 
are also plotters with built-in micropro- 
cessors for "intelligent" plotting using serial 
RS-232 interfaces. In addition to the basic 
design and interface method, the other 
major points of differentiation among 
plotters are the size of the paper which 
can be accommodated (the two most 
common sizes are standard 8 1/2" x 11" 
and 1 1" x 17") and the resolution possible 



Glenn A Hart 



(usually measured in thousandths of an 
inch). 

The most popular flat bed plotter for 
micros is the Hi-Plot series manufactured 
by Houston Instruments. Available in both 
standard sizes and with various interfacing 
options, these are fine units which offer 
reasonable resolution at moderate cost. 
Their widespread acceptance has resulted 
in the creation of fairly large body of 
applications software and a healthy users 
group. 

The subject of this evaluation is a new 
drum plotter manufactured by Strobe, Inc. 
of Mountain View, CA. Their Model 1000 
offers exceptional performance at a signi- 
ficant price savings over the ubiquitous 
Hi-Plot, but (as always) not without certain 
tradeoffs. 

The Strobe handles standard 8 1/2" x 
11" paper only. While there are drum 
plotters available which allow the use of 
larger paper, the normal typing paper size 
is more than adequate for most uses. Two 
8-bit parallel output ports and one 8-bit 
parallel input port are required, and 
Strobe's documentation clearly shows how 
to wire the connection. Alternatively 
Strobe offers optional interfaces for the 
TRS-80, Apple II, PET and S-100 bus. 

While my IMS 8000 system has 24-bits 
of unused parallel ports, I chose to pur- 
chase the S-100 interface card from Strobe 
to simplify installation. The interface card 
is only half populated to drive the plotter; 
an additional 8255 chip can be installed 
to add extra parallel ports to an S-100 
system if desired. A normal ribbon cable 
runs from the interface to a special 
connector on the back of the plotter. 

The Strobe uses several types of com- 
mercially available pens. Either the nylon- 
tip Pilot Razor Point or the Berol Spree 
ball point are recommended, since both 
have soft plastic shanks. The pen is 
screwed into a pen holder which cuts a 
thread into the shank. This requires a bit 
of pressure the first time, but thereafter 



130 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Quality Low-Cost 

Graphics 

for your computer 




Expand your computer's capabilities with this easy-to-use drum plotter. 

The Strobe Model 100 interfaces to any computer to generate professional quality graphics. 

OFFERING High Resolution Graphics Output * Outstanding Performance * Assembler Coded 
Drivers for High Speed Plotting * Precise Operator Controls * Interactive Coordinate Input 

ALSO AVAILABLE Hardware Interfaces for - TRS-80 • APPLE II • PET • S-100. 
Applications Software Package providing graphing, vector plotting, and variable size 
alphanumerics for: TRS-80 Level II BASIC, Applesoft BASIC, CBM PET BASIC, Northstar 
BASIC, CBASIC, Microsoft BASIC &> FORTRAN. 

"TRS-80. APPLE II, and PET are trademarks of Tandy Corp . Apple Computer Co 
and Commodore Business Machines, respectively 



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STROBE INCORPORATED 

897-5A Independence Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 

(415) " CIRCLE 309 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



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Strobe Model 100, continued... 

inserting a pen takes only a second. The 
use of such common pens is a significant 
advantage over plotters which require 
custom pens, and since the recommended 
pens are available in a wide variety of 
colors, preparing multi-color graphics is 
easy. 

Software 

The plotter manual contains driver 
software in assembly language for the 8080, 
Z80 and 6502. The basic software performs 
two functions: one entry point allows 
setting the pen position with the hardware 
positioning controls on the plotter (an 
extra cost option on many other plotters) 
and the other entry point handles plotting 
vectors. Three parameters are passed to 
the vector routine, one each for the X 
and Y coordinates of the point to be 
plotted and one which tells the plotter 
whether the X, Y coordinates are relative 
to an origin (which can be reset to any 
location) or represent absolute motor 
steps. The driver software handles all 
motor control, necessary timing delays, 
etc. 

By itself, this software can't do much. 
An experienced assembly language pro- 
grammer could use this core to develop 
usable programs, but the relative beginner 
won't be able to generate anything mean- 
ingful. Strobe plans to issue a series of 
application programs using various host 
languages, including Microsoft's Fortran 
Compiler and Basic Interpreter and Com- 
piler, CBasic, North Star Basic, and Basics 
for the TRS-80, Apple II and PET. 

The first disk available is a general 
plotting package which includes the driver 
software modified by the addition of 
alphanumeric output routines which can 
draw characters in various sizes and 
orientations. The driver is further modifed 
to interface to the host language, in my 
case the Microsoft Basic Interpreter. 

The driver program is a machine lan- 



guage executable file which is loaded into 
high memory prior to loading the Basic 
interpreter. It is provided in two versions 
for either 48K or 56K available memory. 
The Basic interpreter must then be loaded 
with its special /M: parameter to tell the 
interpreter the highest memory location 
to use so that the machine language driver 
is not overwritten by the interpreter. 

Several programs and subroutines are 
supplied. The basic interface is through a 
set of subroutines called PSUBS, which 
handle passing variables between appli- 
cations programs and the driver software, 



The plotter writes 

quickly and quietly, and 

its positioning accuracy 

and reproducibility 

is superb. 



initializing the variables used by the driver, 
moving the pen, drawing characters, etc. 
The programs provided vary in their utility. 
Typer sends character strings to the plotter 
and is useful only as a demonstration (see 
Figure 1). The main event is a subroutine 
set named Draw8 and the Test8 program 
which shows how to use it. 

Draw8/Test8 is both powerful and 
useful. The basic purpose of the program 
is to draw line graphs of various types, 
including linear, semi-log and log-log 
scales. Any number of lines can be drawn, 

Figure I. 



0Q 
O 



RBCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQR 
SSTUVWXYZ0123456789 



limited only by available memory. The 
program can be run completely automa- 
tically, with pre-supplied data and ranges 
and scales computed by the program; 
automatically but with specified ranges 
and scales; or interactively. In the inter- 
active mode the program requests the 
data to be plotted in two basic ways, with 
the user providing all Y-coordinates and 
either all the X-coordinates as well or 
specifying a fixed increment for the X 
values. 

The program prompts for min, max 
and increment values for each axis, 
whether tick marks on the axes or full 
grid lines should be used, how each line 
should be drawn (solid or dashed, with 
symbols at the points or not, just the 
points with no connecting line, etc.), which 
symbol to use (point, X, !, diamond, 
square, triangle, inverted triangle, diamond 
and +, square and X), graph orientation 
(regular with the X-axis on the long side 
or side reading with the X-axis on the 
short side of the paper), the type of scales 
(both linear, either or both log) and the 
titles for each axis and the overall graph. 

This seems like a lot of prompting, but 
the interactive dialog is well done and the 
program is easy to use. Full source is 
provided so user modifications are simple. 
I have added the ability to read data from 
disk files and provisions for changing pens 
at appropriate times during the plotting 
process for multiple color graphs, and 
other enhancements should not be difficult 
to implement. 

When the program is run the user is 
prompted for the necessary information 
if interactive mode has been specified. 
After all data have been entered (or 
immediately if data have been pre- 
defined), the user is prompted to move 
the pen to the desired origin with the 
movement switches and hit the "START" 
button. From then on operation is fully 
automatic. 



Figure 2. 



Figure 3. 





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2 3 4 5 6 7 8 3 10 11 12 13 14 

NUMBER OF WEEKS IN MARKET 
RNYCOMPflNY INC. - SRLES BY CATEGORY 



132 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



OSI 



AARDVARK 
NOWMEANS BUSINESS! 



OSI 



WORD PROCESSING THE EASY WAY- 
WITHMAXI-PROS 

This is a line-oriented word processor de- 
signed for the office that doesn't want to send 
every new girl out for training in how to type a 
letter. 

It has automatic right and left margin justi- 
fication and lets you vary the width and margins 
during printing. It has automatic pagination and 
automatic page numbering. It will print any text 
single, double or triple spaced and has text cen- 
tering commands. It will make any number of 
multiple copies or ch'ain files together to print an 
entire disk of data at one time. 

MAXI-PROS has both global and line edit 
capability and the polled keyboard versions 
contain a corrected keyboard routine that make 
the OSI keyboard decode as a standard type- 
writer keyboard. 

MAXI-PROS also has sophisticated file 
capabibilities. It can access a file for names and 
addresses, stop for inputs, and print form letters. 
It has file merging capabilities so that it can store 
and combine paragraphs and pages in any order. 

Best of all, it is in BASIC (0S65D 51/4" or 
8" disk) so that it can be easily adapted to any 
printer or printing job and so that it can be sold 
for a measly price. 
MAXI-PROS -$39.95 



THE EDSON PACK 
ALL MACHINE CODE GAMES 
FOR THE 8KC1P 
INTERCEPTOR —You man a fast interceptor 
protecting your cities from Hordes of Yukky 
Invaders. A pair of automatic cannon help out, 
but the action speeds up with each incoming 
wave. It's action, action everywhere. Lots of 
excitement! $14.95 

MONSTER MAZE - An Arcade style action 
game where you run a maze devouring monsters 
as you go. If one sees you first, you become 
lunch meat. Easy enough for the kids to learn, 
and challenging enough to keep daddy happy. 
$12.95 

COLLIDE — Fast-paced lane-switching excite- 
ment as you pick up points avoiding the jam 
car. If you succeed, we'll add more cars. The 
assembler code provides fast graphics and smooth 
action. $9.95 

SPECIAL DEAL-THE ENTIRE EDSON PACK- 
ALL THREE GAMES FOR $29.95 

THE AARDVARK JOURNAL 

FOR OSI USERS - This is a bi-monthly 
tutorial journal running only articles about OSI 
systems. Every issue contains programs custom- 
ized for OSI, tutorials on how to use and modify 
the system, and reviews of OSI related products. 
In the last two years we have run articles like 
these! 

1) A tutorial on Machine Code for BASIC 
programmers. 

2) Complete listings of two word processors 
for BASIC IN ROM machines. 

3) Moving the Directory off track 12. 

4) Listings for 20 game programs for the OSI. 

5) How to write high speed BASIC — and 
lots more — 

Vol. 1 (1980) 6 back issues - $9.00 

Vol. 2 (1981) 2 back issues and subscription for 

4 additional issues - $9.00. 



ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE - This program 
will handle up to 420 open accounts. It will age 
accounts, print invoices (including payment 
reminders) and give account totals. It can add 
automatic interest charges and warnings on late 
accounts, and can automatically provide and cal- 
culate volume discounts. 

24K and 0S65D required, dual disks recom- 
mended. Specify system. 
Accounts Receivable. $99.95 

* * » SPECIAL DEAL - NO LESS! • • • 

A complete business package for OSI small 
systems - (C1, C2, C4 or C8). Includes MAXI- 
PROS, GENERAL LEDGER, INVENTORY, 
PAYROLL AND ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE - 
ALL THE PROGRAMS THE SMALL BUSI- 
NESS MAN NEEDS. $299.95 

P.S. We're so confident of the quality of these 
programs that the documentation contains the 
programmer's home phone number! 

SUPERDISK II 

This disk contains a new BEXEC* that boots 
up with a numbered directory and which allows 
creation, deletion and renaming of files without 
calling other programs. It also contains a slight 
modification to BASIC to allow 14 character 

file names. 

The disk contains a disk manager that con- 
tains a disk packer, a hex/dec calculator and 
several other utilities. 

It also has a full screen editor (in machine 
code on C2P/C4)) that makes corrections a snap. 
We'll also toss in renumbering and program 
search programs — and sell the whole thing for — 
SUPERDISK II $29.95 ( 5 1/4") $34.95 (8"). 



ANDFUN, 



TOO! 




BOOKKEEPING THE EASY WAY 
-WITH BUSINESS I 

Our business package 1 is a set of programs 
designed for the small businessman who does not 
have and does not need a full time accountant 
on his payroll. 

This package is built around a GENERAL 
LEDGER program which records all transactions 
and which provides monthly, quarterly, annual, 
and year-to-date PROFIT AND LOSS statements. 
GENERAL LEDGER also provides for cash 
account balancing, provides a BALANCE SHEET 
and has modules for DEPRECIATION and 
LOAN ACCOUNT computation. 
GENERAL LEDGER (and MODULES) $129.95. 

PAYROLL is designed to interface with the 
GENERAL LEDGER. It will handle annual 
records on 30 employees with as many as 6 
deductions per employee. 
PAYROLL- $49.95. 

INVENTORY is also designed to interface with 
the general ledger. This one will provide instant 
information on suppliers, initial cost and current 
value of your inventory. It also keeps track of the 
order points and date of last shipment. 
INVENTORY- $59.95. 



GAMES FOR ALL SYSTEMS 

GALAXIAN - 4K - One of the fastest and finest 
arcade games ever written for the OSI, this one 
features rows of hard-hitting evasive dogfighting 
aliens thirsty for your blood. For those who 
loved (and tired of) Alien Invaders. Specify 
system — A bargain at $9.95 

MINOS - 8K - — Features amazing 3D graphics. 
You see a maze from the top, the screen blanks, 
and when it clears, you are in the maze at ground 
level finding your way through on foot. Realistic 
enough to cause claustrophobia. — $12.95 



NEW -NEW- NEW 

LABYRINTH - 8K This has a display back- 
ground similar to MINOS as the action takes 
place in a realistic maze seen from ground level. 
This is, however, a real time monster hunt as you 
track down and shoot mobile monsters on foot. 
Checking out and testing this one was the most 
fun I've had in years! — $13.95. 

TIME TREK - 8K - Real Time and Real graphics 
Trek. See your torpedoes hit and watch your 
instruments work in real time. No more un- 
realistic scrolling displays! — $9.95 

SUPPORT ROMS FOR BASIC IN ROM MA- 
CHINES - C1S/C2S. This ROM adds line edit 
functions, software selectable scroll windows, 
bell support, choice of OSI or standard keyboard 
routines, two callable screen clears, and software 
support for 32-64 characters per line video. 
Has one character command to switch model 
2 C1P from 24 to 48 character line. When in- 
stalled in C2 or C4 (C2S) requires installation 
of additional chip. C1P requires only a jumper 
change. — $39.95 

C1E/C2E similar to above but with extended 
machine code monitor. — $59.95 




OSI 



Please specify system on all orders 

This is only a partial listing of what we have to offer. We now offer over 100 programs, data sheets, ROMS, and boards 
for OSI systems. Our $1.00 catalog lists it all and contains free program listings and programming hints to boot. 

AARDVARK TECHNICAL SERVICES, LTD. 
2352 S. Commerce, Walled Lake, Ml 48088 

(313)669-3110 

CIRCLE 102 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




OSI 



r 



Strobe Model 100, continued... 




A bar of music plotted on the Strobe 100 using routines developed by Leland C. Smith, Professor of Music, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305. 



Plotting Quality 

How does it work? Beautifully! Both 
engineering and business graphs (see 
Figures 2 and 3) are precise and well laid 
out. The resolution is excellent, with step 
increments barely visible on most lines. 
The program automatically positions titles 
along the axes and even the character set 
is better than most plotters provide. The 
plotter writes quickly and quietly, and its 
positioning accuracy and reproducibility 
is superb (even plotting the same line 
several times results in one line; there is 
no discernible error at all in the movement 
of the pen or the drum). 

The overall plotting quality is distinctly 

better than that provided by the flat bed 

i plotters I have seen, and is even superior 



to that of mainframe drum plotters costing 
tens of thousands of dollars. Some might 
consider the paper size a limitation, but I 
have used enlargements of the graphs 
produced in many business presentations 
to good effect. The interface and the 
plotter itself worked perfectly the first 
time I plugged them into my system and 
the software does everything claimed. 

My only reservation is the limited 
software available. I am not familiar with 
the operation of other plotters and am 
not capable of translating any of their 
software to the Strobe's requirements. 
While I am getting better at writing my 
own programs to produce specialized 
graphs, I could really use histogram 



routines, pie chart graphing and other 
business applications and would love to 
be able to produce some attractive but 
frivolous images as well. 

Considering the extremely high perform- 
ance of the Model 100 and its attractive 
price (the plotter lists for $785 and inter- 
faces range from $85 to $145), the Strobe 
plotter can be highly recommended to 
those capable of writing software to take 
full advantage of its capabilities. I hope 
that as more units reach the field a user's 
group will be established to exchange 
software and also that Strobe, Inc. itself 
will make much more applications soft- 
ware available. The Model 100 hardware 
is so good that it deserves nothing less.D 



Interview with Robert Myers 

Spotlight on Strobe 



D.A.: I am interested in your small, 
inexpensive plotter. What is the market 
that you see for it? 

R.M.: So far it has been pretty much 
in professional areas such as industry 
and laboratories. There is also a very 
large educational market in universities 
and high schools. Also we are hoping 
to penetrate the OEM market. One 
obvious use we see is as an adjunct to 
a word processing system. A high 
quality graphics plotter, especially one 
low in cost, can be used as an accessory 
for statistical, financial, business, sci- 
entific reports, and the like. 
D.A.: What kind of software do you 
have now and do you intend to pro- 
vide? 

R.M.: We have a general purpose 
graphing pack which does linear, semi- 
log, and log-log plots. It it is menu 
driven and has options for automatic 
scaling. It does various plot symbols 
and different kinds of lines, automatic 
centering, labels for the X axis, and 
title. Also in that package are param- 
eters for doing vector plotting, alpha- 




Robert E. Myers, President of Strobe. 

numeric screen applications, and cursor 
controls to position the point of your 
input data. 

D.A.: For what computers is the 
software available? 

R.M.: The software is available for 
Applesoft Basic, TRS-80 Basic, Micro- 
soft Basic, CBasic, Microsoft Fortran, 



David H. Ahl 



and some others. We have a business 
package in preparation which, among 
other things, will do bar graphs, pie 
charts, etc. Also we have a 3-D hidden 
line plotting package. Those are a start. 
We noticed much interest at the show 
(West Coast Computer Faire) in archi- 
tectural applications. 
D.A.: How long has Strobe been in 
business? 

R.M.: It started about three years ago 
and has been a full-time project for 
the past two years. 

D.A.: Is the current plotter that you 
have your first product? 
R.M.: Yes, it was introduced at the 
1980 West Coast Computer Faire. 
D.A.: Are most of your sales now 
through dealers? 

R.M.: Through dealers and direct. 
We are also seeking distributors and 
in the process of negotiating with 
potential distributors in France and 
the United Kingdom. The market looks 
pretty rosy; but it's a new market, and 
one in which we have to educate people 
in the use of hard copy graphics. 



134 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



"We find Pilot razor 

point pens better than 

most commercial 

plotter pens. " 



D.A.: What do you see as the impact 
of some of the new line printers with 
graphics capabilities? 
R.M.: With many of them it is equiva- 
lent to the difference between using a 
dot matrix printer for word processing 
versus using a Qume or Hytype. Both 
have their advantages: with one you 
have low cost printing but you don't 
have letter quality output. Similarly in 
plotting, if you want quality you are 
faced with the same problems. Ours 
has over 2500 points resolution in the 
x direction. It is considerably ahead of 
most of the current state-of-the-art low- 
cost dot matrix printers. 
D.A.: Why did you go with the drum 
technology? 

R.M.: It's a very simple mechanism: 
very reliable, a small package, good 
type, etc. 

D.A.: Does it require any special pens 
or paper? 



R.M.: It will use any paper, 8-1/2 x 11 
inches or smaller. The paper is held 
down mechanically by a spring. It uses 
Pilot razor-point pens, among others, 
which are very easy to find and a much 
higher quality than many commercial 
plotter pens. Also they last longer. 
D.A.: If you stop to change pens while 
you are doing plotting routines pre- 
sumably you can get multiple color 
plots. 

R.M.: Yes, you saw some examples at 
the show. Essentially that involves 
pausing and changing pens. The pause 
can be arranged as a program stop, in 
Basic a symbol. We call it semi- 
automatic. 

D.A.: With respect to the interface to 
an Apple or TRS-80, is it through an 
RS-232 port or do you have a card for 
each machine or what? 
R.M.: There are two different 
approaches. We provide cards that 
provide a parallel I/O for the Apple, 
TRS-80, Pet and S100 family. We also 
have a prototype RS-232 intelligent 
version (Model 1 10) that can interface 
to any computer. 

For more information, contact 
Strobe Inc., 847 Independence Ave., 
Bldg. 5A, Mountain View, CA 94042. 
(415)969-5130. □ 



BEFORE YOU BUY 

your small business computer , read . . 



"So You Are Thinking About 
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Sales and Service 




The Apple Decision Evaluator 

Apple II 48K PLUS Computer, DISK 
DRIVE WITH CONTROLLER (DOS 3.3), 
12" Amdek Black and White Monitor and 
Visicalc (16 sector version). 

Reg. Price $2553.00 

Sale Price $1999.00 

• PRICE INCLUDES: 

• 24 HOUR BURN IN 

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• 90 DAY PARTS & LABOR 
WARRANTY 



1 year Extended Warranty 






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Apple Disk Drive 






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Apple ROM Card 






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DC Hayes Micromodem II 


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Microsoft Z-80 Card 


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Microsoft 16K RAM Card 


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Apple Software 


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Apple Writer 


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Apple Plot 


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Apple Fortran 


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Apple Pilot 


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Visicalc 16 Sector 


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Immediate Delivery. Phone and Mail orders 
accepted. Please call or write for shipping 
rates. We ship world wide (F.O.B. Long 
Beach). Prices subject to change without 
notice. All software sales final. 



A-VIDD 

electronics co. 



Source ID. *TCW547 



2210 Bellflower 

Boulevard 
Long Beach, CA 

90815 
(213)598-0444 
(714)821-0870 

Three blocks South of the San Diego 
Freeway in the Los Altos Center. 

Mon-Thurs 8:30 AM-5:30 PM 

Hours: Fri 8:30 AM-9:00 PM 

Saturday 10:00 AM-5:30 PM 





CIRCLE 202 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CIRCLE 189 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



DYNACOMP 

Quality software for*: 

ATARI TRS-80 (Level II)** 

PET NORTH STAR 

APPLE II Plus CP/M Disks/Diskettes 



CARD GAMES 



BRIDGE 2.0 (Available for all computers) Price: $17.95 Cassette $21 .95 Diskette 

An all-inclusive version of this most popular of card games. This program both BIDS and PLAYS 
either contract or duplicate bridge. Depending on the contract, your computer opponents will either 
play the offense OR defense. If you bid too high, the computer will double your contract! BRIDGE 2.0 
provides challenging entertainment for advanced players and is an excellent learning tool for the bridge 
novice. See the software review in 80 Software Critique. 

HEARTS 1.5 (Available for all computers) Price: $15.95 Caasette/$19.9S Diskette 

An exciting and entertaining computer version of this popular card game. Hearts is a trick -oriented 
game in which the purpose is not to take any hearts or the queen of spades. Play against two computer 
opponents who are armed with hard-to-beat playing strategies. HEARTS 1.5 is an ideal game for in- 
troducing the uninitiated (your spouse) to computers. See the software review in 80 Software Critique. 

STUD POKER (Atari only) Price: $11.95 Cassette/$1S.9S Diskette 

This is the classic gambler's card game. The computer deals the cards one at a time and you (and the 
computer) bet on what you see. The computer does not cheat and usually bets the odds. However, it 
sometimes bluffs! Also included is a five card draw poker betting practice program. This package will 
run on a I6K ATARI. Color, graphics, sound. 

POKER PARTY (Available for all computers) Price: $17.95 Cassette $21 .95 Diskette 

POKER PARTY is a draw poker simulation based on the book, POKER, by Oswald Jacoby. This is 
the most comprehensive version available for microcomputers. The party consists of yourself and six 
other (computer) players. Each of these players (you will get to know them) has a different personality 
in the form of a varying propensity to bluff or fold under pressure. Practice with POKER PARTY 
before going to that expensive game tonight! Apple Cassette and diskette versions require a 32 K (or 
larger) Apple II. 

CRIBBAGE 2.0 (TRS-80 only) Price: $14.95 Cassette/$1S.9S Diskette 

This is simply the best cribbage game available. It is an excellent program for the cribbage player in 
search of a worthy opponent as well as for the novice wishing to improve his game. The graphics are 
superb and assembly language routines provide rapid execution. See the software review in 80 Software 
Critique. 



THOUGHT PROVOKERS 

MANAGEMENT SIMULATOR (Atari, North Star and CP/M only) Price: $19.95 Cassette 

$23.95 Diskette 

This program is both an excellent teaching tool as well as a stimulating intellectual game. Based upon 
similar games played at graduate business schools, each player or team controls a company which man- 
ufacturers three products. Each player attempts to outperform his competitors by setting selling prices, 
production volumes, marketing and design expenditures etc. The most successful firm is the one with 
the highest stock price when the simulation ends. 

FLIGHT SIMULATOR (Available for all computers) Price: $17.95 Cassette/$21.9S Diskette 

A realistic and extensive mathematical simulation of take-off, flight and landing. The program utilizes 
aerodynamic equations and the characteristics of a real airfoil. You can practice instrument approaches 
and navigation using radials and compass headings. The more advanced flyer can also perform loops, 
half-rolls and similar acrobatic maneuvers. Although this program does not employ graphics, it is ex- 
citing and very addictive. See the software review in COMPUTRONICS. 

V ALDEZ (Available for all computers) Price: $15.95 Cassette $19 .95 Diskette 

VALDEZ is a computer simulation of supertanker navigation in the Prince William Sound/Valdez 
Narrows region of Alaska. Included in this simulation is a realistic and extensive 256 x 256 element 
map, portions of which may be viewed using the ship's alphanumeric radar display. The motion of the 
ship itself is accurately modelled mathematically. The simulation also contains a model for the tidal 
patterns in the region, as well as other traffic (outgoing tankers and drifting icebergs). Chart your 
course from the Gulf of Alaska to Valdez Harbor! See the software review in 80 Software Critique. 

BACKGAMMON 2.0 (Atari, North Star and CP/M only) Price: $14.95 Cassette/$1I.9S Diskette 

This program tests your backgammon skills and will also improve your game. A human can compete 
against a computer or against another human. The computer can even play itself. Either the human or 
the computer can double or generate dice rolls. Board positions can be created or saved for replay. 
BACKGAMMON 2.0 is played in accordance with the official rules of backgammon and is sure to pro- 
vide many fascinating sessions of backgammon play. 

CHECKERS 3.0 (PET only) Price: $16.95 Cassette/$20.9S Diskette 

This is one of the most challenging checkers programs available. It has 10 levels of play and allows the 
user to change skill levels at any time. Though providing a very tough game at level 4-8, CHECKERS 
3.0 is practically unbeatable at levels 9 and 10. 

CHESS MASTER (North Star and TRS-80 only) Price: $19.95 Cassette/ $23. 95 Diskette 

This complete and very powerful program provides five levels of play. It includes castling, en passant 
captures and the promotion of pawns. Additionally, the board may be preset before the start of play, 
permitting the examination of "book" plays. To maximize execution speed, the program is written in 
assembly language (by SOFTWARE SPECIALISTS of California). Full graphics are employed in the 
TRS-80 version, and two widths of alphanumeric display are provided to accommodate* North Star 
users. 

NOMINOES JIGSAW (Atari, Apple and TRS-80 only) Price: $16.95 Cassette/$20.9S Diskette 

A jigsaw puzzle on your computer! Complete the puzzle by selecting your pieces from a table consisting 
of 60 different shapes. NOMINOES JIGSAW is a virtuoso programming effort. The graphics are 
superlative and the puzzle will challenge you with its three levels of difficulty. Scoring is based upon the 
number of guesses taken and by the difficulty of the board set-up. 

MONARCH (Atari only) Price: $11.95 Caasette/$15.95 Diskette 

MONARCH is a fascinating economic simulation requiring you to survive an 8-year term as your na- 
tion's leader. You determine the amount of acreage devoted to industrial and agricultural use, how 
much food to distribute to the populace and how much should be spent on pollution control. You will 
find that all decisions involve a compromise and that it is not easy to make everyone happy. 

CHOMP-OTHELLO (Atari only) Pric* $11.95 Cassette /$ 15.95 Diskette 

CHOMP-OTHELLO? It's really two challenging games in one. CHOMP is similar in concept to NIM; 
you must bite off part of a cookie, but avoid taking the poisoned portion. OTHELLO is the popular 
board game set to fully utilize the Atari's graphics capability. It is also very hard to beat! This package 
will run on a I6K system. 



DYNACOMP OFFERS THE FOLLOWING 

• Widest variety 

• Guaranteed quality 

• Fastest delivery 

• Friendly customer service 

• Free catalog 

• 24 hour order phone 






AND MORE... 

STARTREK 3.2 (Available for all computers) Price: $11.95 Cassette $15.95 Diskette 

This is the classic Startrek simulation, but with several new features. For example, the Klingons now 
shoot at the Enterprise without warning while also attacking starbases in other quadrants. The 
Klingons also attack with both light and heavy cruisers and move when shot at! The situation is hectic 
when the Enterprise is besieged by three heavy cruisers and a starbase S.O.S. is received! The Klingons 
get even! See the software reviews in A.N.A.L.O.G., 80 Software Critique and Game Merchandising. 

BLACK HOLE (Apple only) Price: $14.95 Cassette $18.95 Diskette 

This is an exciting graphical simulation of the problems involved in closely observing a black hole with 
a space probe. The object is to enter and maintain, for a prescribed time, an orbit close to a small black 
hole. This is to be achieved without coming so near the anomaly that the tidal stress destroys the probe. 
Control of the craft is realistically simulated using side jets for rotation and main thrusters for accelera- 
tion. This program employs Hi-Res graphics and is educational as well as challenging. 

SPACE TILT (Apple and Atari only) Price: $10.95 Cassette $14.95 Diskette 

Use the game paddles to tilt the plane of the TV screen to "roll" a ball into a hole in the screen. Sound 
simple? Not when the hole gets smaller and smaller! A built-in timer allows you to measure your skill 
against others in this habit-forming action game. 

MOVING MAZE (Apple only) Price: $10.95 Cassette $14.95 Diskette 

MOVING MAZE employs the games paddles to direct a puck from one side of a mare vo ^We othet . 
However, the maze is dynamically (and randomly) built and is continually being modified. The objec- 
tive is to cross the maze without touching (or being hit by) a wall. Scoring is by an elapsed time in- 
dicator, and three levels of play are provided. 

ALPHA FIGHTER (Atari only) Price: $14.95 Cassette $ 18.95 Diskette 

Two excellent graphics and action programs in one! ALPHA FIGHTER requires you to destroy the 
alien starships passing through your sector of the galaxy. ALPHA BASE is in the path of an alien UFO 
invasion; let five UFO's get by and the game ends. Both games require the joystick and get progressive- 
ly more difficult the higher you score! ALPHA FIGHTER will run on 16K systems. 

INTRUDER ALERT (Atari only) Price: $16.95 Caasette/$20.95 Diskette 

This is a fast paced graphics game which places you in the middle of the "Dreadstar" having just stolen 
its plans. The droids have been alerted and are directed to destroy you at all costs. You must find and 
enter your ship to escape with the plans. Five levels of difficulty are provided. INTRUDER ALERT re- 
quires a joystick and will run on 16K systems. 

GIANT SLALOM (Atari only) Price: $14.95 Caswtte/$ll.95 Diskette 

This real-time action game is guaranteed addictive! Use the joystick to control your path through 
slalom courses consisting of both open and closed gates. Choose from different levels of difficulty, race 
against other players or simply take practice runs against the clock. GIANT SLALOM will run on 16K 
systems. 

TRIPLE BLOCKADE (Atari only) Price: $14.95 Csssette/$ lg.95 Diskette 

TRIPLE BLOCKADE is a two-to-three player graphics and sound action game. It is based on the 
classic video arcade game which millions have enjoyed. Using the Atari joysticks, the object is to direct 
your blockading line around the screen without running into your opponent(s). Although the concept is 
simple, the combined graphics and sound effect lead to "high anxiety". 

GAMES PACK I (Available for all computers) Price: $10.95 Caaaette/$14.9S Diskette 

GAMES PACK I contains the classic computer games of BLACKJACK, LUNAR LANDER, CRAPS, 
HORSERACE, SWITCH and more. These games have been combined into one large program for ease 
in loading. They are individually accessed by a convenient menu. This collection is worth the price just 
for the DYNACOMP version of BLACKJACK. 

GAMES PACK II (Available for all computer!) Price: $10.95 Caaaette/$14.9S Diskette 

GAMES PACK II includes the games CRAZY EIGHTS, JOTTO, ACEY-DUCEY. LIFE, WUMPUS 
and others. As with GAMES PACK I, all the games are loaded as one program and are called from a 
menu. You will particularly enjoy DYNACOMP's version of CRAZY EIGHTS. 

Why pay $7.95 or more per program when you can buy a DYNACOMP collection for just $10.95? 

MOON PROBE (Atari only) Price: $11.95 Cassette/$ 15.95 Diskette 

This is an extremely challenging "lunar lander" program. The user must drop from orbit to land at a 
predetermined target on the moon's surface. You control the thrust and orientation of your craft plus 
direct the rate of descent and approach angle. 



ADVENTURE 

CRANSTON MANOR ADVENTURE (North Star and CP/M only) Price: $21.95 Diskette 

At last I A comprehensive Adventure game for North Star and CP/M systems. CRANSTON MANOR 
ADVENTURE takes you into mysterious CRANSTON MANOR where you attempt to gather 
fabulous treasures. Lurking in the manor are wild animals and robots who will not give up the treasures 
without a fight. The number of rooms is greater and the associated descriptions are much more 
elaborate than the current popular series of Adventure programs, making this game the top in its class. 
Play can be stopped at any time and the status stored on diskette. 



ABOUT DYNACOMP 

DYNACOMP is a leading distributor of small system software with sales spanning the world 
(currently in excess of 40 countries). During the past two years we have greatly enlarged the 
DYNACOMP product line, but have maintained and improved our high level of quality and 
customer support. The achievement in quality is apparent from our many repeat customers 
and the software reviews in such publications as COMPUTRONICS, 80 Software Critique 
and A.N.A.L.O.G. Our customer support is as close as your phone. It is always friendly. 
The staff is highly trained and always willing to discuss products or give advice. 



'ATARI, PET, TRS-80, NORTHSTAR. CP/M and IBM are registered tradenames and /or trademarks. ••TRS-80 diskettes are not supplied with DOS or BASIC. 



BUSINESS and UTILITIES 

SPELLGUARD™ (CP/M oaly) l»Hee: $2a*.W Da* 

SPELLCUARD is • revolutionary new product which increases the value of your current word processing system (WORD- 
STAR. MAGIC WAND. ELECTRIC PENCIL. TEXTED EDITOR II and others). Wntten entirely in assembly language. 
SPELLGUARD™ rapidly assists the user in eliminating spelling and typographical errors by comparing each word of the 
text against a dictionary (expandable) of over 20.000 of the most common English words Words appearing in the text but not 
found in the dictionary are "flagged" for easy identification and correction Most administrative staff familiar with word pro- 
cessing equipment will be able to use SPELLGUARD™ in only a few minutes 

M AIL LIST 2.1 ( AppW. Atari and North Star diskette oaly ) Price: $34.t5 

This program is unmatched in its ability to store a maximum number of addresses on one diskette (minimum of 1 100 per disk- 
ette, more than 2200 for "double density" systems!) Its many features include alphabetic and zip code sorting, label printing, 
merging of files and a unique keyword seeking routine which retrieves entries by a virtually limitless selection of user defined 
codes. Mail List 2.2 will even find and delete duplicate entries A very valuable program! 

FORM LETTER SYSTEM (FLS) (Apple and Nort- Star diabetic oaly) Price: SUM 

Use FLS to create and edit form letters and address lists. Form letters are produced by automatically inserting each address in- 
to a predetermined portion of your letter. FLS is completely compatible with MAIL LIST 2.2. which may be used to manage 
your address files. 
FLS and MAIL LIST 2.2 arc available as a combined package for 149 9 J 

SORTTT (North Star oaly) f>rkt « : * 39M Diskette 

SORTIT is a general purpose son program written in MM assembly language This program will sort sequential data files 
generated by NORTH STAR BASIC. Primary and optional secondary keys may be numeric or one to nine character strings. 
SORTIT is easily used with files generated by DYNACOMP's MAIL LIST program and is very versatile in its capabilities for 
all other BASIC data file sorting. 

PERSONAL FINANCE SYSTEM (Atari and North Star oaly) Price: *34.W Diskette 

PFS is a single diskette, menu-oriented system composed of ten different programs. Besides recording your expenses and tax 
deductible items. PFS will son and summarize expenses by payee, and display information on expenditures by any of 26 user 
defined codes by month or by payee. PFS will even produce monthly bar graphs of your expenses by category! This powerful 
package requires only one disk drive, minimal memory (24K Atari. 32K Nonh Star) and will store up to M0 records per disk 
(and over 1000 records per disk by making a few simple changes to the programs). You can record checks plus cash expenses so 
that you can finally see where your money goes and eliminate guesswork and tedious hand calculations. 

FAMILY BUDGET (Apple oaly) Prtw: *"■* a ^ um A 

The FAMILY BUDGET is a very convenient financial record -keeping program. You will be able to keep track of cash and 
credit expenditures as well as income on a daily basis. You can record tax deductible items and charitable donations. The 
FAMILY BUDGET also provides a continuous record of all credit transactions. You can make daily cash and charge entries to 
any of 21 different expense accounts as well as to 5 payroll and tax accounts. Dau is easily retrieved giving the user complete 
control over an otherwise complicated (and unorganized!) subject. 

THE COMMUNICATOR (Atari oaly) » >rtc « : **•••* Diskette 

This software package contains a menu-driven collection of programs for facilitating efficient two-way communications 
through a full duplex modem (required for use). In one mode of operation you may connect to a dau service (e.g., The 
SOURCE or MicroNet) and quickly load data such as stock quotations onto your diskette for later viewing. This greatly re- 
duces "connect time" and thus the service charge You may also record the complete contents of a communications session 
Additionally, programs wntten in BASIC, FORTRAN, etc. may be built off-line using the support text editor and later "up- 
loaded" to another computer, making the Atari a very smart terminal. Even Atari BASIC programs may be uploaded. Fur- 
ther, a command file may be built off-line and used later as controlling input for a time-share system. That is. you can set up 
your sequence of time-share commands and programs, and the Atari will transmit them as needed; batch processing. All this 
adds up to saving both connect time and your time 

DYNACOMP also supplies THE COMMUNICATOR with an Atari 830 modem for a combined price of $219.95. The modem 
is available separately for $1*9.95. 

TEXT EDITOR II (CP/M) Frtco: »».•>» piafce^te/»3.4WD»ak 

This is the second release version of DYNACOMP's popular TEXT EDITOR I and contains many new features. With TEXT 
EDITOR II you may build text files in chunks and assemble them for later display. Blocks of text may be appended, inserted or 
deleted. Files may be saved on disk/diskette in right justified/centered format to be later printed by cither TEXT EDITOR II 
or the CP/M ED facility. Futher, ASCII CP/M files (including BASIC and assembly language programs) may be read by the 
editor and processed. In fact, text files can be built using ED and later formatted using TEXT EDITOR II. All in all. TEXT 
EDITOR II is an inexpensive, easy to use. but very flexible editing system. 



DFILE (North Star oaly) 



Price: $19.95 



This handy program allows Nonh Star users to maintain a specialized dau base of all files and programs in the suck of disks 
which invariably accumulates. DFILE is easy to set up and use. It will organize your disks to provide efficient locating of the 
desired file or program. 



F1NDIT (North Star oaly) 



Price: $19.95 



This is a three-in-one program which mainUins information accessible by keywords of three types: Personal (eg: last name). 
Commercial (eg plumbers) and Reference (eg: magazine articles, record albums, etc) In addition to keyword searches, there 
are birthday, anniversary and appointment searches for the personal records and appointment searches for the commercial re- 
cords. Reference records are accessed by a single keyword or by cross-referencing two or three keywords. 

C.RAFIX (TRS-M oaly) Me* «« j* CagaHt./»li.fS Dtofcette 

This unique program allows you to easily create graphics directly from the keyboard. You "draw" your figure using the pro 
gram's extensive cursor controls Once the figure is made, it is automatically appended to your BASIC program as a string var- 
iable. Draw a "happy face", call it H$ and then print it from your program using PRINT H$! This is a very easy way to create 
and save graphics. 



EDUCATION 



HODGE PODGE (Apple oaly. 4SK Applesoft or Intefer BASIC) PHce: $19.95 Caaseite $23.95 Diskette 

Let HODGE PODGE be your child's baby sitter. Pressing any key on your Apple will result in a different and intriguing "hap- 
pening" related to the letter or number of the chosen key. The program's graphics, color and sound are a delight for children 
from ages I '/i to 9. HODGE PODGE is a non-intimidating teaching device which brings a new dimension to the use of com- 
puters in education. 

TEACHER'S PET I (Available for al compalen) ^ M,,M 5T! B ?i«. , lc , D?r 

This is the first of DYNACOMP's educational packages Primarily intended for preschool to grade 3, TEACHfcK b ft I 
provides the young student with counting practice, letter-word recognition and three levels of math skill exercises. 

MORSE CODE TRAINER (TRS-M oaly) Price: $12.95 Caeee«e/$U.9S Diskette 

MORSE CODE TRAINER is designed to develop and improve your speed and accuracy in deciphering Morse Code As such. 
MCT is an ideal software package for FCC test practice. The code sound is obtained through the earphone jack of any sun 
dard cassette recorder You may choose the pitch of the tones as well as the word rate. Also, various modes of operation are 
available including number, punctuation and alphabet tests, as well as the keying of your own message A very effective way to 
learn code! 



MISCELLANEOUS 



CRYSTALS (Atari oaly) Mr.: $ 9.95 Ctas*tle/$13.9S Diskette 

A unique algorithm randomly produces fascinating graphics displays accompanied with tones which vary as the patterns are 
built No two patterns are the same, and the combined effect of the sound and graphics are mesmerizing. CRYSTALS has been 
used in local stores to demonstrate the sound and color features of the Atari. 

NORTH STAR SOFTWARE EXCHANGE (NSSE) LIBRARY 

DYNACOMP now distributes the 23 volume NSSE library These diskettes each contain many programs and offer an out- 
sunding value for the purchase price They should be part of every North Sur user's collection. Call or write DYNACOMP 
for details regarding the contents of the NSSE collection. 

Price: $9.95 each/$7.95 each (4 or more) 

The complete collection may be purchased for $149.95 



AVAILABILITY 



DYNACOMP software is supplied with complete documentation conuming clear explanations and examples. Unless otherwise 
specified all programs will run within I6K program memory space (ATARI requires 24K). Except where noted, programs are avail 
able on ATARI PET. TRS-M (Level II) and Apple (Applesoft) cassette and diskette as weU as North Sur single density (double 
density compatible) diskette Additionally, most programs can be obumed on standard (IBM format) 8" CP/M floppy disks for 
systems running under MBASIC 



STATISTICS and ENGINEERING 

DIGITAL FILTER (Available for al computers) Price: $29.95 Cassette $33.95 Diskette 

DIGITAL FILTER is a comprehensive dau processing program which permits the user to design his own filter function or 
choose from a menu of filter forms The filter forms are subsequently converted into non-recursive convolution coefficients 
which permit rapid dau processing In the explicit design mode the shape of the frequency transfer function is specified by 
directly entering points along the desired filter curve. In the menu mode, ideal low pass, high pass and bandpass filters may be 
approximated to varying degrees according to the number of points used in the calculation. These filters may optionally also be 
smoothed with a Hanmng function In addition, multi-suge Butterworth filters may be selected Features of DIGITAL 
FILTER include plotting of the dau before and after filtering, as well as display of the chosen filter functions Also included 
are convenient dau storage, retrieval and editing procedures. 

DATA SMOOTHER (Nol available for Atari) Price: $14.95 Cassette '$11.95 Diskette 

This special dau smoothing program may be used to rapidly derive useful information from noisy business and engineering 
dau which are equally spaced The software features choice in degree and range of fit. as well as smoothed first and second 
derivative calculation. Also included is automatic plotting of the input dau and smoothed results. 



FOURIER ANALYZER (Available for all computers) Price: $1*95 Cassette $10 95 Diskette 

Use this program to examine the frequency spectra of limited duration signals The program features automatic scaling and 
plotting of the input dau and results Practical applications include the analysis of complicated patterns in such fields as elec- 
tronics, communications and business 

TTA (Traaafer FuacDoa Aaaryter) Price: $19.95 Cassette $23 »5 Diskette 

This is a special sottware package which may be used to evaluate the transfer functions of systems such as hi-fi amplifiers and 
filters by examining their response to pulsed inputs TFA is a major modification of FOURIER ANALYZER and conums an 
engineering-oriented decibel versus log-frequency plot as well as dau editing features Whereas FOURIER ANALYZER is de- 
signed for educational and scientific use, TFA is an engineering tool. Available for all computers 

HARMONIC ANALYZER (Available for al compalen) Price: $24.95 Caaseite /$*•. 95 Diskette 

HARMONIC ANALYZER was designed for the spectrum analysis of repetitive waveforms Features include dau file genera- 
tion, editing and storage /retrieval as well as dau and spectrum plotting. One particularly unique facility is that the input dau 
need not be equally spaced or in order. The original dau is sorted and a cubic spline interpolation is used to create the dau file 
required by the FFT algorithm. 

FOURIER ANALYZER. TFA and HARMONIC ANALYZER may be purchased together for a combined pnee of $49 95 
(three cassettes) and $59.95 (three diskettes). 

REGRESSION I (Available for al computer.) Price: $19.95 Cassette $23 95 Diskette 

REGRESSION 1 is a unique and exceptionally verutile one-dimensional least squares "polynomul" curve fitting program 
Features include very high accuracy; an automatic degree determination option; an extensive internal library of fitting func- 
tions; dau editing; automatic dau and curve plotting; a tutistical analysis (eg: standard deviation, correlation coefficient, 
etc.) and much more. In addition, new fits may be tried without reentering the dau REGRESSION I is certainly the corner- 
stone program in any dau analysis software library. 

REGRESSION II (PARAFTD (Available for al computers) Price: $19.95 Cassette /$23 .95 Diskette 

PARAFIT is designed to handle those cases in which the parameters are imbedded (possibly nonlinearly) in the fitting func- 
tion. The user simply inserts the functional form, including the parameters (A(l). A(2). etc.) as one or more BASIC sutement 
lines. Dau and results may be manipulated and plotted as with REGRESSION I Use REGRESSION 1 for polynomial fitting, 
and PARAFIT for those complicated functions. 

MULTILINEAR REGRESSION (MLR) (Available for al computers) Price: $24.95 Cassette $28 »S Diskette 

MLR is a professional software package for analyzing dau sets containing two or more linearly independent variables Besides 
performing the bask regression calculation, this program also provides easy to use dau entry, storage, retrieval and editing 
functions. In addition, the user may interrogate the solution by supplying values for the independent variables The number of 
variables and dau size is limited only by the available memory. 

REGRESSION I. II and MULTILINEAR REGRESSION may be purchased together for $51 95 (three cassettes) or $63.95 
(three diskettes). 



ANOYA ( Available for al computers) Prste: $J9.95 Cassette $43.95 Diskette 

In the past the ANOVA (analysis of variance) procedure has been limited to the large mainframe computers. Now 
DYNACOMP has brought the power of this method to small systems. For those conversant with ANOVA. the DYNACOMP 
software package includes the I -way, 2-way and N-way procedures. Also provided are the Yates 2 KP factorial designs. For 
those unfamiliar with ANOVA. do not worry. The accompanying documentation was written in a tutorial fashion (by • pro- 
fessor in the subject) and serves as an excellent introduction to the subject Accompanying ANOVA is a support program for 
building the dau base. Included are several convenient features including dau editing, deleting and appending. 

BASIC SCIENTIFIC SUBROUTINES. Volume I (Not available for Atari) 

DYNACOMP is the exclusive distributor for the software keyed to the popular text BASIC Scientific Subroutines. Volume I 
by F. Ruckdeschel (see the BYTE/McGraw-Hill advertisement in BYTE magazine. January 1981) These subroutines have 
been assembled according to chapter. Included with each collection is a menu program which selects and demonstrates each 

subroutine. 

Collection #1 : Chapters 2 and 3: Data and function plotting, complex variables 
Collection #2: Chapter 4: Matrix and vector operations 

Collection #3: Chapters 5 and 6: Random number generators, series approximations 
Price per collection: $14.95 Cassette/118 95 Diskette 

All three collections are available for $39.93 (three cassettes) and $49.93 (three diskettes) 

Because the text is a vital part of the documentation, BASIC Scientific Subroutines. Volume I is available from DYNACOMP 

for $19.95 plus 75< postage and handling. 

ROOTS (Available for al computers) Price $10 95 Cassette $14.95 Diskette 

In a nutshell. ROOTS simultaneously determines all the zeroes of a polynomial having real coefficients There is no limit on 
the degree of the polynomial, and because the procedure is iterative, the accuracy is generally very good No initial guesses are 
required as input, and the calculated roots are substituted back into the polynomial and the residuals displayed. 

ACTIVE CIRCUIT ANALYSIS ( ACAP) (4SK Apple oaly) Price: $25 95 $29 95 Diskette 

ACAP is the analog circuit designer's answer to LOGIC SIMULATOR. With ACAP you may analyze the response of an ac- 
tive or passive component circuit (e.g.. a transistor amplifier, band pass filter, etc.). The circuit may be probed at equal steps in 
frequency, and the resulting complex (i.e., real and imaginary) voltages at each component juncture examined By plotting the 
magnitude of these voluges. the frequency response of a filter or amplifier may be completely determined with respect to both 
amplitude and phase. In addition, ACAP prints a statistical analysis of the range of voltage responses which result from 
tolerance variations in the components. 

ACAP is easy to leant and use Simply describe the circuit in terms of the elements and their placement, and execute. Circuit 
descriptions may be saved onto cassette or diskette to be recalled at a later time for execution or editing. ACAP should be part 
of every circuit designer's program library. 

LOGIC SIMULATOR (Apple oaly; 48K RAM) Prste: $24.95 Cassette $2« 95 Diskette 

With LOGIC SIMULATOR you may easily test your complicated digital logic design with respect to given set of inputs to 
determine how well the circuit will operate. The elements which may be simulated include multiple input AND. OR. NOR. 
EXOR. EXNOR and NAND gates, as well as inverters. J-K and D flip flops, and one shots The response of the system is 
available every clock cycle. Inputs may be clocked in with varying clock cycle lengths/displacements and delays may be intro- 
duced to probe for glitches and race conditions. At the user's option, a timing diagram for any given set of nodes may be plot- 
ted using HIRES graphics. Save your breadboarding until the circuit is checked by LOGIC SIMULATOR. 

LOGIC DESIGNER (North Star and CP/M oaly) Price: «M-95 Diskette 

LOGIC DESIGNER is an exceptional Computer Aided Design (CAD) program With it you may convert a large and compli- 
cated digitial truth ubte (the functional specification) into an optimized Boolean logic equation This equation may then be 
easily converted into a circuit design using either NAND or AND/OR gates. Operationally, LOGIC DESIGNER is composed 
of a BASIC program which calls in a machine language routine to reduce execution time. Example: For a 7 variable by 1 27 line 
table, the processing time is only two minutes. LOGIC DESIGNER is clearly a fast and powerful tool for building digital cir- 
cuitry. 



ORDERING INFORMATION 

All orders are processed and shipped within 48 hours. Please enclose payment with order and include the appropriate computer in- 
formation. If paying by VISA or Master Card, include all numbers on card 



SMapksg aad Haadang (barge* 

Within North America: Add $1.50 

Outside North America: Add 10% (Air Mail) 



Deavery 

All orders (excluding books) are sent First Class. 



Deduct I0*» when ordering 3 or more programs Dealer discount schedules are available upon request 

8" CP/M Disks 

Add $2.50 to the listed diskette price for each 8" floppy disk (IBM soft sectored CP/M format). Programs run under 

Microsoft MBASIC or BASIC -M. 

Ma" CP/M Disks _ . 

All software available on 8" CP/M disks is also available on S'/i" disks. North Sur format 

Ask for DYNACOMP programs at your local software dealer Write for deuiied descriptions of these and other programs from 
DYNACOMP. 

DYNACOMP, Inc. 

1427 Monroe Avenue 

Rochester, New York 14618 

24 hour order phone: (716)586-7579 recording 

Office phone (9AM-5PM EST): (716)442-8960 



New York Suit resides to please sdd 7% NYS 





CIRCLE 136 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



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COMPUTERS 



S-100, 16-BIT COMPUTER 
SYSTEMS 




A line of S-100, 8086, 16-bit micro- 
computer systems has been introduced 
by Tecmar, Inc. 

The Tec-86 includes the 8086 CPU with 
vectored interrupts, 64 kilobytes of dynamic 
RAM or 32 kilobytes of static RAM 
expandable to one megabyte, two RS-232 
serial ports, three 8-bit parallel ports, 
EPROM boot for CP/M-86, double density 
floppy disk controller, dual 8" Shugart 
floppy disk drives, all metal enclosure, 
power supplies and cabling. $3,990. 

The Tec-86W includes all of the above 
plus a 31 -megabyte Winchester hard disk 
drive and 256 kilobytes of RAM. $9,990. 

Software available for these systems 
includes CP/M-86, Microsoft Basic-86, and 
Pascal/M86. 

Tecmar, Inc., 23600 Mercantile Rd., 
Cleveland, OH 44122. (216) 464-7410. 

CIRCLE 351 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



TERMINALS & I/O 



VIDEO MONITOR 

A 12" video monitor for microcomputers 
has been introduced by Zenith Data 
Systems. 

The monitor has a green screen and a 
switch to select either 40- or 80-character 
display. 

The ZVM-121 displays an 8 x 10 char- 
acter matrix and up to 24 lines of infor- 
mation. It has a bandwidth greater than 
12.5 Mhz and a rise time of about 60 
nanoseconds. 

The ZVM-121 will be available from 
Zenith Data Systems computer distributors 



and dealers, Heathkit Electronic Centers, 
and through the Heath mail order cata- 
log. 

CIRCLE 352 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

80-COLUMN IMPACT PRINTER 




Data Electronic Devices announces the 
Model DE-80SG impact printer. The Model 
DE-80SG includes the features of the most 
80-column tractor drive printers, but can 
also be programmed to store in internal 
EPROM up to seven full character sets 
simultaneously; be called individually on 
a parallel RS-232 or series 20 mA loop via 
"cell call"; generate bar codes for use in 
food stores with tractor labels; produce 
an answer back message so the host 
computer can see if the printer is on line 
and active. $995. 

Data Electronic Devices, Inc., 18 Bridge 
St., Salem, NH 03079. (603) 893-2047. 

CIRCLE 353 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



TINY TERMINAL 




The Lex-21 terminal from Lexicon 
Corporation features a built-in modem, a 
full function keyboard, and a thermal 
printer which displays upper and lower 
case characters. It measures 8 1/2" x 11" 
x 2 3/4", weighs 5 lbs., and easily fits into 
half a standard briefcase. 

A 2K memory for text composition and 
editing and a IK line buffer are standard 
in the Lex-21. An industry compatible 
communications protocol allows trans- 
mission rates of either 10 or 30 characters 



per second. Options include a numeric 
keypad and a leather carrying case. 
$1195. 

Lexicon Corporation, 8355 Executive 
Center Dr., Miami, FL 33166. (305) 592- 
4404. 

CIRCLE 354 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



PERIPHERALS 



I/O EXTENDER FOR APPLE 

Versa Computing announces a periph- 
eral device for Apple II computers. E Z 
Port extends the I/O port to the outside 
of the computer for easy changeover from 
game paddles to joystick, Versa Writer, 
etc. 

E Z Port is a board which adheres to 
the side of the computer with a special 
foam adhesive strip. A 24" cable connects 
to the game I/O inside the Apple. 

E Z Port incorporates a ZIP socket 
(Zero Insertion Pressure) in its design. 
ZIP sockets are said to increase the life 
of 16-pin connectors, because no pressure 
is exerted within the socket until the ZIP's 
cam lever is switched to the engage 
position. $24.95. 

Peripherals Plus, 39 E. Hanover Ave., 
Morris Plains, NJ 07950. (800) 631-8112. 
In NJ (201) 540-0445. 

CIRCLE 239 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

SMART TERRAPIN-APPLE 
INTERFACE 




■ 

Terrapin, Inc. announces a smart 
Terrapin-Apple Interface for its robot, 
the Turtle. The interface enables the user 
to control the Turtle from a high level 
language (Basic, Pascal, Logo, etc.) via 
simple I/O statements. 

The smart interface includes a parallel 
port, a separate regulated current-limited 
power supply, and interface software. The 



138 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



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Vocalyzer'"Volce Card 225 00 

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Vl»ton40'"*0col enhancement 175 00 

A 800 Quad Oaniaty 8 "Controller 585 00 

Microaoft Z-80 Sottcard MJ'S 

Microsoft 16K Ramcard 2 ZJ 

SSM AIO Serial/Parallel IO '« 00 

CCS Asynchronous 7710 A Serial 

CCS Parallel Card 7720A 

Apple Joystick "GESU" 

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Introl/X 10 1*0°° 

Introl/X 10 Remote Cont Sya 249 00 

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DC Hayes Mlcromodem II 

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Apple Hi-Speed Serial MO 174 95 

Centronics Printer I/O 179 95 

Applesoft II Firmware 159 95 

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Apple Graphics Tablet 599 95 

Apple Prototype Card 21 95 

Apple Dish II w/ cont 3 3 559 95 

Apple Disk II «59»5 

Pascal Language Card 425 95 

Parallel Printer Cardd 159 95 

Communications Card 189 00 

Integer ROM Card 15 »** 

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Visicalc— Now Better Than Ever 169.00 
Visiplot— Graph your 

Visicalc Worksheets 149.00 
Visitrend/Visiplot— Visiplot 

w/Trend Analysis 239.00 
Visidex— The Ultimate 

DBMS Visicalc Compatible 219.00 
Visiterm— Communicate 

w/other Systems 209.00 

BPI General Ledger 299.00 

BPI Accounts Receivable 299.00 

BPI Inventory 299.00 

Stockfile Inventory System 349.00 

Infotory Inventory System 289.00 

Microcom Microcourier 229 00 

Microcom Microtelegraph 229 00 

Accounting Plus II Biz Pkg. 1250 00 

Stoneware DB Master 189.00 



24 95 



Scott Voice Recognition VET-2 895 00 



Stoneware Utility Pkg (For above) 89.00 

ACS BASIC ACCOUNTING SYSTEM, Total 
accounting system includes G/L, A/R, A/P, 
PAYROLL 69900 New 



WORDSTARThe Benchmark of 
Wordprocessing software requires Z-80 
& 80x24 349.00 

VTS-80 CP/M-Wordprocessor has no 
screen menus uses new keycaps 
(supplied) to display Key functions 

319.00 New 

MAILMERGEA Wordstar Enhance- 
ment Pkg. allows form-letter genera- 
tion & chained printing 169.00 
SPELLGUARD-WIII proofread Wordstar 
& VTS-80 Text files against an 
expandable 20,000 word dictionary 

169 00 

SUPER SORT-Will sort, merge, & 
perform record selection on your 
CP/M Data Files 169.00 

FORTRA 80-By Microsoft 195.00 

COBOL 80 By Microsoft 749.00 



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Features: 

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• Complete documentation provided — includes theory 
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• Uses all standard Apple DOS commands (OPEN. 
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INIT which has been improved and enhanced in a Vista 
format routine 

• Compatible with Apple DOS 3.2/3.3. Pascal 1.1 and 
CPM 2 2 (with the 280 soft card by Microsoft) 

• 2K x 8 PROM contains Autoboot functions and all 
eight-inch floppy driver code allowing complete 
compatibility with Apple DOS 3.2/3.3 

• 120 days parts and labor warranty 

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Program your own EPROMs. Create your own 
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CREATIVE COMPUTING 



139 



CIRCLE 146 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



New Products, continued... 

parallel port I/O card contains the interface 
software in ROM, and plugs into one of 
the Apple's Peripheral Interface Con- 
nectors 

Terrapin, Inc., 678 Massachusetts Ave. 
Rm. 205, Cambridge, MA 02139. (617) 
492-8816. 

CIRCLE 355 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

ATARI I/O PACKAGE 

The Mosaic I/O Package connects the 
Atari computer to the real world. The 
four ports on the front of the Atari 
computer connect directly to a PIA for 
use as output as well as input ports. 

The I/O package comes with four nine- 
pin connectors, four 12" lengths of nine- 
conductor ribbon cable, and instructions 
for use. The documentation includes 
examples of home-built program con- 
trollers, how to access the ports through 
Basic commands, shadow registers, or 
directly, and how to set-up and address 
the ports for output. $18. 

Mosaic Electronics, P.O. Box 748, 
Oregon City, OR 97045. 

CIRCLE 356 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

PRINTER INTERFACE FOR 
TRS-80 COLOR 




The CPrint module for the TRS-80 Color 
Computer provides a plug compatible 
Centronics type parallel printer port for 
use with all parallel Radio Shack, Cen- 
tronics, Epson, and similar printers. 

Software contained in permanent on- 
board memory offers transparent operation 
with the following features: all LLIST and 
PRINT #-2 output is automatically re- 
routed, a screen-print function can be 
initiated at any time, line width can be 
set, the graphics in the LPVII can be 
accessed, page length can be set, and 
blank lines are inserted between pages. 



The CPrint module is a fully buffered, 
8-bit I/O port which will interface with 
any Model I/III product which plugs into 
the printer port. $49.95. 

Micro-Labs, Inc., 902 Pinecrest, Richard- 
son, TX 75080. 

CIRCLE 357 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

ASCII VOCALIZER I 

The ASCII Vocalizer I converts serial 
ASCII data from a computer system into 
speech. Data is input through the RS-232 
interface on the vocalizer. 

The unit can be used as a stand-alone 
peripheral for paging, instructions, vocal 
reminders or any automatic speech output. 
It can also be added to an existing terminal 
to vocalize portions of the terminal display 
such as error conditions, operator messages 
or prompts. 

To produce speech the programmer 
outputs serial ASCII data to the Vocalizer 
through an exisitng RS-232 port to which 
the Vocalizer is attached. 

The standard unit has a 200-word 
memory and expansion capabilities for 
600 additional words. $1395. 

Micro Communications, Inc., 1509 Gov- 
ernment St., Suite 214, Mobile, AL 36604. 
(205) 478-1777. 

CIRCLE 358 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

DIRECT-CONNECT MODEM FOR 
TRS-80 I AND III 




ESI Lynx has introduced a new version 
of its Lynx direct-connect telephone 
modem for both TRS-80 Model I and 
Model III. 

Standard features include auto-dial and 
auto-answer functions, originate/answer, 
programmable word length, parity, number 
of stop bits and full/half duplex. Also 
provided are active clear and break keys 
and "control," programmable I/O porting, 
and either keyboard-dialing or stored- 
number-selection operation. 

It connects to either the keyboard or 
the expansion interface on Model I, and 
to the 50-pin I/O bus jack on Model III. 
$299.95. 

ESI Lynx at 123 Locust St., Lancaster, 
PA 17602.(717)291-1116. 

CIRCLE 359 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



GRAPHICS 



COMPUTER SLIDE SYSTEM 




Using the Apple II as the base computer 
it is now possible to create informational 
and artistic slides. 

The Model T Computer Slide System 
allows users to create full color slides by 
drawing with a light pen on a graphic 
tablet. Squares or bars are created by 
touching two points. Circles are created 
by touching the center and a point on the 
circumference. Type (three styles available) 
is entered via the keyboard. Slides can 
also be created by entering data strictly 
from the keyboard. 

The retrofit package for a 48K Apple 
with two disk drives includes software 
and reproduction modules. $4895. 

Toucan Company, 1033 Battery St., San 
Francisco, CA 94111. (415) 392-2970. 

CIRCLE 360 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

LIGHT PEN FOR APPLE 




A high-resolution light pen system with 
full 280 x 192 Apple hi-res is now available. 
With the light pen, hi-resolution graphics 
information can be entered through the 
screen of the Apple. 

LPS II is compatible with Applesoft 
and Integer Basic, Fortran, Pascal, Pilot, 
Forth, and CP/M. 

Usable in every Screen Mode of the 
Apple, the LPS II provides the user's 
program with the horizontal and vertical 
location of the pen point at a full 60Hz 
rate. $285. 

Gibson Laboratories, Building 10, 406 
Orange Blossom, Irvine, CA 92714. 

CIRCLE 361 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



140 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



When ft comes to 
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How do you stay up-to-the-minute 
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CH 6340 Baar, Switzerland 
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CREATIVE COMPUTING 



141 



CIRCLE 216 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



THELEAST 



WM2 t 



YOU CAN BUY. 



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I'P to 77 high-quality programs 
for TRS-80, only $10 95 



NewBa SJC— expands disk basic 

NewBasic, from Modular Software 
Associates, adds tremendous power 
and flexibility to Level n or disk 
Basic. The disk version includes a 
unique CREATOR program which 
allows you to customize NewBasic to 
inlude any or all of over 30 new 
commands. Level II NewBasic 
includes all of the non-disk 
commands found in disk NewBasic. A 
few of the many new features added 
include: 

SPOOLING-DESPOOLING (disk version)— 
Allows printer output to be "spooled" to disk 
Instead of being printed. Later, the file may be 
4 despooled " (i.e. printed out) while the computer 
can still run Basic, as usual (another program, or 
you input a program!). 

NEW TRACE UTILITY— Now trace more than 
just a line number! This trace facility displays 
(LISTs) the line being executed, as well as the 
current value of specified variables and 
expressions. 

SOUND AND GRAPHICS- Easily create music or 
sound effects with the versatile SOUND 
command. Lines and rectangles may be 
effortlessly drawn with the new graphics 
commands: LINE, RECT, and FILL. 

RS232— NewBasic allows you to initialise your 
RS-232-C, receive input from it, or output to it- 
all from within Basic! 

QUICK KEY ENTRY— Over 35 pre-defined keys 
allow you to "type" most any common Basic 
keyword quickly and without errors. 

Blinking cursor; Repeating keys; Lowercase 
driver; DO-UNTIL; Line labels; RESTORE any 
DATA line... 

and MUCH more, including many features not 
available elsewhere. The finest enhanced Basic 
package available for your Model I! 

Disk version (1 drive, 32K min.) ($31.75 CA) 

$29.95 

Level II (cassette) version (16K min) $19.95 (may 
be upgraded to disk for $10.95) $19.95 

SuperPIMS— People's Database 

PIMS has been greatly speeded up and simplified, 
with machine-language sorts, key debounce, 
optional automatic lowercase (no keying, no 
hardware mod) on labels or reports. Up to 20 
fields, limited by 240 character maximum per 
record. Easy to revise, add records, split or 
merge files, sum or average any fields. 
Customized for tape, tape & disk, Zoom, TC8 Poor 
Man's Floppy, B17, Stringy Floppy— all on one 
tape! As mailing labels program, easily manages 
20,00011st. CIE does! Advanced labels module to 
come, $24.95, making system most powerful 
mailer available! $25.90 on disk 

program (CIE) $19.95 ($21.15 CA) 

book, details uses (CIE) $11.95 ($12.67 CA) 

NewDOS-80— New Low Price! 

Successor to NewDOS + , same package for which 

you pay $149 elsewhere, at CIE Just... 

($105.95 CA) $111 

Games for color TRS-80 

Modular Software Assoc, tape contains: 
• PONG 80 • ENTRAP • DEMOLISH (like 
Breakout) e TRAFFIC (Grand Prix auto race) 
e BETA TREK space game e SHUTTLE (rocket 
ship game). $19.95 ($20.55 CA) 

Add $1 shipping per order 
NEW* Send for ,ree mont hly catalog 

10% DISCOUNT 

when ordering 3 items 

totaling $50 or more 

All orders charge card, check or m.o. 
Calif . residents add 6 pet tax. Dealer lnq. invited 
Overseas, add $1.50 per tape postage 



COMPUTER INFORMATION EXCHANGE 

Box 159 
San Luis Rey CA 92068 



CIRCLE 124 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



New Products, continued... 



DISK SYSTEMS 



REMOVABLE CARTRIDGE 
WINCHESTER DRIVE 




New World Computer Company has 
introduced a 5 1/4" fixed and removable 
cartridge drive. 

The Mikro-Disc V drives are available 
in five models, ranging from the Model 
2/0— the lowest-priced Winchester drive 
with 2 megabytes of fixed storage— to the 
Model 4/4, with 4 megabytes fixed and 4 
megabytes removable storage. 

The removable cartridge is available in 
2-megabyte and 4-megabyte versions in a 
hermetically sealed package that comes 
complete with the company's multiple- 
head assembly, media and actuator posi- 
tioner. 

Prices start under $500 for the Model 
2/0 and under $1,200 for the Model 4/4. 

New World Computer Company, 3176 
Pullman Street #120, Costa Mesa, CA 
92626. (714) 556-9320. 

CIRCLE 362 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

DISK SUBSYSTEM FOR 
MODEL III 




The Disk III, offered by VR Data, is a 
5 1/4" disk storage subsystem for the TRS- 
80 Model III. 

The basic unit consists of controller, 
power supply, mounting bracket, one 40- 
track (6ms) disk drive and associated 
cabling. Disk III options include a second 
internal 40-track drive, 80-track disk drives, 
two-sided, 40-track drives, or two-sided 
80-track drives. 

The basic unit is priced at $599. The 
second 40-track drive is $265. 

VR Data Corporation, 777 Henderson 
Blvd., Folcroft, PA 19032. 

CIRCLE 363 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



DISK STORAGE FOR 
HEATH 88/89 

A floppy disk controller board, which 
is compatible with the Heath 88/89 micro- 
computer and allows users to double their 
5 1/4" disk storage capacity without adding 
drives or disks, is now available from 
Controlled Data Recording Systems, Inc. 

Designated the FDC-880H, the board 
runs under the CP/M 2.2 operating system 
and is capable of handling up to four 
Shugart compatible 5 1/4" or 8" drives 
simultaneously. In addition, the FDC-880H 
handles single and double-sided operation; 
single and double-density data. 

It converts the 5 1/4" hard sectored 
disks to standard soft sector double density. 
The FDC-880H occupies any I/O slot in 
the H88/H89 microcomputer without 
modification. $695. 

CDR Systems, Inc., 7667 Vickers St., 
Suite C, San Diego, CA 92111. 

CIRCLE 364 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

TYPE AHEAD BUFFER 
AND DISK SUBSYSTEM 




Vista Computer Company has 
announced the Model 150 Type Ahead 
Buffer, which is compatible with all Apple 
II computers and software. 

Featuring a 40-character type ahead 
capability, the Model 150 eliminates the 
need to wait for computer prompts before 
entering the next command or data. 

The Model 150 requires no software 
patches, cuts or jumpers. $49.95. 

Also available from Vista is the V1000 
Dual 8" Drive Subsystem. 




The unit accommodates mass storage 
units ranging from single-sided, 8" floppies 
to 20-megabyte streaming tape cartridges 
and 40-megabyte Winchester disk drives. 
On-line floppy disk storage capacity ranges 
from 250 kilobytes to 2.5 megabytes. 

The V1000 with a choice of drive 
configurations, is priced from $1,095 to 
$2,295. 

Vista Computer Company, 1317 E. 
Ed inger Ave., Santa Ana, CA 92705. (714) 
953-0523. 

CIRCLE 365 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



142 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




CREATIVE COMPUTING 



143 



CIRCLE 141 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



r 



Z-80 Softcard 



CP/M for Apple 



Chuck Carpenter 







crBDtiuG 


Eunluation 







CP/M and much of the CP/M related 
software is now available for the Apple 
II. The Z-80 Softcard by Microsoft makes 
it possible. Microsoft's package includes 
the Z-80 board, two manuals, and diskettes 
for 13 and 16 sector systems. 

CP/M stands for "control program for 
microcomputers," and it is probably the 
most popular independent operating sys- 
tem around. Many do-it-yourself systems 
and over a dozen off-the-shelf systems 
now being advertised use this operating 
system developed by Digital Research. 
Consequently, there are dozens of pro- 
grams available for use with CP/M. Some 
of them have already been converted for 
use with the Apple II. And a few originals 
for the Apple have started to appear. 
Additionally, with CP/M, there are several 
programming language options. Microsoft 
offers MBasic, Fortran, Cobol, Pascal, and 
an MBasic compatible compiler. There is 
also a very comprehensive editor/assem- 
bler available from Microsoft. 

Hardware 

Only one board, with the Z-80, is 
needed. The board is manufactured for 
Microsoft by California Computer Sys- 
tems. It is a quality piece of work. This 
board plugs into one of the expansion 
connectors; slot 7 is preferred. Once the 
board is installed, you are ready to boot 
the system. Depending on the configura- 
tion of your system you can use either the 
13 sector disk or the 16 sector disk. If you 
have a Language Card or other 16K 
memory board, you can take advantage 
of the maximum 54K memory capability. 



Compatibility with other hardware in 
the Apple system is limited. You can use 
an 80-column board only in slot 3. With 
an 80-column board in slot 3, the boot 
default is to the video board. The modem 
has to be in a certain slot as does the 
printer. At least one software package is 
available to let you communicate with 
the Softcard and a Hayes Modem (It's 
called Z-TERM and it works!). If you are 



•/•:•:# 



There are many g 
reasons to get a Z-80 
Softcard for your 
Apple II. 



using the Apple language system, the 
hardware compatibility is almost identical. 
The hardware requirements and limita- 
tions are spelled out clearly in the man- 
ual. 

Software 

Languages and utility programs are on 
the two diskettes included with the card. 
Each disk contains the versions of Basic 
and programs to help you configure and 
use the system. There is one Basic called 
MBasic and one called GBasic. MBasic 
includes all of the features of Microsoft 



Basic-80 and low-res graphics. GBasic also 
includes hi-res graphics. More memory is 
required to use GBasic and it imposes 
some limitations, but 111 get into this more 
when memory usage is discussed. 

Utilities include programs to convert 
your Applesoft Text files to Basic-80 text 
files. I've converted Applesoft programs 
to files, then converted them to Basic-80 
programs. They run fine as long as no 
syntax rules are violated. Other utilities 
include configuration programs, conver- 
sion to a 56K system, format and copy 
programs, and programs to upload/down- 
load to another computer. 

Also included are the programs and 
utilities normally associated with CP/M, 
including an editor, an 8080 assembler 
(no, none for a Z-80), one for disk status, 
a debugger/tester, and a program to 
transfer files between disks. Other pro- 
grams include one to convert assembly 
programs, one to run a chain of commands 
(like the Apple EXEC command), and a 
memory dump program. Programs built 
directly into the CP/M operating system 
include ERAse, DIRectory, REName, 
SAVE, and TYPE. 

The Basic included with the package is 
one of the most powerful available. There 
is a line editor built-in— very handy during 
program development. Commands include 
RENUMber, PRINT USING, RANDOM- 
IZE, SWAP (to exchange variables), and 
WHILE...WEND. There are many other 
powerful commands too, including several 
intrinsic commands to help with such 
things as hex to decimal and octal to 
decimal conversion. Disk I/O commands 



144 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



The Text Solution for APPLE II® 

Now APPLE II® Owners Can Solve Text Problems 
With VIDEOTERM 80 Column by 24 Line Video Display 

Utilizing 7 X 9 Dot Character Matrix 

Perhaps the most annoying shortcoming of the Apple II® is its limitation of displaying only 40 columns by 24 lines of 
text all in uppercase. At last, Apple II® owners have a reliable, trouble-free answer to their text display problem. 
VIDEOTERM generates a full 80 columns by 24 lines of text, in upper and lower case. Twice the number of characters as 
the standard Apple II® display. And by utilizing a 7 by 9 character matrix, lower case letters have true descenders. But 
this is only the start. 



VIDEOTERM, MANUAL, 
SWITCHPLATE 



VIDEOTERM 



1*3 






M* 






jV" 



! ■ t $ U '()< + ,-. / 
61 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < ■ ) ? 
fflBCDEFGHIJKLMHO 
P R 5 T U V U X Y Z [ \ ] A . 
'dbcdefph i 1 k 1 iti n o 
p q r s t u v in x y z { '< ) I 



7X12 MATRIX 
18X80 OPTIONAL 



• 123456789: I <»>? 

MBCDEF6 H I J K L HNO 
PORS TU VU X Y Z [ \ 1 t . 

• a b c d e f g h i j k I ■ n o 
pqrstuvwxyzllf't 



Other 
Boards 



Advanced 
Hardware 
Design 



Available 
Options 



BASICS VIDEOTERM lists BASIC programs, both Integer and Applesoft, using the entire 80 
columns. Without splitting keywords. Full editing capabilities are offered using the 
ESCape key sequences for cursor movement. With provision for stop/start text 
scrolling utilizing the standard Control-S entry. And simultaneous on-screen display 
of text being printed. 

Pascal Installation of VIDEOTERM in slot 3 provides Pascal immediate control of the 

display since Pascal recognizes the board as a standard video display terminal and 
treats it as such. No changes are needed to Pascal's MISC. INFO or GOTOXY files, 
although customization directions are provided. All cursor control characters are 
identical to standard Pascal defaults. 

The new Microsoft Softcard* is supported. So is the popular D. C. Hayes Micro- 
modem II* . utilizing customized PROM firmware available from VIDEX. The power- 
ful EasyWriter Professional Word Processing System and other word processors 
are now compatible with VIDEOTERM. Or use the Mountain Hardware ROMWriter 
(or other PROM programmer) to generate your own custom character sets. Natural- 
ly, VIDEOTERM conforms to all Apple OEM guidelines, assurance that you will have 
no conflicts with current or future Apple II" expansion boards. 

VIDEOTERMs onboard asynchronous crystal clock ensures flicker-free character display. 
Only the size of the Pascal Language card, VIDEOTERM utilizes CMOS and low power con- 
sumption ICs. ensuring cool, reliable operation. All ICs are fully socketed for easy 
maintenance. Add to that 2K of onboard RAM, 50 or 60 Hz operation, and provision of power 
and input connectors for a light pen. Problems are designed out, not in. 

The entire display may be altered to inverse video, displaying black characters on a white 
field PROMs containing alternate character sets and graphic symbols are available from 
Videx A switchplate option allows you to use the same video monitor for either the 
VIDEOTERM or the standard Apple II* display, instantly changing displays by flipping a 
single toggle switch. The switchplate assembly inserts into one of the rear cut-outs in the 
Apple II" case so that the toggle switch is readily accessible. And the Videx KEYBOARD 
ENHANCER can be installed, allowing upper and lower case character entry directly from 
your Apple II" keyboard. 



Firmware 



1K of onboard ROM firmware controls all operation of the VIDEOTERM. 
language patches are needed for normal VIDEOTERM use. 

Firmware Version 2.0 



No machine 



Characters 7x9 matrix 
Options 7x12 matrix option; 

Alternate user definable 
character set option; 
Inverse video option. 



Display 24 x 80 (full descenders) 

18 x 80 (7 x 12 matrix with full descenders) 



Want to know more'? Contact your local Apple dealer today for a demonstration VIDEOTERM is available 
through your local dealer or direct from Videx in Corvallis, Oregon. Or send for the VIDE' 
Reference Manual and deduct the amount if you decide to purchase. Upgrade your Apple II 
capabilities for half the cost of a terminal. VIDEOTERM. At last. 



to full terminal 



7X9 MATRIX 
24X80 STANDARD 



Apple ll" is a trademark o» Apple Computer Inc. 

ROMWriter" is a trademark of Mountain Hardware Inc 

Micromodem II' is a trademark of D. C Hayes Associates Inc 

Softcard* is a trademark of Microsoft 

EasyWriter* is a trademark of Information Unlimited Software Inc 



PRICE: • VIDEOTERM includes manual $345 

• SWITCHPLATE $ 19 

• MANUAL refund with purchase .... $ 19 

• 7 x 12 CHARACTER SET $ 39 

• MICROMODEM FIRMWARE $ 25 



APPLE II® OWNERS! 

introducing the 

KEYBOARD & DISPLAY 

ENHANCER 

PUT THE SHIFT AND SHIFT LOCK BACK WHERE IT BELONGS 

■ SEE REAL UPPER AND lower CASE ON THE SCREEN 

■ ACCESS ALL YOUR KEYBOARD ASCII CHARACTERS 



Videx has the perfect companion for your 
word processor software: the KEYBOARD 
AND DISPLAY ENHANCER Install the 
enhancer in your APPLE II and be typing in 
lower case just like a typewriter If you want an 
upper case character, use the SHIFT key or the 
CTRL key for shift lock Not only that, but you 
see upper and lower case on the screen as you 
type Perfectly compatible with Apple Writer 
and other word processors like, for example. 
Super-Text. 

If you want to program in BASIC, just put it 
back into the alpha lock mode; and you have 
the original keyboard back with a few im- 



provements Now you can enter those elusive 9 
characters directly from the keyboard, or re- 
quire the Control key to be pressed with the 
RESET to prevent accidental resets 

KEYBOARD AND DISPLAY 
ENHANCER is recommended for use with all 
revisions of the APPLE II It includes 6 ICs. and 
EPROM and dip-switches mounted on a PC 
board, and a jumper cable Easy installation, 
meaning no soldering or cutting traces. Alter- 
nate default modes are dip-switch selectable 
You can even remap the keyboard, selecting an 
alternate character set. for custom applications. 



PRICE • KDE-700 (REV. 7 or greater) $129. 

• KDE-000 (REV. 6 or less) *129. 

Apple IP' is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. 



VIDEX 
897 N.W. Grant Avenue 
Corvallis, Oregon 97330 
Phone (503) 758-0521 



CIRCLE 240 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



f Z-80 Softcard, continued... 

are easier to use than in Applesoft. You 
can develop sequential or random files 
with specific commands, and they do not 
require prefixing to identify them as disk 
commands. (Remember that Basic-80 was 
specifically designed to be a disk based 
system. Applesoft was not.) 

Documentation 

Two manuals, about half-page size, 
include the system documentation. One 
manual contains hardware definitions and 
the Digital Research CP/M manual. The 
other contains all the MBasic/GBasic 
programming definitions, plus all the 
special features related to implementation 
on the Apple II. 

Also included was a copy of the Mostek 
Z-80 Micro-Reference Manual, the only 
source of Z-80 specific information sup- 
plied. 

Several complaints have been heard 
about the CP/M Reference Manual. 
Mostly that it is difficult to comprehend. 
It is! But, there are several sources of 
information that will help. Ill cover them 
later. 

Memory Use 

One of the clever features of the Soft- 
card is its use of memory. The two 
microprocessors use memory differently: 
for instance, the 6502 expects the entry 
jump table to be at the top of high 
memory, while the Z-80 expects it to start 
at the beginning of low memory. To 
compensate for this, Z-80 address 0000H 
is at 6502 address $1000. Note the differ- 
ence in convention for identifying a hex 
number. Table 1 shows the correlation of 
memory between the two systems. In the 
July '81 "Applecart," I included a program 
to help find your way around Z-80 mem- 
ory. You might find it useful with the 
softcard. 

Memory available for Basic programs 
depends on the version used. It also 
depends on your system configuration. If 
you have a 48K machine (minimum recom- 
mended) here's what you get: 

MBasic 13 sectors: 14K+ without 
G Basic. 

And, with a 56K sytem, here is what you 
get: 

MBasic 16 sectors: 26.5K with the 
Language Card. 

GBasic 16 sectors: 17.5K with the 
Language Card. 

As you can see, it would not be practical 
to use GBasic without using the extra 
memory provided by the Language Card. 
Some of the other 16K expansion cards, 
such as the one by Microsoft, would give 
the same results. 



Service and Support 

Updates on problems have been 
promptly dispatched. Early versions had 
several bugs and errors, but Microsoft 



Z-80 


6502 


ADDRESS 


ADDRESS 


0000H-0FFFH 


$1000-$1FFF 


1000H-1FFFH 


$2000-$2FFF 


2000H-2FFFH 


$3000-$3FFF 


3000H-3FFFH 


$4000-$4FFF 


4000H-4FFFH 


$5000-$5FFF 


5000H-5FFFH 


$6000-$6FFF 


6000H-6FFFH 


$7000-$7FFF 


7000H-7FFFH 


$8000-$8FFF 


8000H-8FFFH 


$9000-$9FFF 


9000H-9FFFH 


$A000-$AFFF 


0A000H-0AFFFH 


$B000-$BFFF 


0B000H-0BFFFH 


$D000-$DFFF 


0C000H-0CFFFH 


$E000-$EFFF 


0D000H-0DFFFH 


$F000-$FFFF 


0E000H-0EFFFH 


$C000-$CFFF 


0F000H-0FFFFH 


$0O00-0FFF 



Z-80 location zero 



6502 RESET, NMI, BREAK 

vectors 

6502 memory mapped I/O 

6502 zero page, stack, Apple 

screen 



Apple II CP/M Memory Usage 

Here is how the Apple memory is used by Apple CP/M: 



6S02 
ADDRESS 

$800-$FFF 
$400-$7FF 
$200-$3FF 
$000-$ IFF 

$C000-$CFFF 
$FFFA-$FFFF 



Z-80 
ADDRESS 

0F800-0FFFF 
0F400-0F7FF 
0F200H-0F3FFH 
0F000H-0F1FFH 

0E000H-0EFFFH 
0DFFAH-0DFFFH 



$D400-$FFF9 0C400H-0DFF9H 

$D000-$D3FF 0C000H-0C3FFH 

$A400-$BFFF 9400H-0AFFFH 

$1000-$A3FF 0000H-093FFH 



PURPOSE 

Apple disk drivers and disk buffers 

Apple screen memory 

I/O Configuration Block. 

Reserved 6502 memory area — 6502 

stack and zero page. 

Apple memory mapped I/O 

6502 RESET, NMI, and BREAK 

vectors. 

56K Language Card CP/M (if 

Language Card installed) 

Top IK of free RAM space with 

56K Language Card CP/M 

44K CP/M. (Free memory with 

56KCP/M) 

Free RAM (CP/M uses lowest 256 

bytes) 



Table 1. Memory organization with CP/M installed in the Apple II. 



quickly dealt with them in documentation 
updates. Microsoft also provided early 
owners the option of returning their disks 
for an update. 

Several readers have written to me 
about letters that go unanswered. I've 
written letters too and never received a 
reply. I've called and received very good 
responses and prompt replies. As in many 
companies these days, letters don't seem 
to get any attention. (It's very expensive 
to handle and respond to letters.) I had a 
problem with double line feeds with my 
737 printer. I called, got someone to talk 
to right away, and a patch to fix the 
problem in a few days. The patch worked 
too. Except for letters, the support from 
Microsoft has been excellent. 



Summary 

If you are looking for a more powerful 
Basic, this system has it. If you want to 
get involved with another microprocessor, 
you can learn about the Z-80 with this 
sytem. If you want to learn about the 
CP/M operating system, you can do that 
too. There are many good reasons to get 
a Z-80 Softcard for your Apple II. I've 
enjoyed using mine. I really like the version 
of Basic supplied, and since I am not 
interested in graphics, there have been 
no conflicts using the Softcard with my 
Videx Videoterm 80-column board. You 
can find the Softcard at most computer 
stores for about $350. 

Microsoft Consumer Products, 400 
108th Ave., N.E., Bellevue, WA 98004. D 



146 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




4pplell 



sensational 

software 



creative 

computing 

software 



Haunted House 



Cassette CS-4005 

$11.95 

Requires 16K 




It i * 



-M.H'f. H".V>:1 



0. -PE IN THE Plm' c 0:h 






J..HIC- :eeceh:e: ^'n h cei.i-g 

I -T T-E E--0 0- T HE *0in IE P ZOIP 

EE-i-.ci v:u Is a do:* 

mr T mu 



A? 



• _~. 



It's 6:00 pm and you have until midnight to find the secret 
passageway out of a large rambling HAUNTED HOUSE. During 
your search you'll encounter skeleton keys, charms, friendly 
ghosts, and evil spirits, Sound effects add to the eerieness. The 
layout changes in every game. 



Outdoor Games 

Cassette CS-4010 $14.95 4 Programs Requires 16K Apple II or Apple II Plus 



Til 
L ■ 




i J 









TtPRlBLE STO*H IS »*CIM£< 
icmthImc IS STBIKlMG fUtlrMMtRt 
'TCM OUT FOG FIMS' 



Forest Fire. Use chemical retardants and 
backfires to control raging forest fires. 





IlPE^TLY IN fhomT of vbifis open terroim 



Treasure Island I. Your map shows buried 
treasure but unfortunately you don't know 
where you are. Try to find the treasure 
while moving about and observing your 
surroundings. You have a 3-day supply of 
food and water. You may find useful objects 
(compass, weapons, a horse) but watch out 
for hazards (robot guards, pirates, caves, 
crocodiles, mountain lions and more). 

Treasure Island II. Same game except you 
have to use a metal detector to find the 
treasure. 



i-l IS VOL* BO'JKC.N.Vf ■'->■ 0» t ) n 



Fishing Trip. Try to catch flounder end 
salmon while avoiding logs, sharks, bad 
weather and running out of fuel. 



Outdoor Games and 
Haunted House 

Disk 4504. $24.95 

Requires 32K Apple II or Apple II Plus 

This disk contains all five programs from 
cassettes CS-4005 and CS-4010. 



Super Invasion 
Space War 

Disk CS-4508 $29.95 
Requires 48K Apple II or Apple II Plus 



Apple is the registered trademark of Apple Computer. Inc 



Super Invasion 




Cassette CS-4006 $19.95 
Requires 16K Apple II or Apple II Plus 

This original invasion game features superb high res- 
olution, graphics, nail biting tension and hilarious antics 
by the moon creatures. Fifty-five aliens whiz across the 
screen, quickening their descent, challenging you to 
come out from behind your blockades and pick them off 
with your lasers. A self-running attract mode makes it 
easy to learn and demonstrate the game. Game paddles 
are required. 



Space War 

Take command in Space War. Select from 
five game modes, including reverse gravity, 
and the battle begins. Challenge your op- 
ponent with missle fire, force him to collide 
with the sun or to explode upon re-entry 
from hyperspace Be wary/ He may circle 
out of sight and re-appear on the opposite 
side of the galaxy. (This is the classic MIT 
game redisgned especially for the Apple.) 



Cassette CS-4009 $14.95 

Requires 16K 

Apple II or Apple II Plus 




To order any of these software packages, 
send payment plus $2 00 postage and 
handling per order to Creative Computing 
Morris Plains. NJ 07950 Visa. MasterCard 
and American Express orders may be called 
in toll-free 



Order today at no risk If you are not 
completely satisfied, your money will be 
promptly and courteously refunded 

Creative Computing Software 

Morris Plains. NJ 07950 

Toll-free 800-631 -81 12 

In NJ. 201-540-0445 



creative computing software 



CIRCLE 300 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



For years, computer hobbyists have seen 
voice synthesis as a distant fantasy— OK 
for comic books and novels, but too 
complex and expensive for the home 
computer den. 

But that was yesterday! 

Today, direct text-to-speech voice sys- 
tems enable the home computer user to 
type in plain English, and the synthesizer 
automatically converts the written words 
into intelligible speech. Sure, this tech- 
nology has been around for a while, but 
not at $345! 

Votrax, an old and reliable name in 
voice synthesis, recently announced a 
product called Type 'n Talk. Type 4 n Talk 
works with any computer and any language, 
has an unlimited vocabulary, is RS-232C 
serial interface compatible, and extremely 
easy to use. 

Let's see what else Type 'n Talk has to 
say for itself. 

An Inside Look 

It all starts at your computer or terminal. 
Information, in the form of ASCII char- 
acters is sent through an RS-232C serial 
interface and into Type 'n Talk (TNT). 
This information is fed through very 
quickly— faster than the synthesizer could 
say the words. So a buffer has been inserted 
at the input to collect the information so 
it can be slowly dispersed as the words 
are spoken (your printer works in a similar 
fashion). 

From the buffer, the data is sent to a 
text-to-speech translator, that decides how 
the words you typed will be pronounced. 

From the translator, the information is 
sent to a voice synthesis chip. This chip 
creates a series of hissing, pocking, clicking, 
humming and other strange sounds that 
combine to form human speech. These 
sounds are sent through an internal ampli- 
fier and then to your speaker. 

Connections 

No special hardware modifications or 
devices are required to connect TNT to 
your computer system. However, you do 
need a standard RS-232C serial interface 
and cable. 

Up to eight TNTs can be connected to 
one computer system, and each can be 
independently addressed. This is particu- 
larly helpful in the classroom. 

You must make two other connections 
to complete your TNT set up: one for 
power supply cable (included) and the 
other for the speaker connection. You 
can connect TNT to any 8-ohm speaker 
or wire it into your hi-fi if the on-board 1- 
watt amp isn't strong enough for your 
needs (TNT does not have an internal 
speaker). 



1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 1 — 


1 ! ' ' 


IUB 


■ 


■ 4' MJ • hi Ni i« 


evaluation 




i 



Low Cost Voice Synthesis 



AH Ears for Type 'n Talk 



Gordon Mc Comb 



Gordon Mc Comb, 410 Escondido Ave., Vista, 
CA 92083. 



You must also select the baud rate. A 
series of small switches on the back of 
TNT controls the rate from 75 to 9600 
baud. The data buffer built into TNT is 
capable of holding 750 bytes, or about 
one minute of speech. At 9600 baud, this 
buffer takes less than one second to fill. 
So while TNT is speaking, your computer 
is free to do other tasks. 

System Ready 

When everything is properly connected, 
Type 4 n Talk announces "system ready." 
Adjust the volume control to a comfortable 
listening level. The frequency control 
changes the speed of the voice. 

On computers that don't have a built-in 
serial interface, you'll need to instruct the 
computer on where to send the information 
so it'll get to TNT. Generally, information 
transfers to Type 'n Talk can be accom- 
plished with the same commands and 
software used to send data to a terminal, 
printer or tape drive. TNT's instruction 
manual gives a few insights on hooking it 
into your computer. 

Many of your programs can be run "as 
is," others you may want to modify slightly 
to make better use of the voice system. 
Whenever there is a PRINT statement, 
TNT can be made to speak the text. You 
can also modify your program so it will 
speak some of the statements, and print 
out the rest. Any combination is possible. 

Audible speech is generated by the letters 
A through Z and numerals through 9 
only. Characters such as %, @, &, ( and 
so on) have either no effect or produce 
periods of silence. 



Capital letters are treated in two different 
manners. If only the first letter of a word 
is capitalized, then TNT will pronounce 
the word in the usual fashion. But if the 
first two (or more) letters are caps, TNT 
will spell out the word, letter by letter. 

For example: The words typed "T-H- 
E" and "T-E-D" are pronounced "tee-aych- 
ee" and "tee-ee-dee." The words "t-h-e" 
and "T-e-d" are pronounced "the" and 
"ted." 

This feature can be turned on and off 
under software control, depending on your 
needs. 

Correction 

By now, you've probably realized that 
TNT will not pronounce each and every 
word it encounters perfectly. There are 
so many variants and broken rules in the 
English language, that no computer— no 
matter how sophisticated— could properly 
pronounce every word. 

But TNT makes it fairly easy to obtain 
near-perfect speech every time. You can 
simply misspell the words to get a better 
pronunciation. For instance, if you want 
TNT to say the word "vase," but want it 
pronounced "vaze," just spell it that way. 
Other words such as "clothes" would be 
improperly pronounced because the root 
word is said differently (cloth). To get the 
right sound, misspell it "cloze." Type 'n 
Talk will pronounce "data" as "dota." You'd 
need to spell it "day ta" if you wanted it to 
sound right. 

Another way to correct pronunciation 
is to split the word into its component 
parts. For instance, the word "baseball" 



148 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



WE WILL NOT BE UNDERSOLD 



DISK DRIVES 



FOR TRS-80* Model I 

CCI-100 5 1 /4", 40 Track (102K) $314 

ADD-ON DRIVES FOR ZENITH Z-89 
CCI-189 5 1 /4", 40 Track (102K) $394 

Z-87 Dual 5 V* " system $995 



External card edge and power supply included. 90 day warranty/one 
year on power supply. 



PRINTERS 




RAW DRIVES 

5 1 /4 w TEACorTANDON 



$CALL POWER SUPPLIES $CALL 



DISKETTES - box of 10 

5 1 /4" Maxell $40 

8' Maxell $45 

PLASTIC FILE BOX-Holds 50 5 1 /T diskettes 



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Type 'n Talk, continued... 



A Few Words About 
Voice Synthesis 

There are three major ways to give 
your computer a voice. One system, 
pioneered by Texas Instruments, is 
called Linear Predictive Coding (LPC) 
where an announcer speaks into a 
microphone connected to a computer. 
The computer digitizes and condenses 
the speech and stores it in memory. 
That memory can be duplicated and 
inserted in a finished product. In this 
way, calculators, toys and other elec- 
tronic devices can be given voices— but 
can only speak those words originally 
recorded. Words can be combined to 
create complete phrases, such as "six 
times six equals thirty-six." Each word 
is recorded separately. A small com- 
puter inside the device picks out the 
proper sequence of words and strings 
them together. 

Another method used by many com- 
puter hobbyists is similar to LPC, but 
allows the user to speak into a micro- 
phone and digitize his own voice. His 
voice is then "recorded" in memory, 
and recalled from the computer at will. 
Super Talker from Mountain Computer 
provides this type of speech capability 
for the Apple. 

Phoneme-based synthesis is perhaps 
the truest form of voice synthesis. It 
creates words by imitating the sounds 
produced by the human vocal tract. In 
this way, words, phrases and even 
singing can be produced without the 
need to prerecord or digitize speech. 
One such unit was built for the Radio 
Shack TRS-80. However, it takes several 
hours to input a page or two of text 
even for the most experienced oper- 
ator. 

The first synthesizers of this kind 
were built by Bell Laboratories in the 
50's. (The first working model is featured 
on the Philadelphia Computer Music 
Festival LP record ; $6 from Creative 
Computing.) Later, less elaborate com- 
mercial versions of this type of synthe- 
sizer were shown widely in the early 
70's, however, all suffered from a lack 
of inflection. This gave them a decided 
Scandinavian or Eastern European 
accent and did not contribute to their 
widespread acceptance. 

Text-to-speech synthesis, still in its 
infancy, eliminates the tedious program- 
ming of the phoneme-based synthesizer. 
Text is typed into a computer and is 
translated by a built-in language inter- 
preter. The translator has been pro- 
grammed to correct for the majority 
of pronunciation variances inherent in 
our language. — DHA 



Data Out 



(Phoneme 
Stream Back 
to Computer) 




Data In 




Text to Speech 
Translator 



Output Queue 
(128 Bytes) 



Audio 
Out 



<r=i 


Input Buffer 
(750 Bytes) 






c^> 


Speech Chip 
SC-01 






<f=i 


Amplifier 





Block Diagram of Type n Talk. This is a simplified block diagram of the major functions of Type n 
Talk. Data is fed into a buffer where it is released on your command. It then goes into a text-to-speech 
translator for English syntax conversion and correction. The translated data is fed into an output 
queue, designed to allow additional data to be fed into the buffer while outputting speech. The data is 
then routed into the SC-01 speech chip, which creates the actual voice. The sound is fed into an 
amplifier and out to an external speaker. 



would sound strange, so type it "base 
ball/' "Computer" could be written as 
"com puter" for a clearer sound. 

There may be times when correcting 
the pronunciation using the above methods 
will not produce an acceptable result. 
Foreign words, English words with a foreign 
origin or a person's name often need a 
little extra attention to sound just right. 



The character "~" accesses the voice 
chip directly, bypassing the text-to-speech 
translator. In this way, you can program 
TNT sound-by-sound to produce a word. 
You then need to key in the word using 
the special ASCII codes given in the back 
of the instruction manual. Votrax gives 
this example on direct programming of 
the voice chip for the name "Robert. 




150 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



r 



1. Say the name "Robert." 

2. Number of vowel sounds = 2 ("o" 
and "er.") 

3. Number of consonant sounds = 3 
("r," "b" and M t.") 

4. Match these sounds with characters 
in Phonetic Conversion Chart in manual. 

5. Phonetic characters = R, AH, B, 
ER,T. 

6. Match these with ASCII characters 
(found in manual also) so you can key 
them into your computer = k, d, N, z, j. 

7. Create phoneme block = "~" 

8. Insert ASCII sequence = kdNzj. 

9. End phoneme block = type a "?" 
10. Activate TNT; hear the name 

"Robert." 

The special ASCII characters that were 
used in this example to represent different 
phonemes, can also be received from Type 
'n Talk. Under software control (almost 
everything is with TNT), you can ask the 
synthesizer to send the stream of phonemes 
back to your computer. If you need to 
input an entire sales pitch for a convention, 
you can type it in English, then turn around 
and review the phoneme string. Changes 
can be easily made by adjusting the 
phonemes to create a better pronunciation 
of the problem words. 

Toy or Tool? 

How important is voice synthesis? How 
can it be used in home computing? Many 
of your programs, whether they be for 
entertainment, education, business or home 
use, can be enhanced by voice output. 
Leaving commands and statements to a 
synthesizer frees the CRT display for the 
things it does best: graphic illustrations, 
text, charts, graphs, and so on. Voice 
command is an attention grabber. 

Some applications of voice synthesis 
could be in aiding the visually handicapped, 
teaching and training, banking, compu- 
terized phone information services (shop- 
ping, classified ads, etc.), industry, manu- 
facturing, accounting— the list goes on. 

For home use, you might program TNT 
to say "Warning, tape drive not ready," 
when a drive is improperly connected or 
a diskette incorrectly loaded. 

Or let's say you're playing one of the 
popular games in the Adventure series. 
In addition to your screen display, TNT 
will warn you orally of the evil mummy or 
clue you in on a few secrets of the Great 
Pyramid. 

Vodex— a Division of Votrax Company, 
500 Stephenson Hwy., Troy, MI 48084.D 



"The most gladsome thing in the world is 
that few of us fall very low; the saddest 
that, with such capabilities, we seldom 
rise high. " 

Sir James Matthew Bar he 

CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Sourcebook 
of Ideas 



Many mathematics ideas can be better illustrated 
with a computer than with a text 







»•>••*» ••* 



Computers 



A 

Edited by David H. Ahl 




Creative Computing Press 



Consider Baseball cards. If there are 50 
cards in a set, how many packs of bubble 
gum must be purchased to obtain a complete 
set of players? Many students will guess 
over 1 million packs yet on average its only 
329. 

The formula to solve this problem is not 
easy. The computer simulation is. Yet you 
as a teacher probably don't have time to 
devise programs to illustrate concepts like 

this. 

Between grades 1 and 12 there are 142 
mathematical concepts in which the com- 
puter can play an important role. Things 
like arithmetic practice, X-Y coordinates, 
proving geometic theorems, probability, 
compounding and computation of pi by 
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Endorsed by NCTM 

The National Council of Teachers of 
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You probably don't have the time to develop 
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For the past six years, Creative Computing 
magazine has been running two or three 
articles per issue written by math teachers. 
These are classroom proven, tested ideas 
complete with flowcharts, programs and 
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Teachers have been ordering back issues 
with those applications for years. However, 



151 



• tt 



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Computers in Mathematics: A Sourcebook 
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The book is not cheap. It costs $15.95. 
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r 



A Tale of Three 



in 




Stephen Kim me I 



com 




creative comparing 
SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: NewDOS/80 

Type: Disk Operating System 

System: TRS-80 Model I, 32K, 
Disk Drive 

Format: Disk 

Language: Machine Language 

Summary: Very popular DOS 

Price: $149 

Manufacturer: 

Apparat 

4401 S. Tamarac Pkwy. 

Denver, CO 80237 



This article has been growing ominously. 
It started out as a simple review of VTOS 
4.0. Along the way I decided to compare 
it to NewDOS/80 and TRSDOS 2.3 since 
it seems that a review in a vacuum is 
relatively worthless. I should, perhaps 
preface this tale of terror and intrigue by 
telling you how I use my computer. My 
32K computer is used principally for word 
processing, sometimes for games, and only 
occasionally for program development. I 
bought all of my equipment, including 
my one 5" disk drive at my local Radio 
Shack. Except for text storage and a few 
game programs I really have little use for 
a disk drive. You could say that I am a 
disk user only. I almost never program to 
the thing. 



TRSDOS 2.3 et.al. 

TRSDOS 2.3 is the operating system 
that came with my disk drive ($14.95 
separately). It is well worth the price, 
which in my particular case was nothing. 
Being a cheapskate I had no plans to get 



anything else. TRSDOS 2.3 does practically 
everything I have any interest in doing 
and seems to do it very nicely thank you. 
TRSDOS offers the following commands. 
They may be considered as the "basic" 
set of DOS commands. 

These will suffice if you aren't doing 
anything too fancy with your disk system. 
I have yet to run into any of the well- 
known problems in TRSDOS. Of course, 
that may be because I've never seen any 
of the earlier TRSDOSes. I am one of 
those operators who rigorously follows 
the prescribed procedures. So I have very 
little problem with the thing. I suppose 
you could say that I am a satisfied 
customer. 



creative coittpattng 
SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: TRSDOS 2.3 

Type: Disk Operating System 

System: TRS-80 Model I, 32K, 
Disk Drive 

Format: Disk 

Language: Machine Language 

Summary: Standard Tandy DOS 

Price: Free with disk drive, 
$14.95 separately 

Manufacturer: 

Tandy Corp. 
One Tandy Center 
Fort Worth, TX 76102 



Stephen Kimmel, 4756 S. IrvinKton Place, Tulsa, 
OK 74135. 



Note, however, that I said "practically." 
Even with my rather meager requirements, 
there were shortcomings in TRSDOS. At 
least half of what I bought a disk drive for 
was to load programs in seconds rather 
than minutes. The games I really like, the 
adventures, "Sargon," the Big Five arcade 
games, are machine language programs 
designed to run on a non-disk 16K com- 
puter "Adventure" takes up almost all of 
the free memory. So does TRSDOS. 
Tandy's answer to the problem of putting 
machine language on disk was their Tape- 
Disk utility, which only works if the 



program doesn't load in the lower half of 
memory. They add that they never 
promised me the system would work with 
somebody else's software, and yes it was 
a shame, but too bad, would I like to buy 
a copy of "Pyramid," no it won't load to 
disk either. 

Enter NewDOS/80 

Apparat, 4401 S. Tamarac Pkwy., 
Denver, CO 80237, had a different answer 
that was more to my liking, LMOFFSET, 
a utility program that comes with the 
NewDOS+ and NewDOS/80 packages 
($149). My $325 disk drive didn't seem 
like such a bargain so I sold the car and 
bought the NewDOS/80 package. 

LMOFFSET and SUPERZAP are prac- 
tically worth the price of admission by 
themselves. I had new Disk commands 
and new Basic commands and was spinning 
my disks until the world was beginning to 
look level. But all was not bliss with 
NewDOS/80. To be perfectly honest I 
was intimidated by all of the NewDOS 
power. The thickness of the manual— at 
least an inch— should have warned me 
but it didn't. I'm afraid to try some of the 
commands. Those I use took quite a while 
to extract from the manual which is done 
in the finest IBM style. If you know what 
you're looking for you can find it. 

The moral of this short tale is that 
Apparat isn't lying when they say, "It has 
been designed for the sophisticated user 
who demands the ultimate in disk operating 
systems." It is a powerful program. If all 
you want are the utilities and to avoid 
some of the TRSDOS deficiencies, then 
what you want is NewDOS -I- . 

I eventually settled into a pattern of 
using the functions I could understand, 
acquiring a few more every so often and 
forgetting the rest. I suppose you could 
say that I was a satisfied customer. I would 
never consider forking out another $100 
for another operating system. 

VTOS 4.0 

Then along comes a copy of VTOS 4.0 



152 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



The Newest NEWDOS/80 Version 2.0 

For Model I And Model III 

THE HOTTEST DISK OPERATING SYSTEM FOR THE 
TRS-80® COMPUTER IS NOW READY FOR THE MODEL 
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MANY ENHANCEMENTS AND ADDED FEATURES 
SUCH AS NEW COMMANDS MAKE YOUR COMPUTER 
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Use of the LNW DOUBLER or the PERCOM 
DOUBLER to expand storage 80% under 
NEWDOS/80 Version 2.0, mixing single 
and double density specifications without 
any patches. 

• SINGLE DENSITY ON MODEL III 

Will allow the MODEL III to read disks from 
MODEL I and to write disks the MODEL I 
can read, making it easy to move programs 
between the two machines. 

• EXPANDED DIRECTORIES 

Directories can be expanded three times 
the normal number of available entries, 
even on DOS disks. This is extremely useful 
when using double density. 

• DYNAMICALLY MERGE IN BASIC 

To allow sections of BASIC programs to be 
deleted and replaced with lines from a disk 
file during program execution. Also allows 
merging of non-ASC II format files. 

• SELECTIVE VARIABLE CLEARING 

Allows the programmer to keep some vari- 
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rest; also, specific variables may be erased 
releasing the space they use. 

(CALL OR WRITE FOR MORE INFORMATION ON OUR 
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REPAIR SERVICES FOR YOUR TRS-80 COMPUTER) 



PAGE SCROLLING IN BASIC 

Scrolling has been modified to allow the 
user to display programs page by page, in 
addition to the regular line scrolling. 

REPEAT FUNCTIONS 

Keys in MODEL I repeat when held down. 
Entering "R" as a DOS command causes 
the previous DOS command to be repeated. 

ROUTING FOR DEVICE HANDLING 

To send input and output from one device 
(display, printer, keyboard, etc.) to others or 
to a routine in main memory. 

DISASSEMBLER OUTPUT TO DISK 

The Disassembler will now write a source 
code file to disk, which the editor assembler 
can read and edit. 

CHAINING ENHANCEMENTS 

Features to allow chain files to be written 
from SCRIPSIT; also, chaining may be 
switched on and off without changing 
chain file positioning, and may be executed 
via CMD "xxx" and DOS-CALL. 

SUPERZAP 

has the ability to scan diskettes or disk files 
to find the occurences of specific values. 
Also will generate disk file passwords and 
hashcode. 




ApparoUnc. $149.00 

4401 South Tamarac Parkway 
Denver, Colorado 80237 

(303) 741-1778 

"On-going Support for Microcomputers" 



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WELCOME 




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expiration date with your order 



TRS-80 is a registered trademark of Tandy Corporation 



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CREATIVE COMPUTING 



153 



r 



Three DOSes, continued... 

with a request to review it. Did I need a 
new DOS? No. Between TRSDOS and 
NewDOS I seemed to have everything. 
Did I care if VTOS 4.0 would support any 
conceivable combination of eight disk 
drives? I haven't figured out why I want 
two drives yet. Did I care that it would 
support high speed clocks, non-breakable 
Auto and Chain commands, had an all 
purpose spooler and had keyboard type 
ahead? No, I did not. Did I care that it 
was endorsed by Scott Adams and Lance 
Micklus? Lance who? 

Did I care that it was 100% upward 
compatible with TRSDOS 2.3? Now you've 
got my attention. There are lots of pro- 
grams out there that aren't quite compatible 
with NewDOS. Did I care that it was at 
least three times faster? Did I care that it 
would allow me to redefine the keys in a 
manner that puts TSHORT to shame? Do 
I care that it has dated and marked files? 
Yes. Yes. Yes. But was that worth another 
$100? Uhhhh. 

A Brief Comparison 

What I like best about VTOS 4.0 is the 
same thing I like least about NewDOS/80. 
VTOS 4.0 is extremely easy to use. Instead 
of giving me a 200-page manual, they 
include a 40-page operator's guide. That 
probably tells you everything you need to 
know if you're just an operator. If you're 
a programmer who needs to get down to 
the nitty gritty then you'll need the $30 
Master Reference Manual, which is 
undoubtedly an inch thick and intimi- 
dating. 

An example is in order. Consider the 
COPY command. The TRSDOS manual 
says: 
"COPY filespecl TO filespec2 



Creates a duplicate of filespecl under the 
newname filespec2. If filespec2 already 
exists, its previous contents are lost. The 
first file (filespecl) is unchanged by this 
command." 

'You must have at least two disk drives 
to copy a file from one diskette to 
another. 
"Example: 

COPY PAGE7/TXT:0 TO PAGE7/ 
TXT:1 

duplicates PAGE7/TXT on drive onto 
drive 1, using the same name/extension." 

That seems pretty straight forward and 
simple. Now look at the entry from the 
VTOS operator's guide. 

"COPY filespec/devspec (prep) 

filespec/devspec 

"The COPY command will copy data 
from the first file or device to the second 
file or device. If the second specification 
is for a file, dynamic defaults will be used 
for the name, extension, and password. 
This will cause any of these fields which 
are not specified to be duplicated from 
the first file specification. Note that this 
does not apply to the drive number due 
to its global nature. 

"Example: COPY TEST.SECRET/ 
BAS /OLD 

"If either specification is for a device, 
the copy will be performed on a character 
by character basis. Otherwise, the copy 
will be performed on a file basis using 
memory which is not otherwise used. 

"The operation may be aborted at any 
time with the BREAK key if a character 
oriented, logical device, copy is being per- 
formed." 

Once again, that seems relatively straight- 
forward and simple. Taking it out of context 
may create a little difficulty, though. When 
it talks about copying to a device it simply 
means you can copy it to your screen or 



2.10 COPY 



files 



2 
3 
4 
5 



The COPY command is used to copy a single file, multiple 
or a full diskette. COPY has 6 formats: 
1. COPY,filespecK,TO>, filespec2 

COPY, $filespecK,T0>, filespec 2 

COPY,<:>dnl, filespecK ,TO> , filespec 2 

COPY, <:>dnl, $f ilespecK ,TO> , f ilespec2 

COPY,<:>dnK=tclX,TO> f < : >dn2<=tc2> ,mm/dd/yy< , Y> 

< , NX , NDMWX , NFMTX , SPW=password 1 > 

< ,NDPW=password3X , DDNDX , ODN=namel>< ,KDN> 
< , KDD X , NDN=name 2 X , SN= name 3 X , USD X , BDU X , UBB > 

COPY , < : >dnl<=tcl>< ,TO> , < : >dn2<=tc2> , mm/dd/yy ,CBF< ,CFWO> 
<,YX, NX, NDMWX, NFMTX , SPW=passwordl> 

< ,ODPW=password2X ,NDPW=password3X ,DDND> 
< , ODN= name 1 X , KDN X , KDD X , NDN=name 2 X , SN= name 3 > 

< , USD X , UBB X , DDST=tn 1 XDDG A=gc 1 > 
be executed under MINI-DOS. However DOS library 



COPY cannot 



command MDCOPY is available. 

Filespecl is the source file's filespec. Filespec2 is the 
destination file's filespec. dnl and dn2 are drive #'s and may 
be equal. The colon preceding dnl and/or dn2 is optional. 
Remember, keyword TO is optional, and commas may be replaced by 
spaces . 

Figure 1. 



your printer or wherever you would like 
it to go. 

Now consider the partial quote from 
the NewDOS/80 manual in Figure 1. 

And on and on for five pages single- 
spaced trying to explain what all the options 
are. Each of the formats is used for 
something slightly different and many of 
the options are mutually exclusive, such 
as the ones to keep the old disk password 
while using this new one. I understand 
that Apparat has now issued a card-sized 
user's guide and I plan to get one. 

The POWER! 

It should be obvious that both VTOS 
4.0 and NewDOS/80 offer significant 
enhancements on TRSDOS and hence 
offer more commands. This is a list of 
most of the added commands and a brief 
description of what each does. You begin 
to get a feeling for the added power of 
the systems from the list. 

ALLOC (VTOS 4.0) preallocate a file 
in the fewest segments. 

APPEND (VTOS 4.0 and NewDOS/80) 
append file 1 to the end of file 2. 

BUILD (VTOS 4.0) keyboard line input 
direct to disk. 

BOOT (VTOS 4.0 and NewDOS/80) 
reboot the system. 

BREAK (NewDOS/80) Enable/disable 
the break key. (Done in VTOS 4.0 with 
the command SYSTEM (BREAK = 
OFF)). 

CHAIN (NewDOS/80 and VTOS 4.0) 
shift to keyboard input from disk record. 

HIMEM (NewDOS/80) Set DOS high 
memory value (VTOS 4.0-MEMORY). 

FILTER (VTOS 4.0) ????? Something 
about a new I/O path with a filtering or 
massaging routine. I don't understand it 
at all. 

LINK (VTOS 4.0) Link together input/ 
output to/from logical I/O devices. 

MDBORT/MDCOPY/MDRET 
(NewDOS/80) Special minidos versions. 
PDRIVE (NewDOS/80) assign default 
attributes to a physical device. This can 
be done under VTOS 4.0 but I don't know 
how. 

RESET (VTOS 4.0) reset a specified 
logical device. 

ROUTE (VTOS 4.0) creates and/or 
reroutes I/O for one device to a different 
device, a disk file or a bit bucket. 

SET (VTOS 4.0) establish a new logical 
I/O device. 

XFER (VTOS 4.0) copy between two 
disks neither of which has the system. 
(Done in NewDOS/80 with Copy format 
4.) 

And, of course, the added commands 
are only a portion of what an enhanced 
DOS will do for you. Both VTOS 4 and 
NewDOS/80 offer assorted utility programs. 

Continued on pg. 158. 



154 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



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CIRCLE 259 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Then There Was LDOS 



creative computing 
SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: LDOS 

Type: Disk Operating System 

System: TRS-80 Model I, 32K, 
Disk Drive 

Format: Disk 

Language: Machine Language 

Summary: Excellent DOS 

Price: $139.95 

Manufacturer: 

Lobo International 
935 Camino Del Sur 
Goleta, CA 93017 



TOS has been replaced by LDOS. 
The replacement was not official, rather 
Randy Cook, the programmer of VTOS, 
sold marketing rights to Lobo Inter- 
national, and Lobo hired outside pro- 
grammers to clean up the remaining 
problems and write a manual. Since 
VTOS does not have the same level of 
support, the distributors of VTOS have 
switched to LDOS. 

Lobo International has done a mar- 
velous job. The program works, there 
is a nice thick manual, and now pur- 
chasers have a place to turn with 
problems and questions. 

LDOS is a great disk operating system 
for programmers. Stephen Kimmel, in 
the preceding article, recommends that 
serious disk users get either NewDOS 
or VTOS (LDOS), but does not know 
which one to recommend. For me, there 
is no question. If you simply use a disk 
operating system to run programs 
written by others, NewDOS is the system 
for you. It is faster and much easier to 
learn and use. In fact, I recommend 
NewDOS over NewDOS/80 unless you 
have a program that uses a specific 
new feature of NewDOS/80, for New- 
DOS/80 has compatibility problems with 
other disk operating systems. LDOS 
sometimes has problems reading New- 
DOS/80 files. 

However, if you are a serious pro- 
grammer, you should have LDOS. I 
personally do my development work 
with LDOS, then transfer the finished 
product to NewDOS for regular use. 

LDOS is compatible with both 
TRSDOS (Tandy Radio Shack Disk 
Operating System) and NewDOS, 
including such popular features of 
NewDOS as the ability to append to a 
sequential file and call the directory 
from a Basic program. 



In addition, LDOS adds several 
features that are not present in 
NewDOS. These features include 
switchable (on/off) type ahead, lower 
case driver, blinking cursor, and key 
stroke multiplier routines. Type ahead 
allows you to keep typing even if you 
are ahead of your program. It is great 
with Electric Pencil, for it keeps you 
from dropping characters at the end 
of every line if you are a fast typist. 

The key stroke multiplier allows you 
to define a command or even a whole 
phrase for each of the 26 letter keys 
on the keyboard. Then, if you hold the 
clear key and press that letter, the 
whole phrase appears on the screen. 
For example, I often use the up arrow 
(ASCII code 91) to get me to the menu 
from any point in the program. If I 
had my input routine at line 10 and my 
menu at line 200, I could define the I 
key to produce: 

GOSUB 10:IF ASC(RIGHT$(I$,1))=91 
THEN 200 

If I used the same phrase thirty times 
in my program, I would only have to 
hit CLEAR I each time to type it in. 

Even without the key stroke multiplier 
activated it is possible to generate 
control codes and graphics characters 
directly from the keyboard, a feature 
that can be very handy in writing or 
modifying programs. 

The directory in LDOS has some 
features that are very useful to pro- 
grammers. For example, every time 
you save a file, the computer records 
the date. In addition, every time a file 
is changed or modified, the directory 
entry adds a plus sign to the end of the 
file name to indicate that the file has 
not been backed up. When you make 
a backup copy, the plus sign is auto- 
matically removed unless the disk is 
write protected. LDOS even has a 
special BACKUP feature that allows 
you to back up only files that have 
been modified. For example, if you 
type: 

BACKUP :2 TO :3(MOD) 

LDOS will copy all modified files in 
drive 2 to drive 3, and change the 
modification flags on the diskette in 
drive 2 to show that the files have 
been backed up. 

The LDOS PURGE command is very 
convenient. It simply displays every 
file on the disk, one at a time, and asks 
you to press Y if you wish to delete it 
from the diskette or N if you wish to 
keep it. 



For the skilled programmer, LDOS 
offers a Job Control Language which 
allows many operations to be performed 
automatically at the operating system 
level. This combines with the ability 
to route device drivers (For example, 
sending all printer output to a disk file 
instead of or in addition to the printer) 
to offer some powerful abilities. A single 
line of many in a job control language 
file might read: 

SET *CL to RS232 (WORD=7, 

STOP=2,PARITY,EVEN,BAUD= 

450,DTR) 



This would set up LCOMM (The LDOS 
communications package) for you. If 
you put these instructions in a JCL file 
called SETCL, then you could simply 
type: 

DO = SETCL 

to configure the communications 
package. 

LCOMM is a very powerful utility. 
It offers the features of a smart terminal 
package selling for as much as LDOS, 
and is included at no extra charge. 
You can use it to communicate with a 
timesharing compiler or computer 
bulletin board, or even to transfer ASCII 
files from one computer to another. 

LDOS allows you to configure your 
system to handle mixed disk drive 
configurations. With the Radio Shack 
expansion interface, it will only handle 
5 1/4" drives, but with the Lobo expan- 
sion interface, you can mix up to eight 
different drives, either 8" or 5 1/4" 
hard or floppy disk drives. For each 
drive you can specify the size of the 
drive, the number of tracks, single or 
double density, single or double sided, 
the stepping rate and the write delay. 
Let me see.. .111 put a 35 track Radio 
Shack Drive on as drive 0, drive 1 will 
be a double density 77 track Percom, 
drive 2 will be a double sided double 
density Micropolis, drives 3, 4, and 5 
will be 8" single density drives, and the 
other two will be 8" double density! Of 
course, I might have trouble backing 
up a double density, double sided 8" 
drive to a 35 track single density 5 
1/4" drive, but the program will do it, 
prompting you to keep changing 
diskettes. 

It would take at least 30 pages of 
review just to describe all the features 
of LDOS. The ones I have selected 
may not even be the most important: 
just the ones that appealed to me.— 
George Blank. □ 



156 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



19 

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Ti 

IS 
Ti 



Ti 






Ti 


B 



B 


B 

B 

B 

B 


a 



B 


B 

B 



B 



IH U N T II N GTC N C € M IP U T 1 N © 




B 

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CREATIVE COMPUTING 



157 



CIRCLE 260 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



f 



Three DOSes, continued... 

Again, here is a list of the programs and a 
brief description of what they will do for 
you. These are accessed by simply typing 
the name of the program. The difference 
between a utility and a command is 
sometimes a very subtle one. 

BACKUP ( VTOS 4.0 and TRSDOS 2.3) 
duplicate a diskette (NewDOS/80 uses the 
COPY command) 

FORMAT (VTOS 4.0 NewDOS/80, and 
TRSDOS 2.3) prepare a data diskette. 

SPOOL (VTOS 4.0) ASPOOL (New- 
DOS/80) print out while computing some- 
thing else. 

PATCH (VTOS 4.0) SUPERZAP (New- 
DOS/80) edit portions of memory or disk 
files. Of the two, SUPERZAP appears to 
be the more powerful. 

KSR/CMD (VTOS 4.0) emulate a key- 
board send-receive terminal. 

VTCOMM/CMD (VTOS 4.0) more 
advanced communications package. 

PR/DVR (VTOS 4.0) generalized printer 
driver to use special printers with the 
system. 

RS232/DVR (VTOS 4.0) driver for a 
RS232 interface device. 

KSM/DVR (VTOS 4.0) redefine the 
keys to anything you like. 

DISASSEM (NewDOS/80) disassemble 
Z-80 code. 

LMOFFSET (NewDOS/80) Load a 



^V 



module in an offset location and add a 
reloader. This is how you load machine 
language programs. 

DIRCHECK (NewDOS/80) Inspect the 
directory for errors. 

EDTASM (NewDOS/80) Disk oriented 
editor assembler. 

LEVEL1 (NewDOS/80) Level I Basic 
in Level II. 

LV1DSKSL (NewDOS/80) Save and 
Load Level I programs on disk. 

Finally, enhanced DOSes almost always 
enhance Disk Basic. Both VTOS and 
NewDOS/80 support all of the functions 
of the TRSDOS Basic. Both add new 
features. Both NewDOS/80 and VTOS 
4.0 permit you to execute essentially any 
DOS command from within Basic using 
the CMD command. Both offer protection 
of Basic programs. Both offer the ability 
to display cross-reference tables for line 
numbers and variables. Both enhance the 
TRSDOS 2.3 renumber utility. Under 
TRSDOS 2.3 you could start a renumber 
any place you like and the program would 
renumber to the end. Under VTOS 4.0 
you do the same but you can stop anywhere 
you like so long as it doesn't result in 
changing the order of the statements. Under 
NewDOS/80 you can start and stop any- 
where you like and rearrange the lines. In 
fact NewDOS/80 offers two additional 
commands to move line numbers around. 



Both permit easy access to variable 
length files. This can be done under 
TRSDOS but it is awkward. NewDOS/80 
also offers a batch of new file structures: 
FI, a fixed item file not record segmented; 
FF, a fixed item file of fixed record lengths; 
MI, a marked item file not segmented 
into records; MU, a marked item file 
segmented into records of varying lengths; 
and MF, a marked item file segmented 
into fixed record lengths. I'll be honest. I 
don't understand any of the new New- 
DOS/80 file structures and won't try to 
tell you anything more. 

The Final Evasion 

Who can say which DOS is the better 
package? VTOS 4.0 is easier to use, and 
is 100% upward compatible with TRSDOS, 
and has all those communications drivers. 
NewDOS/80 may be more powerful and 
its utilities are more oriented toward what 
I'm doing with my machine. Of course, 
you'll have to decide which group of 
functions better fits your needs. Currently, 
I'm using VTOS 4.0 for all of the TRSDOS 
programs, and NewDOS for all of the 
machine language programs including 
Scripsit. What little program development 
work I do on NewDOS. Both systems are 
fine enhancements and I advise any serious 
disk user to get one— but I won't tell you 
which one. □ 



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RAOFT SORTS — RACET UTILITIES — RACET computes — RACET SORTS — RACET UTILITIES — RACET computes — RACET SORTS — RACET UTILITIES — RACET computes — 

FIELD PROVEN!! 

10 MEGABYTES and MORE for the TRS-80* Model II 

plus SHARED ACCESS to HARD DISK DRIVE 

Hard/Soft Disk System (HSDS) Software allows access as single drive. You can 
have that 10 Megabyte continuous file - that 50,000 name maillist or inventory! Or 
a directory with 1000 entries! All completely compatible with TRSDOS 2.0 BASIC. 
You can mix floppy and hard disk drives. Includes special utilities including HPURGE, 
DCS Directory Catalog System, HZAP Hard Disk Superzap, and many special 
formatting options. Three to eight times faster than floppy! RACET quality. 

HARD DISK DRIVE & CONTROLLER $5995. Second User $595. 

HSDS Software $400. (Note: HSDS now also available for C0RVUS drives!!) 

INFINITE BASIC (Mod I & III Tape or Disk) Mod I $50.00, Mod III $60.00 

Extends Level II BASIC with complete MATRIX functions and 50 more string 
functions. Includes RACET machine language sorts! Sort 1000 elements in 9 
seconds! ! Select only functions you want to optimize memory usage. 

INFINITE BUSINESS (Requires Infinite BASIC) Mod I & III $30.00 

Complete printer pagination controls — auto headers, footers, page numoers. 
Packed decimal arithmetic — 127 digit accuracy +, -, *, /. Binary search 
of sorted and unsorted arrays. Hash codes. 



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BASIC CROSS REFERENCE UTILITY (Mod II 64K) $50.00 

SEEK and FIND functions for Variables, Line Numbers, Strings, Keywords. 'All' 
options available for line numbers and variables. Load from BASIC — Call with 
'CTRL'R. Output to screen or printer! 

DSM Mod I $75.00, Mod II $150.00, Mod III $90.00 

Disk Sort/Merge for RANDOM files. All machine language stand-alone package for 
sorting speed. Establish sort specification in simple BASIC command File. Execute 
from DOS. Only operator action to sort is to change diskettes when requested! 
Handles multiple diskette files! Super fast sort times — improved disk I/O times 
make this the fastest Disk Sort/Merge available on your TRS. 

(Mod I Min 32K 2-drive system. Mod II64K 1 -drive. Mod III 32K 1 -drive) 

GSF (Mod I & III Tape or Disk - Specify Memory Size) 
Mod I $25; Mod II $50; Mod III $30 

Generalized Subroutine Facilities. The STANDARD against which all other sorts are 
compared! And then compare prices! Machine language — fast and powerful! 
Multi-key multi-variable and multi-key character string. Zero and move arrays. 
Mod \\ includes USR PEEKS and POKES. Includes sample programs. 

RACET SORTS — RACET UTILITIES — RACET computes - RACET SORTS - RACET UTI 



DISCAT (32K 1 -drive Min) Mod I, III $50.00 

This comprehensive Diskette Cataloguing/Indexing utility allows the user to keep 
track of thousands of programs in a categorized library. Machine language program 
works with all TRSDOS and NEWDOS versions. Files include program names and 
extensions, program length, diskette numbers, front and back, and diskette free space. 

KFS-80 (1 drive 32K Min — Mod II 64K) Mod I, III $100.00; Mod II $175.00 

The keyed file system provides keyed and sequential access to multiple files. Provides 
the programmer with a powerful disk handling facility for development of data base 
applications. Binary tree index system provides rapid access to file records. 

MAILLIST ( 1 -drive 32K Mm - Mod II 64K) Mod I, III $75.00; Mod II $150.00 

This ISAM-based maillist minimizes disk access times. Four keys — no separate 
sorting. Supports 9-digit zip code and 3-digit state code. Up to 30 attributes. Mask 
and query selection. Record access times under 4 seconds!! 

C0MPR0C (Mod I & Mod III — Disk only) Mod I $20; Mod III $30 

Command Processor. Auto your disk to perform any sequence of instructions that 
you can give from the keyboard. DIR, FREE, pause, wait for user input, BASIC, No. 
of FILES and MEM SIZE, RUN program, respond to input statements, BREAK, 
return to DOS, etc. Includes lowercase driver software, debounce and screenprint! 

UTILITY PACKAGE (Mod II 64K) mmmmmmmmm mAmmmmmmmd $150. 00 

Important enhancements to the Mod II. The file recovery capabilities alone will pay 
for the package in even one application! Fully documented in 124 page manual! 
XHIT, XGAT, XC0PY and SUPERZAP are used to reconstruct or recover date from 
bad diskettes! XCOPY provides multi-file copies, Wild-card' mask select, absolute 
sector mode and other features. SUPERZAP allows examine/change any sector on 
diskette include track-0, and absolute disk backup/copy with I/O recovery. DCS 
builds consolidated directories from multiple diskettes into a single display or 
listing sorted by disk name or file name plus more. Change Disk ID with DISKID. 
XCREATE preallocates files and sets 'L0F' to end to speed disk accesses. DEBUGII 
adds single step, trace, subroutine calling, program looping, dynamic disassembly 
and more!! 

DEVELOPMENT PACKAGE (Mod II 64K) $125.00 

Includes RACET machine language SUPERZAP, Apparat Disassembler, and Model 
II interface to the Microsoft 'Editor Assembler Plus' software package including 
uploading services and patches for Disk I/O. 

CHECK, VISA. M/C, COD PURCHASE ORDER 
TELEPHONE ORDERS ACCEPTED (714) 997-4950 

# TRS-80 IS A REGISTERED TRADEMARK 

OF TANDY CORPORATION 

LITIES — RACET computes — RACET SORTS 



|r* RACET computes -^ 

1330 N. GLASSELL, SUITE M 
ORANGE. CA 92667 

RACET UTILITIES — RACET computes — 



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CIRCLE 188 ON READER SERVICE CARD 






BATCH UPDATE/DELETE 

Update Files ~ (Transaction is #1) 
Files are: 1~B:TRANSACT 2-B:CUSTGMER 3-B : INVNTORY 

Batch Update Calls 

1# Using: File#/Name - Field#/Name, Call: File#/Name - Field#/Name 

: 1 TRANSACT 1 CUSTOMER # 2 CUSTOMER 9 CUSTOMER # 

!: 1 TRANSACT 2 PART NUMBER 3 INVNTORY 1 PART NUMBER 

PROCEDURE 

If QUANTITY of (TRANSACT) EQ then . . . 
SKIP 

TOTAL PRICE of TRANSACT=*QUANTITY of TRANSACT*SELLING EACH of INVNTORY 

YEAR-TO-DATE of CUSTOMER-YEAR-TO-DATE of CUSTOMER+TOTAL PRICE of TRANSACT 

ON-HAND of INVNTORY=*ON-HAND of INVNTORY-QUANTITY of TRANSACT 






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?%&& 



The Ultimate Application Development System 



Nothing can compete with the brain when it comes to information 
storage capacity and speed of data entry and recall — but we're 
working at it. 

Our SELECTOR-IV™ data base management system will let your 
microcomputer operate with the flexibility available (up to now) only 
on larger systems. You can create, maintain and report on files 
limited in size only by your *CP/M™ compatible operating system or 
disk storage capacity. 

The basis of the power of SELECTOR-IV™ is our unique method 
of cross-indexing the information in your files. You can immediately 
recall records by the contents of any piece of information required — 
from account numbers to ZIP codes to the date of your last audit. You 
can update records, individually or all at once. You can create new, 
uniquely, selected sub-files from existing ones (in the same or a 
different format), and perform computations in the process. You can 
define procedures to generate computed invoices, personalized 
letters, or gummed labels with the information coming from several 
files at once, and invoke them whenever needed. You can add new 
items to a record definition and change or delete them at will. 



*CP/M it a registered trademark ol Digital Research 



We've come a long way since we released the first information 
management system in microcomputers. We've listened to your 
suggestions and incorporated the best of them. We've built screen 
editing functions into the system which make operating the system as 
convenient as possible. We've had SELECTOR-IV'»™ documentation 
produced by our experts emphasizing its use for the novice, the ap- 
plications developer, as well as, the retailer. Our applications 
specialists can provide you with a "turnkey" SELECTOR-IV™ system 
customized for virtually any requirement. 

With SELECTOR-IV™ and a, good 
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are you won't need any other software. 

Look for SELECTOR-IV™ at 
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CIRCLE 167 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



r 



Programming Aids 3.3 and Disk Fixer 



Apple Disk Utilities 



David Lubar 



com 




The Apple disk operating system (DOS) 
is, of course, useful for storing and retriev- 
ing programs, but this is just the leading 
edge of its abilities. One can also access 
and change disk data at the byte level. 
Such operations are useful in many ways. 
Unfortunately, Apple DOS by itself doesn't 
contain the full set of commands and 
utilities required for these manipulations. 
To fill the void, several programs have 
appeared which allow the user to read, 
edit, and write disk sectors. Two such 
programs are discussed below. One is 
specifically designed for working just with 
disk data, while the other includes a wealth 
of added functions. 



creative computing 
SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Programming Aids 3.3 

Type: Utility 

System: 48K Apple II, Rom Apple- 
soft, Disk Drive 

Format: DOS 3.3 Disk 

Language: Applesoft and Machine 
Language 

Summary: A complete set of utilities 
for the serious 
programmer 

Price: $90 

Manufacturer: 

Dakin5 Corp. 
P.O. Box 21187 
Denver, CO 80221 



Da kin's Dozen 

The Dakin5 Programming Aids 3.3 is 
the Cadillac of disk utilities. It contains 
just about every utility the serious pro- 
grammer might need. Let's take the routines 



in the order in which they appear in the 
menu. The Lister allows you to configure 
listings specifically for your printer. You 
can specify line length and page length. If 
desired, page numbers will be added. The 
list is headed with the program name, the 
date and tide. The program is smart enough 
to reject bad data such as a time entry 
containing more than 59 minutes. The 
last date used is stored on the disk and is 
kept as a default value. It can be changed 
at any time. The Lister can handle both 
full and partial listings. 

Line Cross Reference produces a list of 
all referenced lines. The information can 
be sent to the printer or the screen. Another 
nice feature is revealed when you use this 
program. A message is placed at the top 
of the screen telling you how to load a 
program and then give a CALL to run the 
cross reference. This message is protected 
since the program lowers the top of the 
scroll window. You can get a catalog, list 
to the screen, or do anything else that 
causes scrolling without losing the message. 
During execution, a keypress halts the 
display, allowing users without printers a 
chance to see the information. The Vari- 
able Reference program functions in a 
similar manner, producing a list of all 
variables and the lines where they occur. 

The Peeker is a handy program that 
prints the contents of random access files. 
Either an entire file or just a partial series 
of records can be printed or sent to the 
screen. 

The Patcher is used for reading, editing, 
and writing disk sectors. You can specify 
a specific track and sector, or enter a file 
name. If a file name is entered, the program 
moves sequentially through sectors con- 
taining that file. If a specific sector is 
requested, only that one is displayed. After 



any changes are made the program asks 
for the next track and sector number. 
Changes can be entered either as hex 
code, ASCII data with the hi' bit off, or 
ASCII data with the hi bit on. Changes 
are entered by giving the relative address 
of the byte within the sector, followed by 
the desired data. A single byte or series 
can be changed at any time. The changes 
are sent to disk unless escape is pressed. 
While this method works well enough, it 
is not the easiest way to edit sectors, and 
is best used for making minor changes. 

The Copier program is similar to FID, 
which comes with Apple DOS 3.3. Copier 
allows you to copy files, using two drives, 
but doesn't allow wild cards in file names, 
or offer any of the other extras that come 
with FID. Diskette Copy is a dual-drive 
copy program that initializes the destination 
disk and verifies all files. It also allows 
you to initialize a disk without placing 
DOS on it. These two programs are nice 
additions to the package, but don't really 
offer anything special. 

The Array Editor creates and edits text 
files. Any sequential text file with fewer 
than 91 characters per record and fewer 
than 201 records can be manipulated with 
this utility. The most obvious use for this 
would be to create EXEC files. It could 
also be handy for correcting errors in 
files created by Basic programs or for 
fixing partially clobbered files. 

The calculator is a machine-language 
subroutine for doing addition, subtraction, 
multiplication and division with twenty- 
place accuracy. To use the Calculator 
with Basic programs, you BLOAD it and 
set HIMEM to 36864. The numbers used 
in the operation must be stored as strings, 
with no non-numeric characters. Thus, 
only integers can be passed since decimal 



160 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




Find Your Way Around 
The New Apple* DOS 
With The Dak in 5 
Programming Aids 3.3° 




Dakin5 Corporation, a Colorado software house, is making 
available to the public 12 utility programs on one 16 sector 
diskette, utilizing the new Apple DOS 3.3, which provides 23% 
more storage. 

These menu-driven utilities will facilitate the development 
of your own microcomputer programs. 

All of the Dakin5 Programming Aids 3.3 programs are also 
compatible with the Corvus Disk Drive system. 

This 12-in-1 set of utility programs accomplishes the 
following: 

The Lister sends BASIC programs to the printer to be listed, 
utilizing the full line capacity of the printer. Pagination and 
page headings, including program name and date, are also 
provided as additional options. 

The Line Cross Reference produces a display or a printed 
listing of all lines referenced by GOTO, THEN, GOSUB, LIST or 
RUN statements in an Applesoft BASIC program. Cross- 
referencing of most programs is done in a few seconds. An 
option allows you to print only the line numbers referenced in 
GOSUB statements. 

The Variable Cross Reference creates a display or a printed 
listing of all variable names used in an Applesoft BASIC 
program, showing all line numbers where a given variable 

name is used. 

The Peeker displays or prints either all or selected records 

from a text file. 

The Patcher allows you to display any sector of a given file 
or program, and then to update any data within that sector. 
Another option permits you to specify the sector you wish to 
update such as directory sectors and sectors occupied by DOS. 

The Copier copies absolutely ANY type of file or program 
on a normally formatted diskette from one diskette to another. 
The name of the program or file is the ONLY information 

needed. 

The Calculator adds, subtracts, multiplies and divides very 

large numbers using numeric string data. The Calculator 
subroutine (using twenty place accuracy) is written in Assem- 
bler code, and runs much faster than an equivalent BASIC 
subroutine. 

Apple is a registered trademark of Apple Computer Inc. 



The Diskette Copy is a diskette-to-diskette copy program 
that does more than just copy. First, the program verifies the 
input. Then it formats an output disk, copies each track, and 
checks that the output matches the input. Additional options 
allow you to either initialize a diskette without DOS, or to 
create a copy without DOS, thereby increasing storage by 32 
sectors. You may even create a copy with a different volume 
number than the original. 

The Array Editor is a simple word processor that allows you 
to create, modify, print and save your own text or EXEC files. 

The Screen Printer permits contents of the text screen to 
be sent to the printer at any time the keyboard is active (i.e. the 
cursor is visible). This Screen Printer program remains in effect 
until you press RESET or "reboot" the system. 

The Prompter is a data entry subroutine that handles both 
string and numeric data. You have the option of using 
commas, decimal points and leading zeros with right-justified 
numerics. Alphanumeric data is left justified with trailing 
spaces added as required. With the Prompter you are also able 
to specify maximum field length to prevent overflow in both 
numeric and alphanumeric fields. You can even define your 
own set of valid characters. 

The Cruncher removes REM statements, unreferenced 
(dead) code, and compresses code in Applesoft programs. This 
will increase the speed of your programs; memory and disk 
space savings could be more than 45%. 

Many of these utility programs have been developed and 
tested for in-house use while producing The Controller™ 
business package for Apple Computer Inc. 

Each programming aids package includes a program disk- 
ette and very complete documentation, all attractively pack- 
aged in a padded, blue print vinyl 3-hole notebook with silver 
lettering. An identifying tab separates each program for 
convenient reference. 

See your Apple dealer or contact 
Dakin5 Corporation, P.O. Box 21187, 
Denver, Colorado 80221. Telephone: 
800-525-0463. Visa or MC welcome. 

The Controller is a registered trademark Oi D,ikin5 Corporation. 

CIRCLE 1 25 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



DakinS 
CORPORA TION ^^^ 



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Utilities, continued... 



points are not allowed. The required 
routine is CALLed from Basic, and executes 
very quickly. On return, the answer is 
stored as a string. If there is a remainder 
in a division problem, it is stored in a 
separate string. Though applications 
requiring floating-point answers will require 
extra work on the programmer's part, the 
Calculator routine can be very helpful to 
anyone who needs high precision arithmetic 
at high speeds. If the user commits an 
error in defining the operation, the program 
doesn't bomb, but returns to Basic. A 
location can be PEEKed to obtain the 
error code. 

The next utility is one about which 
Apple should have thought when they 
were designing the computer. It's called 
the Screen Printer, and it dumps the text 
screen to a printer. The code for this sits 
in page 3 of RAM, out of the way of most 
programs. Printout is obtained by hitting 
Control-Z whenever the keyboard is active. 
This routine was used to obtain hard copy 
of the sector display shown in Figure 1. 
Anyone who has ever tried to obtain a 
sample run of a program that doesn't print 
sequentially to the screen can appreciate 
the value of this routine. 

The Prompter is another program which 
is designed to be used as a subroutine. It 
allows you to specify the format and 
restrictions of data received through 
INPUT statements. Among other things, 
it allows default values to be specified, 
prints optional commas and leading zeroes 
in numeric input, and allows special user- 
defined input restrictions as well as restric- 



tions on length of input. Users wishing to 
incorporate Dakin5 subroutines in their 
own commercial software should contact 
the company about licensing. 

Finally, we have the Cruncher. This 
powerful tool compresses Applesoft pro- 
grams, removing unneeded spaces, deleting 
unreferenced REMs, and removing the 
comments from referenced REMs. After 
running the Cruncher, you load a program 
and give a call to the monitor. A Geiger- 
counter sound comes from the Apple 
speaker; the longer it clicks, the more the 
program is being crunched. Not only will 
crunched programs take up less space, 
they will run faster than uncompressed 
versions. The routine works quickly, and 



The Dakin5 

Programming Aids 3.3 is 

the Cadillac of disk 

utilities. 



produced a substantial reduction in the 
programs on which it was tested. 

The entire Dakin5 package shows evi- 
dence of much thought and care. The 
instructions, packaged in a ring binder, 
are thorough and understandable. Anyone 
involved in software development should 
be able to get a great deal of mileage 
from this disk. 




. 



creative computing 
SOFTWARE PROFILE 



Name: Disk Fixer 

Type: Utility 

System: 32K Apple II, Disk Drive 

Format: DOS 3.2 Disk (can be muf- 
finned to 3.3) 

Language: Machine Language 

Summary: Excellent read/write 
program for disks. 

Price: $29.95 

Manufacturer: 

Image Computer Products, Inc. 
615 Academe Dr. 
Northbrook, IL 60062 



The Image of Perfection 

Disk Fixer is designed solely for reading 
and editing disk sectors, but it does a 
superb job. The program, which can handle 
any flavor of DOS from 3.2 up, combines 
sector display with powerful screen editing 
capabilities, making it easy to use and 
extremely versatile. So many functions 
are provided that they can't all be covered 
here. 

Basically, you start most operations by 
pulling a sector into the main buffer. This 
is done using the R command (for Read a 
sector). The current track and sector are 
listed at the top of the screen. When you 
hit R, the cursor moves up to these 



Figure 1. A directory sector displayed by the 20 Patcher. 



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Figure 2. VTOC map from Disk Fixer. 



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PRESS SP0CE TO CONTINUE 



162 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Time 



Manager 



48K Apple II or Apple II plus 

Personal Information & 
» Organization System 



by Dick Ainsworth, Al Baker and Jeffrey P. Garbers 



The most important program you will 
ever use with your Apple II computer. 



Apple II and Apple II plus are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. 



TIME SAVER 

When you use Time Manager as your 
personal calendar, you create an auto- 
matic reminder and a permanent history 
file. By recording events as they happen, 
you can later retrieve a breakdown of 
time and expenses with a few keystrokes. 
You can easily organize and update all 
data, then create totals in several dif- 
ferent categories for tax verification, ex- 
pense reports and project evaluations. 

DAILY ORGANIZER 

Time Manager automatically provides 
a complete list of each day's activities, 
organized by priority. As you complete 
each item on your list, you can delete it or 
add it to your permanent records. Items 
scheduled but not completed become 
automatic reminders that head your list 
on the following day. 



10/19/81 TIME MANAGER 

MONDAY, OCTOBER 19, 19B1 



>*<. T RESERVE NEW YORK TICKETS 

* . T JONES ABOUT CONTRACT 

1 . M PERSONNEL COMMITTEE AT 9 AM 

1 . M 3 PM - PRODUCTION 

1 . A REVIEW MEDIA PLAN 

2 . E PLAN TRADE SHOW 

2 . I FINALIZE PLAN 

3 . G CARDS WITH JONES AT 9 PM 
3 . G GOLF AT 1 :30 PM 

3 . N GET MILK ON WAY HOME 

3 . P OFFICE EQUIPMENT 

. . A DISCUSS TRENDS WITH MILLER 

. . E GET BOOTH RATES FOR TRADE SHOW 

. . I CHECK STATUS OF NEW COVERAGE 

. . R WRITE STATUS REPORT 

. P 7 YFS, THIS IS MY FIRST ENTRY 



SELECTED: ALL 1 



fESC] (<-] |->) SF.CF # [RETURN] [/] ' 



MONEY SAVER 

At tax time, the search and print fea- 
tures let you easily document expenses 
by category. If you itemize your business 
expenses and other deductions, this pro- 
gram could easily pay for itself in tax sav- 
ings. Time Manager creates and totals 
expense records automatically by scan- 
ning your history for any category or key- 
word. With expenses linked to specific 
events, identification and verification are 
much easier. 

EXECUTIVE DIARY 

Time Manager's searching feature 
gives you immediate access to any past 
information. Documentation of impor- 
tant dates and events is automatic, as 
you enter them in your calendar or mark 
them as complete. By selecting a key- 
word or category, you can search through 
time and locate the exact date you made 
a particular phone call or paid your in- 
come tax. 



APPOINTMENTS ALARM PERMANENT HISTORY 



If your Apple II is equipped with a hard- 
ware clock, Time Manager displays the 
time and date. You can also set the buzz- 
er for any time during the day to remind 
you of an important meeting or to help 
you conclude those that go on too long. 



12/19/81 



TIME MANAGER 



DECEMBER 1981 



SUN MON THE WED THU FRI SAT 



1 2 3 4 «> 



20 21 22 23 



(ESC) [<-) [->) SECF # [RFTURN) 



PROJECTS COORDINATOR 

Time Manager's category and keyword 
selection modes enable you to establish 
an infinite number of project titles or job 
numbers. After entering the information 
once, you can use cross reference search- 
ing to review all aspects of each project. 
This helps you keep track of schedules, 
employees, hours, dollars and deadlines. 
Time Manager gives you the power to see 
your data in any selection mode you 
choose, and get a printed update. 



NOTEPAD H: PROJECTS 



DESCRIPTION 



BROCHURE 
COPYWP ITING 
DESIGN 
TYPFSETTING 
PASTE UP 



! S/ 10 

! 4/14 

I 4/2S 

! 4/27 

! 4/30 



LINE ART 

PHOTOGRAPHY 

EDITING 

AUDIO-VI SUA! 
GOPYWRITI NO 
PHOTOGRAPHY 
DESIGN 



! ■> / 1 ft 

! S/l 9 

! S/2 3 

! 

.! 7/11 

! f>/10 

! 6/15 

! 6/21 



DESORI PTTO'l 



FOR E A M INC 

FINAL DRAFT 

PROOFS 

DELIVERY 

ASS IGNFD-L . R . 



ASSIGNF.D-E 
PHOTO SESSION 
ASSIGN ED- C.J. 

FINAL DUE 
FIRST DRAFT 
PHOTO SESSION 
CHERT REVIEW 



PORTABLE SECRETARY 

In addition to the live data display, 
Time Manager and printer combine to 
give you hard copy records in seconds. If 
you are going to be away from your desk, 
for example, you might print a schedule 
of daily activities to take with you. You 
can also use Time Manager to create 
printouts of meeting agendas, project 
summaries and specialized lists. 

CIRCLE 261 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



As each year ends, you will use Time 
Manager to create a new data diskette 
and save the previous one as your history 
file. Information you had labelled "per- 
manent" is automatically transferred to 
your new calendar. Your corrtplete his- 
tory file may be accessed for any totals, 
summaries, evaluations and reports. 

FINANCIAL ASSISTANT 

Time Manager keeps track of any 
numerical data you record in your daily 
entries, including expenses and the num- 
ber of hours worked. If you wish, you can 
set up several accounts and use them in 
combination with 26 different categories 
to create financial summaries. Then, with 
a single keystroke, create itemized in- 
voices, billing records and internal 
accounting reports. 




DATA SEARCH 

With appointments, meetings and so- 
cial events already recorded in your 
calendar, it's easy to use Time Manager 
to locate any item. Information concern- 
ing people, projects, events and com- 
panies is readily available with a few 
simple commands. Specify a company, 
name or project title and Time Manager 
displays only those entries containing 
your selected word. 

THIS DISK PROGRAM REQUIRES A 
SINGLE DISK DRIVE, 48K MEMORY 

Copyright 1980 The Image Producers, Inc. 




COMPUTER PRODUCTS, INC 



Available from your authorized 
Apple dealer. 



f 



V 



Utilities, continued... 

numbers, which are changed merely by 
typing the new track and sector. The sector 
is brought into the main buffer and also 
into the edit buffer, which appears on the 
screen. All changes are made to the edit 
buffer. You move through the screen using 
the I, J, K, and M keys. There are also 
commands to move to the top of the 
screen or to any specified byte. Other 
keys allow you to bring in the next sector. 
The display offers many options. You can 
have a half sector displayed in hex with 
ASCII equivalents on the side, a full sector 
in hex, or a full sector in ASCII. There is 
a filter which can be used to mask the hi 
bit of ASCII displays. Numbers can be 
entered in either hex or decimal. 

While this alone would constitute a full 
utility, Image Computer Products provides 
much more. There are special commands 
to view and manipulate the disk catalog. 
You can change filenames, sort files, or 
scan through all sectors of a specific file. 
When requesting files, Disk Fixer allows 
the wildcard entries found in FID. 

Another set of routines manipulates the 
volume table of contents (VTOC). When 
the VTOC is accessed, Disk Fixer provides 
a display of free and used sectors on the 
disk. Beyond this, it can map the VTOC, 
displaying not only the sectors in use, but 
also showing which programs occupy which 



sectors. An example of this is shown in 
Figure 2. Another command fixes any 
errors in the VTOC, locking out sectors 
that are in use but marked as free in the 
bit map and freeing locked sectors that 
aren't in use. 



There are special 

commands to view and 

manipulate the disk 

catalog. 



A set of special commands is included 
for various functions. Any display can be 
sent to the printer using Control-P. You 
can switch between 13 and 16 sector disks 
with a keystroke. You can exit the program 
and get into the monitor with Control-Q, 
then return to the program with Control- 
Y. The program also contains a line editor 
which is handy for entering ASCII data. 
For example, it allows you to put control 
characters in file names. 

To put any data back to the disk, you 
have to move the edit buffer back to the 
working buffer and issue a write command. 



These steps help protect against unwanted 
writes. There is little chance of destroying 
a sector by sending bad or incorrect data 
to it. 

The manual is clear, and contains some 
applications notes showing how to use 
the program to resurrect a dead file, change 
a binary file to a text file, and other tricks. 
Disk Fixer is a superb program. 

Choices 

The Dakin5 program works only with 
DOS 3.3, thus those with older versions 
of DOS will be unable to use it. The 
Image program works with either DOS, 
but contains fewer utilities. The program- 
mer who needs to do a large amount of 
specialized work on sectors, or who doesn't 
require the other utilities, would probably 
do best buying Disk Fixer. If you need a 
wide range of utilities, and you don't plan 
to do extensive work on disk sectors, the 
Dakin5 package would be the best pur- 
chase. Those who need all the utilities 
and who also want to do a lot of sector 
work might consider investing in both 
packages. 

Disk Fixer and Dakin5 Programming 
Aids are quality pieces of software which 
perform as promised. They are two utilities 
that can make life easier for the Apple 
owner. □ 



save $$ 



DISCOUNT PRICES 



SAVE $$ 



^^~ 



f|cippkz computer 



RAM MEMORY 

FOR TRS-80, APPLE II 
16KSET4116's(200NS) 



34.95 






m\ \\ 



LMWS^vl 



=s^^r^r^r-r^ma 



ATARP 



16K APPLE II 


1089.00 


400 16K 


349.00 


32K APPLE II 


1134.00 


800 16K 


759.00 


48K APPLE II 


1179.00 


410 Recorder 


64.00 


DISKW/CONTROLLER 


535.00 


815 Disk 


1199.00 


DISK ONLY 


455.00 


810 Disk 


489.00 


APPLESOFT CARD 


159.00 


822 Printer 


359.00 


INTEGER CARD 


159.00 


825 Printer 


779.00 


PASCAL SYSTEM 


425.00 


830 Modem 


159.00 


SILENTYPE PRINTER 


525.00 


850 Interface Module 


179.00 


HAYES MICROMODEM 


295.00 


CX853 RAM 


85.00 


Z-80 SOFTCARD 


295.00 


CX70 Light Pen 


64.00 


VIDEX80COL BRD. 


295.00 


CX30 Paddle 


18.00 


16K RAM BOARD 


169.00 


CX40 Joystick 


18.00 



VERBATIM DISKETTES 

Box of 10 5 1 /4" 29.50 

Box of 10 8" 39.50 



North Star Computers 

HR2-2D-32K 2795.00 

HR2-20-48K 2956.00 

HR2-2D-64K 3145.00 

HR2-2Q-32K 2975.00 

HR2-2Q-48K 3165.00 

HR2-2Q-64K 3360.00 

HRAM32K 469.00 

HRAM48K 662.00 

HRAM64K 849.00 

HDS-18 HARD DISK 4025.00 

MDS-DRV-D 495.00 

MDS-DRV-Q 665.00 

ADC-1-D 740.00 

ADC-2-D 995.00 

ADC-1-Q 795.00 

ADC-2-Q 1285.00 



PRINTERS 

EPSON MX-70 399.00 

EPSON MX-80 499.00 

EPSON MX-80 FT 599.00 

GRAFTRAX 90.00 

INTERFACE (APPLE) 75.00 

CABLE 22.50 

CENTRONICS 737-1 795.00 

CENTRONICS 737-3 855.00 

IDS445G 815.00 

IDS460G 1195.00 

IDS560G 1450.00 

NEC 5510 W/TRACTORS 2650.00 
NEC 5520 KSR W/TRAC. 2995.00 

QUME 5/45 SPRINT 2675.00 

FORMS TRACTOR 195.00 

STARWRITER W/TRAC. 1695.00 
STARWRITER W/O 

TRACTOR 1500.00 

General Information: 

We carry a large selection of hard- 
ware and software by other com- 
panies. Send for our catalog. 

We are an authorized repair center for 
APPLE, ATARI, NORTH STAR, AND 
EPSON. 



PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. MARYLAND RESIDENTS ADD 5% SALES TAX 



FREDERICK 572 6 industry lane 

COMPUTER FREDERICK, MD. 21701 

PRODUCTS, INC. TO ORDER CALL: (301) 694 8884 



Store Hours: 

MON. THRU THURS. 9:30 AM— 9:00 PM 
FRI. AND SAT. 9:30 AM — 5:00 PM 



CIRCLE 1 78 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



164 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




The business information 
you need at the turn 
of a key. 

Datadex is a new 
interactive business 
management system 
designed for the Apple 
personal computer. It's from 
IUS, the people who brought you 
EasyWriter™ and who are bringing you 
new products for office automation, 
education, and development systems. 

Datadex is short for data index. It lets you 
put all your business data into your Apple 
the way you like to see it and manipulate it 
any way you want. It adapts to your way 
of doing business. 

Want to generate a sales report? Just press 
four keys and fill in the blanks. That puts 
your sales data into the computer. Now, 
your report: Datadex designs it for you, 
based on what you've entered. Nothing to 
it. That's power! 

You can do the same with phone lists, 
mailing lists, dealer names or inventories. 



PUT 
DATADEX 

IN YOUR 
APPLE. 



They all enter Datadex and form your own 
personal data base. 

Want to find a company but don't know 
how to spell its name? Try something that 
sounds close, and our Soundex routine will 
find it. It is very forgiving on typos and 
extra spaces. 




Soundex helped us find Mr. 
Zukrzawski when we were 
balancing our checkbook. 
We weren 7 sure how to spell 
Al's name, so searched for 
AlZ and found him. 
Instantly. The check register 
and several other applica- 
tions are free with Datadex. 



Want a specific piece of information, like 
sales for January 14-21? Inquire Datadex 
and the answer comes up on the screen 
right now. And right. 

Want a report of all sales in ZIP code areas 
starting with 9? Sure. Just ask it to print a 
report. 

But seeing is the only way to believe. Get a 
demonstration of Datadex at your local 
Apple dealer. See the personal computing 
power it can bring to your office and home. 
If you've looked at a VisiCalc-type program, 
see Datadex before you buy. 

By the way, about IUS. We're the Apple 
of software. We got there by giving you 
great products and super support. We 
provide customer service over the phone. 
Professionally written documentation. 
And products that are never outdated, 
only updated. Information Unlimited 
Software, Incorporated, 

281 Arlington Ave. , Berkeley, 
CA 94707. (415) 525-9452. 



% « 



w 





TM 



Does your other software have 
auto system configuration and 
auto report generation? 
Datadex does. You don't 
have to be a computer 
expert to get results! 





I 



it it • i run i r iiiii«i«i.i»i iiimh •n.i.nuni,,, . . >>• iiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiitfttii.iiMiiiU'ititmttiiiiiitii'il Htunttnititmiiii 





f.!lilitii\i 









■>!.,, ,,i/rt, ,,,,,, 1( iiit, >(l i\iUi : > 5* i 



Datadex is a trademark of Sonoma Softworks. 
EasyWriter is a trademark of Cap'n Software. 
Apple is a trademark of Apple Computer Inc. 
VisiCalc is a trademark of Personal Software, Inc. 

CIRCLE 151 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




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167 



r 



Spending Bucks for Bits 

Guidelines for Buying Game Software 

David Lubar 



A trip to any computer store, or a browse 
through this magazine, will produce the 
rather shocking insight that software is 
not cheap. Some programs can set you 
back more than a week's groceries. But 
the situation is not all bad. With a bit of 
thought, and some careful buying, it's 
possible to develop a good software library 
for your computer. The key here, as in 
most consumer areas, is getting the most 
for your money. 

In the case of software, the "most" means 
several things. First, it refers to a concept 
that could be described as play value. A 
game that you will play for extended 
periods of time, or that you will play often, 
has more play value than a game of the 
same price which you play only a few 
times. For instance, if you enjoy a game 
in an arcade, you'll probably enjoy the 
computer version, assuming the computer 
version is similar to the arcade one. Super 
Invasion, Asteroids in Space, and Galaxian 
would be examples of this. Most people 
who buy these games have already played 
them and know what they are getting. 
And there is the comfort of knowing that 
each time you play the game, you're saving 
a quarter. 

Unfortunately, some games are unknown 
quantities. All you have to go by is an 
advertisement. That's where your local 
computer store can come in handy. Most 
stores have computers available for cus- 
tomers who want to try a program before 
buying it. The trick here is looking beyond 
the first impression. Most games, through 
novelty alone, will be fun at first. But the 
game that was thrilling in the store might 
become boring after a few hours of play. 
You can avoid this problem by looking 
for certain qualities that most good games 
contain. 

A good game isn't easily mastered. If 
you can win every time, there is no 
challenge. In many arcade games, you 
never win, you just survive, trying to get 
as high a score as possible. Theoretically, 
there is no limit to the score you can 
reach. Some of these games offer bonuses 
at certain scores, giving you an extra ship 
every 10,000 points, for instance. This 
gives you something to shoot for, and 
increases the play value of the game. 



Another important factor is variety. 
Doing the same thing over and over is 
fine if you work on an assembly line, but I 
wouldn't want to pay cash for the oppor- 
tunity. Variety comes in two forms. Some 
games become more difficult as you 
progress, some throw in certain extra 
features at random or at predetermined 
times, some do both. In Asteroids and 
Super Invader, you have an occasional 
enemy ship floating by for variety, in ABM 
some of the warheads split into multiple 
missiles, in Star Raiders there are two 
types of enemy ships. Imagine these games 
without this variety and you'll have an 
idea of programs that don't offer enough 
play value. Imagine playing a version of 
Pacman where the ghosts didn't get tougher 
at higher levels. That could be as exciting 
as practicing touch typing. 

If you can't get to a computer store, 
you have to rely on advertisements, but 
you can still look for such factors as 
multiple skill levels, variety, and bonuses. 
Another guideline is to deal with known 
factors. Some companies can do no wrong 
while others can't seem to do anything 
right. If one product from a company is 
good, the odds are in your favor when 
you make another purchase from them. 
If a company with which you aren't familiar 
has several games that interest you, it 
might be a good idea to buy the least 
expensive game first. This will give you a 
feel for the general product line, as well 
as insight into how well they fill orders, 
how well they package progams, and how 
good their documentation is. 

Of course, not all games are of the 
arcade type. It isn't easy to tell a good 
chess program from a great one without 
extensive play. Luckily, programs of this 
sort receive a great deal of attention in 
magazines. If all reviews are favorable, 
you're dealing with a known quantity. The 
only question remaining is whether the 
game gives you what you want. A program 
for practicing bridge bidding won't satisfy 
you if you want to play the actual game 
against the computer. On the other hand, 
you can also save money by making sure 
you don't pay for more than you need. A 
casual chess player who just wants a game 
now and then doesn't need the top program 
on the market. He'll be just as happy with 



a less expensive program that doesn't play 
at the Master level. 

Adventures are the sort of games that 
can quickly empty your bank account. 
Most can be compared to crossword 
puzzles in that once solved, there is nothing 
to do but move on to the next one. Still, 
many people are addicted to the challenge 
and, for them, the programs are worth 
the price. There are many companies 
offering such games and the quality varies. 
Again, reading the reviews is a good way 
to start. Some Adventures offer random 
factors or changes, providing for more 
play value. Since this is a strong selling 
point, the ads usually specify such features 
when they exist. Even here, you have to 
be careful. If a game just changes the 
names of the rooms, you aren't getting as 
much variety as you would if it changed 
the locations of the treasures, or adjusted 
the strength of the monsters as you 
progressed. 

There are many games designed for 
two players. In some, the computer just 
acts as a referee. This can be either an 
advantage or a waste of money, depending 
on the game. A program that flips Othello 
pieces for two players is a handy thing to 
have (though it should cost considerably 
less than a program that actually plays 
the game); a program that moves checkers 
for two players would be a total waste of 
money. You have to decide whether the 
function provided is worth the cost. 

It may seem that obtaining a decent 
software library is a costly task, but there 
are ways to get a good selection of games 
without going broke and without violating 
copyright laws. While the really spectacular 
games are usually only offered as software, 
many good games appear in magazines 
and books. A few hours of typing can 
help fill out your library. Some companies 
offer game packs containing four or five 
programs on a single disk or tape. Again, 
these are good library builders, giving you 
some choice and variety in your collection. 
Finally, if you don't like the games that 
are available, you can always try writing 
one. Give it variety, challenge, and a lot 
of play value, and it might end up as a 
part of many other people's libraries. 

Listed below are representative games 
that have received one or more favorable 



V 



168 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Some of the Brightest Apple Software Available... 



VERSACALC r 



Sort Visicalc. 

Batch update. 

Conditional testing 

Menu-driven modules 

Auto-catalog. 

Piint the list of commands 

13 or 16 sectors 

$100 



PERFORMANCE MANAGER, ; 

This Versacalc driven Visicalc module 
allows you to compare current month 
and year-to-date performance against 
budget or goal, previous year, and 12 
month moving average figures. Use it 
to manage your budget, sales, produc- 
tion, and other situations where you 
want to monitor individual categories 
as well as an entire department or firm 
Requires Visicalc 3.3. 

$75 

- FIXED ASSET MANAGER - 

This menu-driven Visicalc module uses 

Versacalc techniques to give: 

Management of 65 assets per sheet 

No limit to the number of sheets 

All General Ledger entries. 

Straight line, DDB, SOYD depreciation 

Monthly reports. 

Investment tax credits 

Taxable gam on sales 

Automatic batch updating 

Requires Visicalc 3 3 

$75 



+ 



aurora lyiremi inc. 



QUICKTRACE 



T M 

Machine language debugger. 
Trace, single step, and background. 
Displays registers, flags, stack. 

and six locations of choice 
Relocatable. 

Allows changes to displayed values. 
Compatible with DOS, BASlCs, and 

graphics. 
Output to screen or printer 
Can trace BASIC programs. 

$35 



The FLIPPER 



is a small circuit board that fits on the 
game bus (but leaves it free) and 
switches two inputs (or outputs) into 
one output (or input). Usually used for 
40 80 column video switching The 
Executive Secretary supports it auto- 
matically. 

$50 



The RENTAL MANAGER 

General Ledger 

Accounts Receivable. 

Accounts Payable 

Current & Future Tenant Records 

Automatic Posting 

Automatic Tracking. 

$695 



T M 



OMNISCAN,„ 

is an interface between the Apple II and 
the Pioneer Laser Video Disk. It allows 
full control of the LaserDisk from the 
keyboard or program and includes the 
board and software 

$250 



The EXECUTIVE SECRETARY, 

All the usual word processor functions 

40 or 80 columns - selectable. 

Real shift key without soldering 

Full format control. 

Full forms handling 

Keyboard input at print time 

Supports any printer 

Built in Card File w/Report Generator 

Access to external databases, such as 

Data Factory and others 
Built-in Electronic Mail. 

$250 

HEBREW II, „ 

First foreign language word processor 
in America It prints from right to left 
on the screen, can label graphs and pic- 
tures, and can print on the Silentype or 
other graphics printers 

$60 



Ask about package deals on 
the Versacalc line of modules 



EDUCATION PROGRAMS 



Teacher's Gradebook 
Marching Band Database 
Quantum Atom A Sine Waves 
Density Lab 
F laments and Symbols 
Balancing Molecules 



$60 
$40 
$40 
$40 
$40 
$40 












.\P' 



aurora systems, inc. 

2040 E. Washington Ave. 

Madison, Wl 53704 

608 • 249 - 5875 

IfW 

The Executive Secretary is a trademark of Personal Business Systems. Inc 
Performance Manager, Fixed Asset Manager, QuickTrace. Omniscan. the Flipper, are trademarks of Aurora Systems, Inc 

The Rental Manager is a trademark of Money Tree Systems, Inc 



CIRCLE 107 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



DISK COMMAND EDITOR 



DOS BOSS is Beagle Bros.' new Apple utility package that will let you in- 
stantly rename Apple's DOS Commands (shorter commands for CATALOG, 
etc.!). Rename Error Messages too (protect programs with "Not Copyable" 
message!). More too! Select programs from your catalog with one key- 
stroke! Instantly customize your catalogs with your own titles (replace "Disk 
Volume "; leave or omit the number), catalog by file type or in multiple col- 
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suggestions & Apple experiments; a great learning tool. PLUS our 11x17 
APPLE COMMAND CHART of all Basic and DOS Commands. PLUS our famous 
APPLE TIP BOOK of ways to better use your Apple! ^^ All for $24 




OO/I Rush DOS BOSS , the DOS BOSS BOOK , the 
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|[LS^ Applesoft disk only; 32 unless you specify 3.3 

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CIRCLE 115 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Games for. 
Thinkers! # 



SWORD 
1HRUCT. 



# 




mission 

ESCAPE! 

WALL 
STREET 



TM 




TM 



A true, role-playing adventure game. Gives you the 
ability to create and train characters, then take 
them on hair-raising adventures. The Kings 
Testing Ground master diskette is the starting 
point Move your character to other adventure 
diskettes like "The Vampyre Cave", "Kidnapper's 
Cove" and mora 

SworrJThrust" master diskette . . $29.95 
All other adventure diskettes $24.95 

Combines the shoot em up theory of computer 
games with the subtleties ot chess. Face storm 
troopers, robots and mindless droids as you 
attempt to escape from within the enemy ship. 

Mission Escape™ $24.95 

Perhaps the most evil, scary, unpredictable 
danger any of us will face is . . . the stock 
market. Up to 9 players can compete in this 
fast-paced game of skill and brains. 
Wall Street™ $24.95 

All games require 48k Apple II™ or Apple III™ 
with Applesoft™ in ROM and one disk drive. 

See your local computer store or order direct 
from CE Software 

801 73rd St • Des Moines, IA 50312 
(515) 224-1995 



CIRCLE 1170N READER SERVICE CARD 



Game Software, continued... 

reviews in Creative Computing and/or 
other magazines. Weve also included some 
new ones judged to have good playing 
qualities by our staff. We must emphasize 
that this is by no means a list of every 
good game package; there are manu- 
facturers not represented that have excel- 
lent wares. 

The rating also, is necessarily subjective. 
For example, one game that person G 
found held his interest for days and weeks 
as he strived for greater mastery, Person 
D, a less patient sort, found quite frus- 
trating. So our rating must be taken with 
a grain of salt. 



Arcade Games 

Olympic Decathlon is the best sports game 
available for Apple and TRS-80. Up to six 
players compete in ten events. Outstanding 
graphics. From Microsoft ($24.95). 

Raster Blaster, the first offering from 
BudgeCo., is the best pinball game for 
the Apple. The author, Bill Budge, is noted 
for his graphics work ($29.95). Pinball for 
the TRS-80, from Acorn Software, will 
satisfy the flipper frenzy of even the most 
ardent arcade addict ($14.95 on tape, $20.95 
on disk). 

Space Invaders, an arcade classic, is 
probably the best selling game of all time. 
The Apple and Sorcerer versions, Super 
Invasion, are from Creative Computing 
($19.95 on tape for Apple or Sorcerer, 
$29.95 on disk for Apple). The Atari version 
comes from Atari ($19.95). Commodore 
produces Space Intruders for the PET 
($19.95). TRS-80 owners can enjoy Invaders 
from Space by way of Acorn Software 
($14.95 for tape, $20.95 for disk). 

Galaxian, an offspring of Space Invaders 
with a cult of its own, comes in an Apple 
version called Alien Rain from Broderbund 
Software ($24.95). An advanced version, 
Alien Typhoon should be on the market 
by the time this reaches print. An excellent 
TRS-80 version, Galaxy Invasion, is dis- 
tributed by Big Five Software ($15.95 for 
tape, $17.95 for disk). For OSI systems, 
try Galaxia from Aardvark Technical 
Services ($9.95 on tape, $12.95 on disk). 

Asteroids in Space is another game that 
people line up to play. Quality Software 
has Meteoroids in Space for the Apple 
($19.95). An extended version should be 
out soon. California Pacific gives us Apple- 
oids ($29.95). Big Five Software come 
through again with Super Nova for the 
TRS-80 ($15.95 on tape, $17.95 on disk). 

Missile Command lets the player attempt 
to stave off nuclear destruction of major 



cities. There are several versions out, but 
the best for the Apple is ABM from Muse 
($24.95). 

Basketball is the staffs favorite Atari game. 
The $39.95 cartridge is worth every penny. 
Great graphics and a lot of fun. Star Raiders 
pulls a close second, offering the best fly- 
and-shoot graphics on the market 
($39.95). 

Flight Simulators let a player control an 
airplane. SubLOGIC has cornered the 
market with the A2 FS1 Flight Simulator 
for the Apple ($25 on tape, $33.50 on 
disk), and the TS-80 Flight Simulator for 
the TRS-80 ($25). 

Lunar Landers let people land, or crash, 
on the moon. Tranquility Base, another 
Bill Budge classic, is from Stoneware 
($24.95). Adventure International has Lunar 
Lander for TRS-80 ($14.95 on tape, $20.95 
on disk) and Atari ($14.95). Graphics 
Games-II for the PET and Graphics Games 
for the Sorcerer, from Creative Computing, 
contain LEM and five other games ($1 1.95 
on tape). 

Star Trek fans can get real-time action 
from Time Trek for the TRS-80 and PET 
($19.95) from Personal Software. Rumor 
has it that Rainbow is working on an 
updated version of A Stellar Trek for the 
Apple. The existing version is quite good 
($24.95). Continental Software has Trek 
for the Apple in Hyperspace Wars ($29.95, 
including 3-D space battle). Aardvark offers 
Time Trek for the OSI ($9.95). Color 
Software has 3-D Startrek for Apple, Atari, 
and TI 99/4 ($15.00). 

Sabotage from On-Line Systems lets the 
Apple owner defend against helicopters 
dropping paratroopers. If too many land 
safely, they blow up the player's gun 
($24.95). 

Breakout, one of the earliest arcade games, 
comes courtesy of Tandy Corporation as 
Bustout for the TRS-80 Color Computer 
($39.95). Super Breakout from and for 
Atari includes variations such as Double 
Cavity and Progressive ($39.95). Computer 
Information Exchange has Demolish and 
five other games on one tape for the TRS- 
80 Color Computer ($19.95). They also 
offer several very low priced library packs 
for the TRS-80 and a lot of good system 
software. 

Duelin ' Droids for the TRS-80 displays 
TRS-80 graphics at its best, letting the 
player engage in swordplay or sit back 
and watch his champion fight in the arena. 
From Acorn ($14.95 on tape, $20.95 on 
disk). 



Dogfight, from Micro Lab for the Apple, 
lets one or two air aces shoot it out with 
other planes and helicopters ($29.95). A 
fun and challenging game. Also for the 
Apple is Red Baron, pitting one player 
against a computer-controlled enemy. From 
Spectrum Software ($14.95). 

The Maze Game from Muse has the best 
lo-res Apple graphics yet produced ($12.95). 
Beagle Brothers lets players chase through 
a maze in Wowzo, one of three games on 
Game Pack 2 ($24). For the TRS-80, 
Tunnel Vision from Creative Computing 
gives a 3-D view of the maze ($11.95 on 
tape with four other programs). 

Dinowars, from Tandy, is an outrageous 
battle of behemoths for the TRS-80 Color 
Computer ($39.95). 

Super Starbase Gunner, from Computer 
Packages Unlimited, is a 3-D space game 
with ten skill levels. The disk also contains 
The Designer, a very sophisticated graphics 
utility ($29.95). 

Soccer, a cartridge from Texas Instruments, 
is absolutely the best game available for 
the TI 99/4. It has cost this company 
more man (and woman) hours than any 
other program ($29.95). On-Line Systems 
has Hi-Res Soccer for the Apple ($29.95). 
Their Hi-Res Football ($39.95) is also quite 
good. 

Pacman is a game of nerve and coordina- 
tion. You move through a maze eating 
small dots and avoiding hungry ghosts. 
Broderbund's Snoggle for the Apple will 
delight Pacman fans ($24.95). 

Fantasy Games 

Adventures allow the player to explore 
unknown worlds, giving commands to the 
computer in English. The series by Scott 
Adams, Adventures number 1 through 9, 
are the earliest popular versions. Some or 
all are available for TRS-80, Apple, PET, 
and Sorcerer. The lower numbers represent 
easier games, though all are challenging. 
Creative Computing offers them in con- 
venient three-packs on disk and individually 
on tape. Prices start at $14.95. 

Original Adventure , the game that started 
on large computers, is available for TRS- 
80 and Apple from Microsoft ($29.95). 
Creative Computing has it for Atari ($19.95 
on tape, $24.95 on disk) and a bilingual 
version that displays either French or 
English for CP/M systems ($24.95). Hi- 
Res Adventures were the first of many 
excellent products from On-Line Systems. 
They have three for the Apple, and a 
fourth in the chute. The Wizard and the 
Princess is the most challenging ($39.95). 



170 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



7..S-80 Users: 

SAVE MONEY 

DOUBLE DENSITY attachments $157.50* 

Either Percom or LNW Research; LNDoubler has 
improved write precompensation and deluxe DOS-plus 
operating system- -about as powerful as NewDOS-80 but 
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DOS patch. ^ 

DISK DRIVES *** 

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COMPUTER INFORMATION EXCHANGE 

Box 159 
San Luis Rey CA 92068 



CIRCLE 122 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



C Compiler only *75 

We have re-written Small-C as published by Ron Cain in the 
May, 1980 issue of Dr. Dobbs. The Code Works C compiler 
(CW/C) includes these additional features: 

• Structures and unions 

• For, switch/case, do-while 

• Multidimensional arrays 

• Conditional compilation (#ifdef,etc) 

• Assignment operators, e.g. x +=10; 

• Can declare complex types, e.g. int (*tp)[5); 

• User supplied I/O buffers of any size 

• Dynamic storage allocation (alloc and free) 

% Command line arguments using argv and argc 

• Improved error handling 

CW/C is a proper subset of the full C language. We do not have: 
float, double, long, unsigned or short data types; static; initial- 
izers; sizeof; typedef; "?:"; casts; bit fields; goto; #undef, #if, 

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CW/C generates assembly language source code that is 
then assembled using ASM or MAC. CW/C supports inline 
assembly language with the #asm ... #endasm preprocessor 
commands. Requires 56K 8080 or Z80 CP/M system. Distributed 
on single-density 8" disk or Northstar double density CP/M 5" 
disk. Includes an excellent User Manual, the executable CW/C 
compiler, runtime library, and several useful example programs 
written in C. 



theCODE 
WORKS 



CW/C is $75, including shipping in the US and Canada. 
CA residents add 6% tax. Visa and MasterCard welcome. 
CP/M is a registered trademark of Digital Research. 

Box 550, Goleta, CA 93116 805-683-1585 



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CIRCLE 207 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




ll» 



computer 
products, inc. 

1198 E. Willow St.. Signal Hill, CA 90806 



Toll free outside California: 

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891-2663 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



171 



CIRCLE 109 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Game Software, continued... 

Oldorf's Revenge offers more than 100 
rooms displayed in hi-res on the Apple. 
That's enough to keep any adventurer 
busy for a while ($19.95). 

Mad Venture from Micro Lab tests the 
ingenuity of Apple owners, adding riddles 
and puzzles to the Adventure format. A 
series is projected ($24.95). 

Odyssey, The Compleat Adventure, from 
Synergistic Software allows Apple owners 
to explore an island, gather men and 
supplies, then (if still alive) sail in search 
of treasure. Unlike many Adventures, the 
game can be played and enjoyed repeatedly 
($30). 

Hellfire Warrior is the highlight of a series 
of graphic dungeon romps from Automated 
Simulations (the series is produced under 
the EPYX label). The program employs 
good graphics and a vast selection of rooms 
to explore. PET, Apple, and TRS-80 
versions are available ($39.95). Automated 
Simulations has also just introduced Star 
Warrior, with two scenarios and five skill 
levels. It is available for Apple, TRS-80, 
and Atari. 

Zork expands on earlier Adventures by 
allowing the input of full sentences instead 
of just two-word commands. For Apple 
and TRS-80 from Personal Software 
($39.95). 

Wizardry from Sir-Tech allows the Apple 
to act as a dungeon master, taking the 
players characters to a multi-level 3-D 
dungeon. (Boot disk and initial scenario 
are $40, future scenarios will be priced in 
the $20-$30 range.) 

Time Traveler from Krell lets Apple, PET, 
and TRS-80 owners journey through the 
ages recovering lost time rings. The game 
can be replayed at different skill levels 
($24.95). 

The Quest is the first in a series that will 
constitute one large Adventure for the 
Atari. The program features over 60 
locations. From Survival Software ($14.95 
on tape, $19.95 on disk.) 

Asylum is the latest of a series of 3-D 
Adventures from Med Systems Software. 
For Apple and TRS-80 ($14.95), the games 
are tricky and fun. 

Beneath Apple Manor, an early entry in 
the field, is still good fun. The game, 
from Quality Software, falls more into 
the search-and-fight category, using single- 
letter commands rather than English 
phrases. 



Death Dreadnought, from The Pro- 
grammer's Guild, is a gruesome program 
for none but the brave. This TRS-80 game 
($14.95 on tape, $19.95 on disk) puts you 
in a wrecked spaceship filled with deadly 
distractions. 

The Prisoner from Edu-Ware puts the 
Apple owner on an island filled with 
physical and psychological dangers. Twenty 
separate locations each contain a mini- 
Adventure. Solve them and you might 
escape. 

Interactive Fiction is the generic name 
Robert Lafore has given to a series of 
programs that allow players to become a 
character in a story. TRS-80 versions are 
available and Apple versions should be 
on the market any day now. The favorites 
here are Six Micro Stories ($14.95) and 
HMS Impetuous ($19.95). From Interactive 
Fiction. 

Sword Thrust from CE Software is a series 
starting with The King's Testing Grounds. 
Characters in this Apple Adventure can 
gain attributes as they move from game 
to game. ($29.95 for the first disk, $24.95 
for all others. 

Simulations and Strategy Games 

Top honors in this field go to Strategic 
Simulations for their excellent line of Apple 
wargames. The favorite around here is 
The Warp Factor, a space battle requiring 
skill and strategy. ($39.95) Some of their 
line is also available for the TRS-80. 
Another space-fight simulation for the 
Apple is Galaxy Space War I from Galaxy. 
Automated Simulations has Starfleet Orion 
and Invasion Fleet Orion for the Apple, 
PET, and TRS-80 ($24.95). 

Sargon is the top chess program. Hayden 
has it on tape ($29.95) and disk ($34.95) 
for TRS-80, Apple, and the Ohio Scientific 
Challenger Series. 

Milestones, based on a French card game, 
employs good use of Apple hi-res graphics 
and plays a mean hand. Available from 
Creative Computing ($1 1.95 on tape, $19.95 
on disk). 

Bridge 2.0 from Dynacomp, is the best 
program of this sort. Available for Apple, 
TRS-80, PET, Atari, North Star, and CP/M 
systems, it allows the player without 
partners to bid and play against a tough 
opponent ($17.95 on tape, $21.95 on 
disk). 

Cribbage can be played on the Apple 
with On-Line System's Hi-Res Cribbage 



($24.95). Dynacomp has Cribbage 2.0 for 
the TRS-80 ($14.95 on cassette, $18.95 on 
disk). Creative Computing brings us 
Cribbage for the Atari ($11.95 on tape, 
$24.95 on disk with Tilt and Dominos). 

Fastgammon is the long-time favorite 
backgammon game for Apple owners. 
From Quality Software ($19.95 on disk, 
$24.95 on tape). 

The Galactic Saga is a series from 
Broderbund that now includes four games. 
The latest is Tawala's Last Redoubt for 
TRS-80 ($19.95 for tape, $24.95 for disk) 
and Apple ($29.95). These are thinking 
games requiring the skill and calculation 
of a career diplomat. 

Titanic Quest for the OSI lets the player 
search in real time for a sunken ship. 
From Aurora Software Associates ($6.95). 

The Creativity Package, though not a 
simulation, is hard to classify. From Avant- 
Garde Creations, it allows the user to 
create prose, poetry, graphic art and music 
on the Apple ($19.95). 

Three Mile Island from Muse lets the 
player try his luck at avoiding the big 
meltdown without risking hair loss or 
premature glowing ($39.95). 

Hammurabi is a classic simulation where 
the player tries to manage an agrarian 
culture without starving the populace. Atari 
calls it Kingdom. Creative Computing has 
it, along with 49 other games, on the 
CP/M disk Basic Games-1 ($24.95). Instant 
Software offers an expanded version called 
Santa Paravia and Fiumaccio for the Apple 
($9.95 on tape, $19.95 on disk). 

On The Horizon 

The following games have either just 
been released or are waiting release. Apple 
owners should keep an eye out for 
Wolfenstein Castle from Muse. It combines 
arcade and adventure aspects. Also from 
Muse is Robot Wars, which puts player- 
programmed robots into an arena. Blister- 
ball from Creative Computing is an original 
arcade game that should be one of the 
best releases of 1981. Dragon Fire, a 
dungeon Adventure from Level-10 (a 
subsidiary of Dakin5) features ten levels 
with over 150 treasures. It should be quite 
good. A Sorcerer version of Pacman will 
be on the market in a few months. Leo 
Christopherson is rumored to be working 
on a new TRS-80 game, a prospect that 
should delight fans of Duelin' Droids and I 
Android Nim. These programs and many 
others will be reviewed as soon as they 
are available. 



172 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 






so 



We are a small Western 
Australian business who's 
aim is to bring you the 
highest quality software for your 
SORCERER computer at the lowest 
price. A catalog such as this is 
produced regularly and sent to 
all parts of the world, free of 
charge, to interested Sorcerer 
Owners If your name is not on 
our list, let us know 



UTILITY PACKAGES: 

SCOPE by Ross Williams 

This very handy utility makes searching, viewing and editing memory a breeze. A specified memory 
block may be looked at in ASCII format and changed with the use of uniquely fascinating window 
display. If you fiddle with the monitor at all, if you explore machine code programs and wish to 
cheat in ADVENTURE games, this program is for you! Customise commercial programs to suit 
yourself, change messages in games such as GALAXIANS and GROTNIK WARS and re write the 
Machine Code Tutorial Package' SCOPE comes with detailed documentation which is available free 
upon request. Cassette $17.50 

SCOTE by Ross Williams 

Screen Orientated Text Editor for the Development PAC. How many times have you been frustrated 
with the editor in the Development PAC. Now you can create your assembly language programs 
with the aid of a Wordprocessor type editor. Comes with detailed documentation which is available 
free upon request. Cassette $23.50 

SYSTEM 3 by Richard Swannell 

System 3 is the ultimate program development toolkit and is guaranteed to cut your programming 
and debugging time by half" Once loaded, this program gives your Sorcerer Standard Basic ROM 
PAC an extra 1 5 commands, not mentioning a host of other features The editor itself is simply out 

of this world' 

The following commands are |ust a sample: 

ED |T x y AUTO x.y RENUMBER a.b.c.d 

TRACE' xx, string' HELP xx FIND string' 

DEFINE x VARIABLES LIST xx yy 

DELETE xx yy CLOSE OLD 

MERGE CLOAD? Control P 

System 3 loads with a simple LOG command and relocates itself to the top 3K of available RAJT 
Printer Drivers are included and many of the bugs in the ROM PAC have been healed Over 500 
users have this amazing utility already and wouldn't be without it. System 3 is the most powerful 
utility for Sorcerer Basic in existence, as well as the least costly You will find System 3 easy to 
use, fast, efficient and reliable. Cassette $29 95 

SCREEN GENIE by Don Ursem 

Screen Genie is a compact machine language program which can be loaded along with BASIC or 
Z 80 application programs By adding only a few POKE statements to your program GENIE gives 
you the following PRINT AT feature erase of any rows of the display scrolling of any portion of 
the screen, inverted and mdented printing SCREEN GENIE comes with a demo program which shows 
all the features in BASIC language routines Cassette $15.95 

Micropohs II diskette $18 95 

HARDWARE 

SOUND PLUG 

Many programs written for the SORCERER produce audio output by using the parallel output port 
Unfortunately this port is designed to drive logic circuits and connecting a loudspeaker directly to 
the port can damage the computer Feeding the speaker via a resistor will protect the computer, but 
this results in a woefully inadequate sound level if a safe value of resistance is used The 
S0UNDPLUG has been designed to solve this problem It consists of a two stage power amplifier 
with volume control all fitted inside a standard D connector housing Connect an eight ohm 
speaker to the RCA audio connector on the S0UN0PLUG and run your GALAXIANS, GROTNIK 
WARS, SCOPE, ED0S and TOUCH TYPE TUTOR with sound effects' S0UN0PLUG is a direct 
coupled amplifier and can be used to drive speakers, 5 volt relays and motors, etc S0UNDPLUG is a 
must for all Sorcerer owners $19 50 

DISK OPERATING SYSTEMS: 

EDOS by Gerrard Neil 

For those users having Micropolis 5 1/4 inch Disk Drives, this is what you have been praying for' 
EDOS is a complete Disk Operating System, fully compatible with the Micropolis model I and II disk 
drives and is an affordable link between Exidy Standard Basic and Disks.Now there is no need to re 
write all your cassette based BASIC programs in disk BASIC. EDOS allows you to CL0AD them into 
memory, SAVE them on disk and still run them with ROM PAC BASIC!! 
The EDOS software package enhances the STANDARD BASIC ROM PAC with: 



Cassette $24.95 
diskette $27.95 



MACHINE CODE TUTORIAL 

PACKAGE by Richard Swannell 

Can you really operate your Sorcerer after typing BYE 7 Where do you look for information on Z 80 
machine code programming 7 If you can programme in BASIC this package will give you everything 
you want to know about your Sorcerer, with easy to understand, lightly written tutorials. Covers 
such topics as: Monitor Commands, most Z 80 instructions, Hex Binary Decimal conversions, RAM 
and ROM, Source and 0b|ect Codes. Assembly Language, Hand Coding. Video and Keyboard 
Routines, Input and Output Vector Manipulation, Memory Maps, Video and Screen RAM, Graphics 
and DMA, Cursor Control, Monitor and BASIC won\ areas, Special purpose GO' addresses of the 
monitor and BASIC ROM PAC. Storage and Linking of BASIC programmes, parallel and Serial Inter 
facing. Cassette Routines, Sound Generation, No Stop Keyboard Input, disenabling CTRL C and 
ESC. ..which is so much more than you will be able to find in any manual. A set of 8 tutorial 
programmes designed to show the BASIC programmer what to do with his Sorcerer This Tutorial 
Package is more than a purchase, it is an investment 

BASIC TUTORIAL PACKAGE M,cropo,,s 

by Richard Swannell 

This set of 9 tutonals teach Sorcerer Basic to the NOVICE It is already in several schools where we 
are receiving extremely favourable comments. Lightly written, entertaining and humorous, this Basic 
Tutonal Package is ideal for anyone, regardless of age or pnur computer knowledge. Let your 
Sorcerer teach you! Cassette $24.95 

Micropolis II diskette $27 95 

GAMES: 

GROTNIK WARS by Ross Williams 

This is it! A breathtaking 3 dimensional simulation arcade game. We wanted to call it Dynasty, but 
Ross is determined that a game with a difference should have a name with a difference! 
It's a video arcade game that isn't coin hungry. You, as commander of a star ship, must search out 
and destroy enemy spaceships in 8 galaxies. Of course, you have only a certain amount of energy, 
and when you fight an enemy ship that is in your galaxy, it may fight back and damage your ship. 
The many (novations in GROTNIK WARS make you feel that you are actually piloting the spaceship 
instead of |ust hitting keys, but the feature that gives it life is its real time animation. As you patrol 
a galaxy, you see a field of meteors passing you, |ust as if you were moving through 3 dimensional 
space Asteroids appear out of the distance and grow larger as they near you, before drifting past. 
When you steer the ship, the stars outside veer realistically in the opposite direction. Enemy ships 
appear from above, below or from the side, receding in size as they speed past But the hyperspace 
effect (used to move you to a different part of your galaxy) and explosions must be seen to be 
believed' Never before has there been anything like it for the Sorcerer! "cassette $19 95 

Micropolis II diskette $22.95 



GALAXIANS by Martin Sevior 



Parents are complaining that they can't use their Sorcerer since the children found the thrills and 
excitement of the Galaxians. 

You can force the children into bed, but will you be able to force the Galaxians into defeat as they 
dive at you with ever increasing fury. Your Sorcerer's unique high resolution graphics add to the 
excitement that this game generates This has proved to be our most popular game. 
Galaxians now comes with Sound Effects and Joy Stick control. If you have previously purchased 
our Galaxians and wish to update to Sound and Joystick, simply send us the Galaxians cassette 
label and $3.00 (Plus postage) for a replacement Cassette $19.95 

Micropolis II Diskette $22.95 

SORCERER INVADERS by Martin Sevior 

This is one of the best Space Invader games you'll ever see on any Micro computer. Sorcerer 
Invaders has proved to be most popular and is similar to the arcade game but with the added 
advantage of not having a coin slot Simply a must Cassette $15.95 

Micropolis II diskette $18.95 



Disk lommjnds 
S»Vl *rt«n»n« C<>"«> <'i!t'»P«> 



Printer ► urxtions 

PHINTON 
HRINTOM 



li'jpnics functions 



Miscellaneous functions 

01 D Recover BASIC proat«m 

C»U address <paraml> cparam^) <param3> 
Call machine code routine 
length Irequencv Output sound 



BffP 



GR 
Sll • « 

RSI • « 



tnaOle low resolution graphics 
turn on a quarter character block 
Turn oil the above block 



lO»0 <G> lilenam»<- drive) <address> 

MltS <dnve' 

tv PI filename < drive/ 

SCRATCH filename <dnve> 

RfNAMt filename fdnve) filename* 1 

HRlj Inable hiqh resolution qraphns 

HSI T i v Turn on single point 

HRST i « Turn oil single point 

All ot the above commands may be used in command code mode and within vour BASIC progtam 1 
EDOS allows you to place your Standard Basic cassette based programs on disk And as it that isn t 
enough gives you the above functions as well as full SCREEN BASED EDITOR" 

EDUCATIONAL PACKAGES: ,n,roduco v p ce $45 90 

TOUCH TYPE TUTOR by Roy Mercer 

Think of the time you could save if you could Touch Type efficiently and accurately. TOUCH TYPE 
TUTOR will have you typing with speed and skill and with as much fun as playing Space Invaders. 
Your SORCERER has an excellent standard shifted full keyboard virtually identical with any high 
quality electric typewriter and has a memory mapped video display with superb graphics that allows 
fast screen animation. AND NOW SORCERER has TOUCH TYPE TUTOR, an interactive animated 
audio visual teaching programme/game. 

How does it work? They say "Watched pot never boils" and watched fingers will never type 
properly It is essential to keep your eyes off the keyboard - an imposibility for the beginner or for 
the self taught two finger typist. TOUCH TYPE TUTOR overcomes the problem by putting the 
keyboard on your monitor screen. A split screen display shows your typing Exercise on the lower 
half, while the upper screen displays an image of the Standard Keyboard. As you progress through 
the Exercise, the appropriate keys are lit up on the screen image, instantaneously prompting the next 
correct finger movement. Hit the wrong key and it flashes on the screen. A speaker connected to the 
parallel output port will beep on errors to further reinforce the negative feedback. 
TOUCH TYPE TUTOR teaches step by step, introducing the keys in a logical manner and indicating 
the correct fingering - even which shift key to use for the upper case characters. Extra features 
include a facility to set up your own Exercises for problem keys and the ability to turn off the screen 
prompt for advanced practice. You will find yourself rapidly improving your speeds as your accuracy 
increases. Cassette $18.50 

Micropolis II diskette $21 50 



PROGRAM 



Postage and Handling $1 vwithm Australia <>' S2 outside for 
the t.rst piece of Software and 50t tor earn additional cassette 



ONE AUSTRALIAN DOLLAR 
EQUALS 1 14 AMERICAN 
AND 1 38 CANADIAN 



PRICE 



TOTAL 

I enclose, 

A. Cheque or money order for the above amount 



OR B. My credit card expiry date: 



number 

My name and address: 



NAME: 



STREET: .... 
TOWN/CITY: 
POST CODE: 
COUNTRY: . . 



POST THE ABOVE FORM TO 




sysnm sQFTware 

1 KENT STREET, BICTON 

WESTERN AUSTRALIA, 6157 

TELEPHONE: ISD (619) STD (09) 339 3842 



CIRCLE 200 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



r 



Z] Vendor Information 



Aardvark Technical Services 

1690 Bolton 

Walled Lake, MI 48088 

Acorn Software Products, Inc. 

634 N. Carolina Ave. S.E. 
Washington, DC 20003 

Adventure International 

P.O. Box 3435 
Longwood, CA 32750 

Atari, Inc. 

1196 Borregas Ave. 

Sunnyvale CA 94086 

Aurora Software Associates 

P.O. Box 99553 
Cleveland, OH 44199 

Automated Simulations, Inc. 

P.O Box 4247 
1988 Leghorn St. 
Mountain View, CA 94040 

Avant-Garde Creations 

P.O. Box 30161 
Eugene, OR 97403 

Beagle Bros. 

4315 Sierra Vista 
San Diego, CA 92103 

Big 5 Software 
P.O. Box 9078-185 
Van Nuys, CA 91409 

Broderbund Software 

Box 3266 
Eugene, OR 97403 

BudgeCo. 

428 Pala Ave. 
Piedmont, CA 94611 

California Pacific Computer Co. 

7700 Edgewater Dr. 
Oakland CA 94621 

CE Software 

3711 Douglas 

Des Moines, IA 50310 

Color Software 

P.O. Box 24214 
Indianapolis, IN 46224 

Commodore International. Ltd. 
950 Rittenhouse Rd. 
Norristown, PA 19403 



Computer Information Exchange 

Box 159 

San Luis Rey, CA 92068 

Computer Packages Unlimited 

4 Oak Pond Ave. 
Millbury, MA 01527 

Continental Software 

30448 Via Victoria 

Rancho Palos Verdes, CA 90274 

Creative Computing 

39 E. Hanover Ave. 
Morris Plains, NJ 07950 

Dvnacomp, Inc. 

1427 Monroe Ave. 
Rochester, NY 14618 

Edu-Ware Services, Inc. 

22222 Sherman Way, Suite 102 
Canoga Park, CA 91303 

Galaxy 

P.O. Box 22072 

San Diego, C A 92122 

Hayden Book Co., Inc 

50 Essex St. 

Rochelle Park, NJ 07622 

Highland Computer Services 

14422 S.E. 132nd St. 
Renton, WA 98055 

Instant Software 

80 Pine St. 
Peterborough. NH 03458 

Krell Software 

21 Milbrook Drive 
Stony Brook, NY 11790 

Level-10 

P.O. Box 21187 
Denver, CO 80221 

Med Systems Software 

P.O. Box 2674-P 
Chapel Hill, NC 27514 

Micro Lab 

3218 Skokie Valley Rd. 
Highland Park, IL 60035 

Microsoft Consumer Products 

400 108th Ave. N.E. 
Bellevue, WA 98004 



Muse Software 

330 N. Charles St. 
Baltimore, MD 21201 

On-Line Systems 

36575 Mudge Ranch Rd. 
Coarsegold, CA 93614 

Personal Software 

1330 Bordeaux Drive 
Sunnyvale, CA 94086 

The Programmer's Guild 

P.O. Box 66 
Peterboro, NH 03458 

Quality Software 

6660 Reseda Blvd., Suite 105 
Reseda, CA 91335 

Rainbow Computing, Inc. 

Garden Plaza Shopping Center 
9719 Reseda Blvd. 
Northridge, CA 91324 

Sir-Tech 

6 Main St. 
Ogdensburg, NY 13669 

Spectrum Software 

142 Carlow, P.O. Box 2084 
Sunnyvale, CA 94087 

Stoneware Microcomputer Products 

50 Belvedere St. 
San Rafael, CA 94901 

Strategic Simulations, Inc. 

465 Fairchild Drive, Suite 108 
Mountain View, CA 94043 

SubLogic Communications Corp. 

Box V 

Savoy, IL 61874 

Survival Software 

3033 La Selva, B306 
San Mateo, CA 94403 

Synergistic Software 

5221 120th S.E. 
Bellevue, WA 98006 

Tandy Corp. 

One Tandy Center 
Fort Worth, TX 76102 

Texas Instruments, Inc. 
P.O. Box 3640 
Dallas, TX 75285 



174 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



THE FORMULA FOR MONEY AND POWER. 







How can an Apple® possibly get you the two 
things in life you'd love to have — money and 
power? Only it it's equipped with our latest software, 
two strategy games so well designed they blur the 
distinction between make-believe and reality: 
CARTELS & CUTTHROATS'- and PRESIDENT ELECT.*" 

MEGABUCKS. That's what's at stake in CARTELS 8c 
CUTTHROATS, a business game which puts you in 
charge of your very own multi-million-dollar manu- 
facturing plant. The jungle of the real business world 
has been faithfully duplicated. You must confront the 
problems of an unsteady economy fraught with 
inflation and high interest rates, government interven- 
tion, and tough labor demands. 

EXECUTIVE DECISIONS. Armed with up-to- 
date newswires, market summaries, profit and loss 
statements, and special memos from department 
heads, you make the executive decisions. Should you 
form price cartels with your competitors, or engage in 
cutthroat practices in an attempt to eliminate them? 
How should you allocate your vast but limited capital 
among manufacturing and expansion needs, R8cD, 
and marketing? 

Your business skills will be fully taxed. Can you 
react to an opponent's advertising blitz before you 
lose the competitive edge? Will you automate your 
factories - risking labor's wrath - in order to cut 
production costs? How will you handle labor de- 
mands during profitable years, or productivity 
declines during recessions? 

Designed for one to six players, with the computer 
capable of playing up to five positions, CARTELS 8c 
CUTTHROATS provides a full range of options, from 
simpler games for beginners to an advanced ver- 
sion that will stump even experienced businessmen. 



POWER OF THE PRESIDENCY, president 

ELECT takes into account every major electoral factor 
to make it the most accurate model of the campaign 
process ever made. It is the perfect release for the 
armchair politician in all of us who's wanted to run 
for the President of the United States. 

POLITICAL CLIMATE. You can contest any 



Apple is a registered trademark of Apple Computer Inc. 





election from 1960 to 1984 using actual historical 
candidates or ones you make up. 

The computer reflects the political climate of the 
period chosen based on the prevailing economic 
factors and U.S. and foreign news. The candidates' 
political persuasions are determined by their answers 
(either preprogrammed or player- entered) to over 20 
issues as diverse as ERA the SALT treaty, tax cuts.... 

THE CAMPAIGN. On the campaign trail, you 
must allocate your money among key-state, regional, 
and national advertising. Campaign stops must be 
carefully planned to avoid fatigue. You must decide 
on the pros and cons of debate as well as grapple 
with national and international crises. 

If you've run a smart race, you'll be rewarded by 
weekly polls that show favorable shifts in the popular 
vote and a Hi-Res color map of the U.S. that reflects 
an increase in your electoral votes. 

Election night is given special treatment. It can 
be resolved instantly or it can be simulated as a hair- 
raising, minute- by- minute experience. 

PRESIDENT ELECT is a three- player game repre- 
senting the Republican, Democratic, and possible 
third-party candidates. The computer can play any 
or all three positions. 



All you need to play both games are an Apple II 
with Applesoft ROM card, 48K memory, and a mini 
floppy disc drive. Each for $39.95, both come with 
their respective program disc, a rule book, and 
various player- a id charts. 

That's a small price to pay to be on your way to 
your first million. Or to enter the race for the highest 
office of the nation. 

Hurry on down to your local store today and see 
if our formula can help you become the richest 
President ever! 

To order directly from SSI, credit card holders call 
toll free 800-227-1617, ext 335 and charge your order 
to your VISA or MASTERCARD. In California, call 800- 
772-3545, ext. 335. 

To order by mail, send your check to Strategic 
it ions Inc, Dept. CC4, 465 Fairchild Drive, Suite 108, 
Mountain View, CA 94043. 

All our games carry a 14- day money back 
guarantee to assure your complete satisfaction. 




A» part of our demanding standards of excellence, we ute (118X611 floppy diaca. 




STRATEGIC SIMULATIONS INC 

CIRCLE 201 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



r 



Microsoft Olympic Decathlon 



Gold Medalist 



WIRRCI' 

of fcfee 

T980 

creative Gompuking 
award 



George Blank 



creative computing 
SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Olympic Decathlon 

Type: Arcade Game 

System: Apple II Disk, TRS-80 
Model I 

Format: Disk or tape 

Language: Machine Language 

Summary: Olympic Quality 

Price: $24.95 

Manufacturer: 

Microsoft Consumer Products 
400 108th Ave. N.E., Suite 200 
Belle vue, WA 98004 



How many of your friends have an 
Olympic Gold Medal — the symbol of the 
very top level of athletic achievement. 
The most prestigious event in the Olympics 
is the Decathlon, a series of ten events 
designed to select the best all-around 
athlete in the world. It is particularly fitting 
that one of the finest games ever written 
for personal computers should be based 
on the Olympic Decathlon. 

How would you pick the world's best 
computer game? If there were a decathlon 
for computer games, it might include these 
ten events. 

1. Challenge and skill 

2. Excitement and suspense 

3. Solitaire play 

4. Group play 

5. Creativity 

6. Showing off your computer 

7. Immediate fun 

8. Long term enjoyment 

9. Graphics and animation 

10. Competition 



In any one of these ten events, it would 
be hard to beat Olympic Decathlon. If 
you consider all ten together, the program 
is unbeatable. From the opening titles to 
the announcement of the gold medalist, 
Olympic Decathlon will captivate your 
attention, challenge your skill, dexterity, 
and judgment, and lock you into total 
competition with your opponents, the 
computer, and your own best record. The 
program is so addicting that I recommend 
buying it right before a long weekend. 
Otherwise you are liable to be fired for 
failing to show up for work the next 
morning. 

The game, by Tim Smith, was recognized 
at the West Coast Computer Faire as the 
winner of the 1980 Creative Computing 
Award, for the most creative game of last 
year. 

As you place the diskette in your Apple 
II or TRS-80 Model I and boot it, or load 
the TRS-80 cassette version, you see a 
runner pulling the title across the screen. 
An animated figure shot-puts the dot over 
the "i" in Olympic. If you have an Apple, 
you will also hear the Olympic theme. 
Then a circle moves down from the top 
of the screen, divides and forms the five- 
ring Olympic symbol. Instructions are 
displayed, and you are asked if you wish 
to begin the Decathlon. 

If you answer no, a menu appears, listing 
the ten events as follows: 

1. 100-Meter Dash 

2. Long Jump 

3. Shot Put 

4. High Jump 

5. 400-Meter Dash 

6. 110-Meter Hurdles 

7. Discus Throw 

8. Pole Vault 

9. Javelin Throw 

10. 1500-Meter Run 

You are then asked which event you wish 
to practice. This gives you a chance to 



introduce new players to the events and 
let them try out their skills. It also gives 
you a chance to gain skill in the most 
difficult events. 

If you answer that you are ready to 
begin the Decathlon, you are then asked 
how many people want to play. You can 
have up to eight players in the TRS-80 
version or six players in the Apple II 
version. The computer then asks for the 
name of each player. 

Once the registration is complete, the 
computer announces the first event, the 
100 meter dash. This event is run in two- 
player heats, with a display of the track 
on the screen. Each player moves to the 
starting line by alternating keys on the 
keyboard as if his fingers were legs. Then 
the starter counts down... READY... SET... 
the GO flag comes out of the starting 
pistol and the flying fingers of the players 
move their men across the screen. The 
speed typist wins this one, as he will also 
win the 400 meter dash, for only the speed 
with which two fingers can run on the 
keys counts. 

As each heat is run, the computer 
schedules the next, until all players have 
competed. In between events, the computer 
displays the standings, with point scores 
based on the Olympic system. Since the 
game is real time, you can aim to run the 
hundred in under ten seconds, and possibly 
even make it! 

The second event, the long jump, calls 
forth a different challenge. The TRS-80 
and Apple versions of several events are 
slightly different, so I will describe the 
TRS-80 version and occasionally mention 
some of the differences in the Apple 
version. For the long jump, the computer 
asks for the speed of your run-up, from 
700 to 1000 centimeters per second. After 
you answer, a line is displayed on the 
screen, with a break to represent the foul 
line. You press the space bar to begin 



176 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



/^H PROGRAM STORE aSftSHSs 




POOL 1.5 





By Hoffman, St Germain & Morock from IDS 
The pressure is on : if you can just get 
enough english on the ball to bank it into the 
corner pocket ... In POOL 1.5, you can! A 
remarkable action-simulation of the real thing, 
this program allows full control of your 
"cue-stick" for aim (265 directions) and con- 
trol (all types of english). Play four different 
types of pool at your choice of table speed, 
and even get an "instant replay" of any shot, 
in slow motion! Hi-Res color graphics are 
used throughout this real time game. 

48K Disk... $34.95 



DEATH 
MAZE 



u 




• ft 



From Med Systems 

A new breed of adventuring! Venture 
through a graphically represented 3-D maze, 
with halls that could dead end — or recede to 
infinity. Step through the doors or drop into 
the pits. Will you encounter monsters and 
mayhem, or will you be treated to useful ob- 
jects and information? Will you ever get out 
alive? 

You may never find your way out of Death- 
maze 5000, but you'll keep trying! 

32K APPLE II. 16K TRS-80. . .$12.95 




By Lord British from Top of the Orchard 
An "adventure" that defies description. Un- 
like the text-type adventures, ULTIMA 
allows you to wander through towns, coun- 
tries and continents using Hi-Res graphics 
and set-commands. And unlike the usual 
adventures, your journey spans not only 
space but time, as well. In ULTIMA, you start 
in the dungeons-and-dragons era but may 
progress through the space age and beyond! 
Whether you are "into" adventures, fantasy 
role-playing, or arcade games, you won't want 
to miss playing ULTIMA! 

Supplied on two disks, one protected (only 
one disk drive required) . 48K...$39.95 



® 

"For Apple 1 1 
& Apple II Plus 
Applesoft, 48K Disk 
unless otherwise noted 




HI-REI 
ItCCER 



By Jay Sullivan from On-Line 
Here's a game that let's you really get you»- 
kicks! A Veal-time Soccer game that offers 
the excitement and challenge of the real 
thing. You manipulate your eight fully- 
-animated characters against a friend or the 
computer. Move the ball down field to scoring 
position, but don't get tackled or your oppon- 
ent may score against you. 
Hi-Res graphics give the kicking, throwing, 
and corner kicks an absorbing realism, aided 
by the aame clock, scoreboard, and sound 
effects. "Three skill levels allow challenge for 
beginner through expert. 

48K Disk. ..$29.95 




THREE 

MILE 

ISLAND 



(SPECIAL EDITION) 

By Richard Orban from Muse 
New machine language version lets you decide 
whether or not nuclear technology is too com- 
plex to handle. The comprehensive docu- 
mentation describes in detail the operation of 
the pressurized reactor illustrated in Hi-Res 
graphics. You must supply electricity - pro- 
fitably -- or lose your license to operate. But 
sloppy operation or pushing too hard may 
cause a radiation leak ... or worse! 

48K Disk... $39. 95 

SABOTAGE 

From On-Line Systems 

As commander of an anti-aircraft base, your 
mission is to clear the skies of enemy planes 
and helicopters. The opposing forces have 
other plans. While keeping you busy with a 
firestorm of bombs, they are dropping para- 
troopers to sabotage your base! 

Quick, machine language animation in Hi-Res 
color graphics. You can fire conventional or 
controlled weapons one shot at a time or in 
rapid sequence. And with auto skill-level es- 
calation, the better you get, the tougher 
"they" get! 
48K Disk. ..$21.95 



THE PROGRAM STORE 
Franchises Available 




From Muse Software 

The thinking person's fast action game. A 
contradiction? No, RobotWar combines your 
forethought, programming, and logic to create 
and condition a robot that will take part in a 
fast, futuristic gladiator battle! 

RobotWar will provide fun and challenge while 
honing your programming skills. Program 
your robot in special "Battle Language," de- 
bug it on the cybernetic "test bench," and 
finally watch as your efforts win or lose 
against up to four competitors on the battle 
field. 

U8K Disk... $39. 95 

ORBITRON 

By Eric Knopp from Sirius 

Your space station is in a stable orbit, high- 
-energy force fields functioning normally. 
But what's this? One-by-one, killer satellites 
begin orbiting your station, preparing to take 
out your rotating force field — and you! 
Fight them off with your weaponry, but don't 
lose track of the fast moving meteors. They 
may be on a collision course. 

Sound and fast graphics make ORBITRON a 
treat; the seven levels of difficulty and bonus 
point scoring add to the challenge. 

U8K Disk. ..$29.95 



TrWIDWLITY 
i BASE 



By BiTl Budge from Stoneware 
Hi-Res, arcade-type lunar lander offering 
great fun and a real challenge. As you bring 
your LEM down, you control it through 360 
degrees of rotation. Move horizontally and the 
moonscape "scrolls" aside beneath you. You 
pick your site carefully with the aid of the 
closeup view and try to set your craft down 
gently, because if you come in too "hot" 
you're in for a spectacular crash! 

48K Disk. ..$24.95 

SANTA PARAVIA 

From Instant Software 

A classic simulation of government, based in 
the year 1400 AD. You can play by yourself 
or compete with up to 6 players as you assume 
the role of rulers of neighboring Italian city- 
-states. Most of the factors that go into gov- 
ernment - economics, politics, social issues, 
etc. -- are simulated in this program. 

48K disk... $19. 95 



Visit Our Baltimore, MD Store: W.Bell Plaza -6600 Security Blvd 




TO ORDER CALL TOLL FREE 




424-2738 



For information 
Call (202) 363-9797 



MAIL ORDERS: Send check or M.O. for total purchase 
price, plus $1.00 postage & handling. D.C. residents, add 
6% tax. Charge card customers: include all embossed 
information on card. 



THE PROGRAM STORE 

4200 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Dept. CA09 Box 9609 

Washington, D.C. 20016 

CIRCLE 1 75 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



f 



Decathlon, continued... 



"N 



your run-up, the down arrow to plant 
your take off foot, and the enter key to 
jump. 

As you press the space bar, numbers 
on the screen indicate how far from the 
foul line your runner is at that instant. 
Suddenly your runner appears on the 
screen, running at high speed. When you 
press the down arrow the runner stops, 
and a moving line on the screen arcs in 
front of the runner, creating a rapidly 
closing angle. When you are ready to 
jump, you press the enter key, and the 
angle that was reached determines your 
take off angle and the length of your 
jump. Your animated figure sails through 
the air to a beautiful landing, that is, 
unless you were too late pressing enter 
and fell flat on you face! If you were too 
late pressing the down arrow, you score a 
foul, and your jump does not count. 

The high jump and the pole vault are 
variations of the first two events, with 
different animated figures and fouls. In 
the pole vault, the eighth and most difficult 
event, you must alternate your fingers 
rapidly to gain momentum, press the down 
arrow at the right moment to plant your 
pole in the box, then, at the right times, 
press the up arrow to do a handstand on 
the pole and the clear key to let go of it. 
If you selected the right place to grip the 
pole, and ran fast enough, and your timing 
was correct, you make a successful jump. 
It took me a week to make my first 
successful jump at the lowest level! 

The third event is the shot put. In this 
event, you control the amount of force 
exerted by the arm and shoulder muscles 
on an animated figure on the screen to 
put the shot at the perfect angle and 
momentum. You do this with the right 
and up arrows on the TRS-80, and with 
the paddle controllers on the Apple. The 
Apple version is much harder. 

We have already mentioned the fourth 
event, the high jump, which is about 
halfway in between the long jump and the 
pole vault in technique. The fifth event, 
the 400-meter dash, is just like the 100- 
meter dash, only longer. 

The 1 10-meter hurdles is the next event. 
In this, like the dash events, you use your 
fingers on the keys as if they were legs. 
Only this time, it is timing, not speed that 
counts. You have to time your strides 
perfectly to clear the hurdles and in the 
Apple version, avoid disqualification, or 
in the TRS-80 version, break stride and 
lose time. This event has the cleverest 
animation, showing a runner actually 
running and jumping. 

The seventh event is the discus throw, 
a tough event that humiliates the beginner 
and takes a long time to master. A decent 
throw may take ten or twelve practice 
sessions for the first timer. Here, you press 
the space bar to start the player on the 



screen rotating and the enter key to let 
go of the discus. You can choose your 
speed of rotation and you can let go on 
the first, second, or third time around. It 
takes very precise timing to throw the 
discus straight on the third time around 
at high speed for an outstanding score. 

We have already mentioned the pole 
vault, event number eight. The ninth event 
is the javelin throw. Here you must use 
your fingers to run, pressing the up arrow 




Tim Smith, left, receives the first annual "Most 
Creative Game of 1980" award from Geonje Blank, 
editorial director at Creative Computing magazine. 
Smith is the author of Olympic Decathlon, the 
newest game offered by Microsoft Consumer 
Products. Blank presented the award recently at 
the West Coast Computer Faire in San Francisco. 

to tilt your javelin into throwing position 
(while continuing to run for speed) and 
press enter to release the javelin. In the 
TRS-80 version, the javelin sails off screen 
and you are told how far it went. In the 
Apple version, the computer switches to 
a blimp's eye view of the stadium and you 
watch your javelin sail to a stop in the 
rich green grass. 

The final event is the 1500-meter run. 



Fortunately, this time you do not run by 
alternating fingers, but instead steer your 
runner on the screen by using four keys 
to set the direction. If you hold the right 
keys down and don't run into the sides of 
the track, you build momentum for a good 
score. However, it is very easy to get 
confused and score badly. 

At the end of the ten events, the 
computer announces the winner of the 
gold medal. After lynching him or her, 
the losers fight over the computer so that 
they can practice their worst events for a 
rematch. 

I enthusiastically recommend this game. 
I have been playing the TRS-80 version 
for over a year, and have moved my own 
scores from about 4,000 to about 7,000. I 
have seen scores of 1 1 ,000 and higher on 
the TRS-80 version, while the Apple version 
is harder. 

I am aware of only three significant 
awards that have been given to micro- 
computer software. In 1980, Adam Osborne 
presented the White Elephant Award to 
VisiCalc, calling it the $150 program that 
justified the purchase of a $10,000 com- 
puter. In 1981, Softalk presented the Softalk 
award for the most popular Apple program 
of all time to Super Invasion from Creative 
Computing software. I had the privilege 
of serving on the committee and presenting 
the Creative Computing Award for the 
most creative game program of 1980 to 
Tim Smith for Olympic Decathlon. An 
Apple owner is lucky enough to be able 
to buy all three. The TRS-80 owner can 
only obtain VisiCalc and Olympic Decath- 
lon. These are the very finest programs 
available. □ 




178 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



non - programmers ! 





-m**)*"?: 




. (unning on tne Appi_ 
A2-3D/A Saturn Navigator 



A2-3D1 Graphics Package A2-GE1 Graphics Edi 

$59.95 on disk (32K required) $34.95 on disk (48K and 

$49.95 on cassette (16K A2-3D1 required) 

required) A2-3D/A Saturn Navi 

A2-3D2 Enhancement $24.95 on disk (48K, A2- 

$24.95 on disk (48K and and Applesoft required) 
A2-3D1 required) 
$19.95 on cassette (32K and 
A2-3D1 required) 

For direct order, include $3 for UPS or $5 for first class mail delivery. 
Illinois residents add 5% sales tax. Visa and Master Card accepted. 



professional 

3D and 2D 
graphics 
for the 
Apple 1 1 



The A2-3D1 is the graphics utility you can 
depend on whether you're mapping a town, 
presenting charts at a business meeting, or 
animating games. 

Now this versatility is available for the non- 
programmer with the A2-GE1 graphics editor 
and programmer. Create images as you view 
them. Scan them, animate them, combine 
them, or add text or labels. With a minimum 
of fuss, you can prepare all sorts of scientific, 
business, or educational presentations. 

Add the A2-3D2 enhancement package 
for color, and as a bonus you'll also be able 
to manipulate images independently of each 
other— as many different objects at once as 
your memory will accommodate. 

When it's time for some challenging and 
educational entertainment, run the A2-3D/A 

Saturn Navigator. You'll enjoy an adventurous 
flight to Saturn, enter its orbit, and rendezvous 
with an orbital space station that awaits your 
arrival. 

We ve reached our goal of giving you the most 
sophisticated graphics utilities in the market- 
place . . . 

see them now at your dealer! 




• 



Communications Corp. 
BoxV, Savoy, IL61874 
(217)359-8482 
Telex: 206995 

Apple is the registered trademark of Apple Computer Inc. 



CIRCLE 187 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Five Programs for TRS-80 



com 




Bringing Home the Arcade 



Owen Linzmayer 



creative comparing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Galaxy Invasion, Attack 

Force, Super Nova, Cosmic 
Fighter, Meteor Mission Two 

Type: Arcade Games 
System: 16K TRS-80 Model II or III 
Format: Disk or Tape 
Language: Machine Language 

Summary: Top games with high 
quality graphics 

Price: $15.95 each on tape, $19.95 
per game on disk 

Manufacturer: 

Big Five Software 
P.O. Box 9078-185 
Van Nuys, CA 91409 



J 



Super Nova is a TRS-80 version of Atari's 
popular arcade game, Asteroids. Nova was 
the link between arcade and TRS-80 for 
which Asteroids addicts had been waiting. 
I ordered Nova expecting a good, but 
slow game that I would be able to tolerate. 
Boy, was I ever surprised: Nova exceeded 
my expectations. In fact it was so good, I 
couldn't wait for the next game from Big 
Five to appear on the market. To date, 
Big Five has marketed five quality arcade- 
type programs all of which are written in 
machine language by Bill Hogue. Certain 
features are common to all of the games. 
They all: 

Owen Linzmayer, 16 Trowbridge Rd., Morris Plains, 
NJ 07950. 



1. Allow two players to compete against 
each other (one at a time). 

2. Keep track of the top ten scores and 
the initials of the scorers. 

3. Give the player a starting allotment 
of three ships. 

4. Award a free bonus ship for each 
10,000 points scored. 

5. Offer infinite play; as long as one 
ship is left intact, you may play forever. 

6. Have a built-in demonstration mode. 




Super Nova 

Super Nova is a fast-moving game which 
requires a great deal of dexterity and quick 
reflexes. 

The program starts with a graphics 
display which catapults you through space. 
When the game begins, your ship is situated 
in the center of the screen. Huge asteroids 
drift aimlessly through your sector. To 
acquire points you must shoot at and 
destroy them. Sounds easy enough, but 



there is one small catch: the meteors come 
in three sizes. If you hit a large one it 
splits into two medium-sized asteroids, 
which when shot, break into two of the 
smallest size. These small meteors move 
quicker and are, thus, harder to destroy. 



You will probably not be 

able to rest until you 

know you've conquered 

the forces of evil 

and made your 

galaxy safe. 



They also carry a higher point value than 
the larger ones. 

You can be killed by letting either a 
stray asteroid or an alien ship collide with 
your fighter, or by getting hit by enemy 
fire. There are five types of hostile ships 
which try to do you in. These range from 
the slow and clumsy JLK (Jidyan Land 
Kruiser) to Big Five's trademark, the 
Flagship. The Flagships carry a secret- 
weapon, an omnipotent laser bolt cannon 
which fires a realistic lightning bolt. 

To avoid death, you fire at asteroids 
and enemy ships to destroy them before 
they get you. Your fighter rotates freely 
on its own axis a full 360° in 45° increments 
and is equipped with rocket-thrusters which 
propel you at amazing speeds. If by 



180 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



TRS-80 sensational 

software 



creative 

computing 

software 



Board Games 



Cassette CS-3001 $11.95 



6 Programs 



Requires 8K 




13 14 15 1« ,T '«' 



19 20 21 22 23 24 






12 11 10 9 8 71 
«Ut MLi IS 4 i IM CFP . 
m MU IS ? 1 .Mil 1M4.I4-Ii. 



Quibic A 3-dimensional tic-tac-toe type of 
game played in a 4x4x4 cube. A real 
challenge. 



Space Games 



Cassette CS-3002 $1 1 .95 



4 Programs 



Requires 8K 



h B £ C 

l ♦ . 



PRESS "ENTER' Tu CONTINUE' 



< f C 5 I f G M 



. . 

4 ..101... 
.1110 1.. 

. . 

7 



flUi c>.i - kJtt-TC 



Backgammon, (by Scott Adams). Excellent 
graphics and challenging play in this popular 
game. 



Mugwump. Four friendly Mugwumps are 
hiding on a 10x10 grid. Can you find them 
all in ten moves? 

Wumpus. Try to find the Wumpus in a 
dodecahedron network of caves complete 
with bottomless pits and giant bats. 

Wumpus 2. Five different types of caves 
or create your.own. More hazards too. 




turn ran n count 

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 » It I 



n ft 



STWmt-2133 
BOW- 894 3 
ICftT- 23 
MME- S 

UHHMT- 5 It 
SECTOMt 7 
SHIELDS- IMC 
Ta«l)CES-12 

B0> 
cot> -m> 

5TftT106-12 



Flip Disc. Our version of Othello with three 
skill levels from good to expert. 



Pursuit Games 



Cassette CS-3004 $1 1 .95 



5 Programs 



Requires 16K 





Star Lanes. The ultimate game of inter- 
galactic commerce and trade for 
earthbound entrepreneurs 



Romulan. Use your sensors to find the 
hidden Romulan spacecraft and then des- 
troy it 



Star Wars. Line up the TIE fighters in your 
sights and zap them It's not easy 



Ultra Trek. Battle klingons with lasers, tor- 
pedoes and mines in this real-time game 
with action graphics 




Strategy Games 



Cassette CS-3005 $11.95 



5 Programs 



Requires 16K 



Stock Car Race Real-time road racing game 
around a complex track. Don't blow your 
engine. 



I 




Depth Charge. Move your ship and drop 
charges to destroy as many subs as 
possible. 

Maze. Nine skill levels in this high-speed 
pursuit game. 

Kaleidoscope. A ever-changing graphics 
demonstration. 





Evasion. Try to escape from the snake It's Motor Racing. Real-time racing action and 
not easy. excellent graphics with your choice of 

tracks 



Jigsaw. Use reasoning and luck to fit your 
pieces into the puzzle. 



Indy Racer. Real-time with gear changing 
similar to the popular arcade game. 




Games Pack on Disk 

Disks CS-3503 (32K) $39.95 



This set of menu-driven disk contains all 20 
games from cassettes CS-3001, CS-3002 
CS-3004 and CS-3005. 




The Masters. Choose your club and go 
from tee to green on each hole 



Tunnel Vision. Find your way out of a maze 
given only a mouse-eye view. 



Order Today 



To order any of these software packages, 
send payment plus $2 00 postage and 
handling per order to Creative Computing 
Morris Plains. NJ 07950 Visa. MasterCard 
and American Express orders may be called 
in toll-free 



Order today at no risk If you are not 
completely satisfied, your money will be 
promptly and courteously refunded 

Creative Computing Software 
Morris Plains. NJ 07950 
Toll-free 800-631 -81 12 

In NJ. 201-540-0445 



creative computing software 



TRS-80 is the registered trademark of Tandy Corp 



CIRCLE 300 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Arcade, continued... 



thrusting, dodging or shooting, you cannot 
avoid a crash, there is still one desperate 
last hope, Hyperspace. Entering Hyper- 
space is dangerous because your place of 
re-entry is unknown. 

Super Nova is as challenging as the 
arcade version, but is unfortunately missing 
sound effects. The program has smooth, 
non-jumpy graphics and is definitely a 
must for the TRS-80 owner who enjoys 
Asteroids. 

Galaxy Invasion 

Galaxy Invasion is the TRS-80 version 
of Midway's famous "Galaxian" arcade 
game. 



■0- -0- -0- -0- -0- -0- -0- «fr -0- -0- 

^h ^h ^w ^h wi in wi 



The game begins with your ship sitting 
directly under a large convoy of invaders. 
As you glide left and right, methodically 
destroying the alien ships, small groups of 
invaders break away from the flock and 
dive toward your ship. You can almost 
hear the little suckers inside screaming, 
"Banzai!" If you shoot a kamikaze alien it 
is worth twice as much as if it were flying 
with the pack. If the attacking alien doesn't 
get shot or ram your ship, it will wrap- 
around to the top of the screen and drift 
back into its original position. 

The Flagships in this game always attack 
with escorts if possible. The more screens 
you clear, the more Flagships appear. The 
Flagships occupy the uppermost row of 
the convoy, as far away from your laser 
cannon as possible. 

Your demise can take place if you collide 
with an attacking ship or get hit by a 
dropped bomb, or you may meet a special 
death. Occasionally during play, the words 
"Flagship Attack Alert" flash in the center 
of the screen. This is to warn you that in a 
few seconds, the cruel Flagships will unleash 
their full fury on your little fighter. The 
only way to avoid being killed is to shoot 
a Flagship quickly before time runs out. 
If you don't do this rapidly enough, the 
Flagships will one at a time open fire on 
you with their laser bolts, and they always 
hit— always! 

The fleet continues to slide across the 
screen until you have destroyed all of the 
alien intruders. The next convoy is a bit 



quicker, slightly more intelligent and 
tougher to kill. 

Galaxy Invasion, although a big seller, 
is slower than the other Big Five programs. 
After 250,000 points the game doesn't 
increase in complexity to any measurable 
degree, but is nevertheless quite enjoyable 
and will keep you fighting over who gets 
to use the computer. 

Attack Force 

Attack Force is the TRS-80 version of 
Exidy's "Targ" arcade game. The object 
of this game is to maneuver your ship 




through a death-field of allies formed by 
35 blocks arranged in a 7 x 5 matrix. 

At the beginning of each board, your 
ship starts out in the lower right corner 
and one of the eight enemy ramships is 
situated at the top of every vertical alley. 

You must bob and weave through the 
back streets and shoot the ramships until 
the pathways are empty. These ramships 
cannot return your fire, but can as their 
name implies, "ram" you to death. 

On the right of the field is a thin vertical 
side street from which your ship is 
restricted. The feared Flagships are stored 
there. Once in a while the Flagships will 
shoot one of the ramships and thus trans- 
form it into either another Flagship or a 
ship identical to yours (if you collide with 
or shoot this mirror image, you are, in 
reality, killing yourself). 

As long as there are still ramships in 
the maze, Flagships have no special ability, 
but when all ramships are destroyed, the 
extra Flagships from the storage area enter 
the death-field. The commander of these 
has the ability to fire laser bolts at you 
from any point in the maze. If you are hit 
six times by the same Flagship, you are 
blasted into Stardust. 

After you have killed all of the enemy 
ships, the battle is over and you are treated 
to a dazzling graphics display that fans 
across the screen. You are then awarded 
bonus points that increase by 1000 after 
every battle. The value of each ramship 
increases by 10 points in the same 
manner. 

It is possible for this game to last forever, 
but reaching anything over 75,000 points 



is quite a feat. Attack Force is probably 
the most challenging ot the five programs. 
If you enjoy beating a game, then try this 
one on for size, it doesn't give up easily! 

Cosmic Fighter 

This program is unique among the five 
because it isn't copied from any one arcade 
game, although there are traces of Astro 




Fighter embedded in it. Bill Hogue deserves 
special thanks for his ingenuity in combin- 
ing bits and pieces of various games with 
some ideas of his own to form an exciting 
home computer game. 

As with most arcade games, your ship 
travels across the bottom of the screen. 
At the top of the screen is a graphic fuel 
gauge. If it reaches empty your fighter's 
fuel tanks won't be able to stand the change 
in cosmic pressure and will implode, ending 
the game. Moving and shooting gradually 
eat away at your fuel reserve. 

The first group of aliens sways up and 
down as they slowly descend toward your 
ship. You must shoot them as quickly as 
possible with minimum firing and 
maneuvering so that you conserve fuel— 
remember, there is an energy crisis in the 
cosmos also! 

After killing the first set of invaders, 
another group appears. Four separate 
groups of aliens comprise an attack wave. 
When you finally kill off the entire wave, 
a mothership that resembles a checkered 
taxicab enters from the right. You must 
now attempt to dock your ship in the 
niche in the bottom of this station. If you 
dock successfully, your ship will be refueled 
and you will be ready for another attack 
wave. Hint: a piece of tape correctly 
positioned on your CRT will aid you in 
docking quickly. 

After each of the first four blitz attacks, 
the aliens build up resistance to your laser 
fire. On the first wave, one shot blows an 
enemy away, but on the next attack they 
take an extra shot before dying; finally 
they can be killed only if hit four times. 
But the difficulty is taken into account 
and these harder-to-kill invaders have 
appropriately higher point values. 

When the player reaches 100,000 points, 



182 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



the difficulty of the game increases a great 
deal. It is because of this that a hard-to- 
reach score is anything over 130,000 points. 
Cosmic Fighter is one of my favorites. 

Meteor Mission Two 

As of this writing Meteor Mission II is 
Big Five's newest entry. There are two 
different arcade games I have seen which 




are almost identical to MM II, Lunar 
Rescue and Escape From Mars. 

When the game begins, you are sitting 
in your rescue pod which is in the hull of 
a larger mothership. The captain informs 
you that your mission is to retrieve six 
stranded astronauts from the ravine below. 



When the path to the surface looks clear, 
you release your ship and descend toward 
the landing pads. Your descent is hindered 
by a field of slowly moving meteors which, 
if even gently nudged, will prove lethal. 

In the beginning of the game there are 
three complete and separate landing pads, 
but whenever you take-off from one, the 
blast of the lift-off engines deteriorates 
the surface, thus making the pad smaller, 
but giving it a higher point rating if you 
land successfully on it later. 

If you manage to land safely, an astronaut 
runs over to your ship and climbs aboard. 
Your next task is to get your small craft 
back into the hull of your mothership, 
intact. 

You must shoot a path through the 
meteors to the safety above. The speed 
of ascent can be increased by keeping the 
firing key depressed. Should you, by skill 
and/or luck, rescue all six astronauts, you 
are awarded an extra 1000 bonus points. 

The next mission is identical to the 
previous one except that it is somewhat 
harder with more numerous and faster 
moving meteors. And if that's not enough 
to deter you, another danger is added; 
occasionally a concentrated asteroid 
shower will cascade through the sky and 
devastate your ship if it is in the path of 
the flying debris. 



All of these complications make Meteor 
Mission II a challenging and captivating 
game that won't collect dust in your 
software library. It will probably become 
one of your favorites. 

If you don't own a Big Five program, I 
urge you to buy at least one, but I must 
also warn you that you will probably not 
be able to rest until you know that you've 
conquered the forces of evil and made 
your galaxy safe. 

As you can see, Big Five has brought 
much of the excitement, tension and 
enjoyment of the arcade games to your 
TRS-80. Now Big Five offers joysticks 
that attach directly to the TRS-80 Model 
I to enhance the arcade realism of their 
games. The joysticks sell for $39.95. 

These five programs come on either 
16K cassette ($15.95) or 32K disk ($19.95). 
There is a Model I and a Model III side 
on each tape /disk. The disk version has a 
special feature which, after every game, 
saves the high scores to the disk automa- 
tically. These scores are permanent and 
reappear each time you reload the game. 

Big Five offers a 10% discount for two 
items ordered at one time and a 15% 
discount for three or more. Add $1.50 for 
shipping and handling. 

Big Five Software, P.O. Box 9078-185, 
Van Nuys,CA 91409. (213)782-6861. □ 



C L O A I) MONTHLY 



"all the fit thafs news to load" 



TRS-80 PROGRAMS ON CASSETTE 

CLOAD Magazine for your Model I or III! 



Goleta. Calif. You can get 7 or X programs on cassette, each month. 

that CLOAD directly into your TRS-80 Model I or III! 

A subscriber, too engrossed in trying to save the world from invading 

aliens (March. I C WI issue) to give his name, stated. "I receive a 30 minute 

cassette bv First Class Mail each month containing some of the best games 
and educational programs 1 have ever played. Some are even in machine 
language! "Another CLOAD subscriber. Claudine Goad, could now 
'lit the computer into her schedule" thanks to the utilities and occasional 
disk programs she received from ('LOAD. She was writing about it to all 
of the people on her mailing list (November. N7 C > issue). 
Get the news firsthand. Get a subscription to CLOAD Maga/me. 



bv Clyde (load, star reporter 



The Fine Print: 

Overseas rates slightly higher — 

please write for them. 
Back issues available— ask for our list * 
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California residents add 6% to single copies 
and anthologies. Programs are for Level II 
1 6K , Model III 1 6K , and occasionally for disks. 

*24 Level I back issues also available. 



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1 year subscription $42.00 

6 month subscription .... $23.00 

Single copies $4.^0 

Anthology-volume 1 .... $10.00 
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CREATIVE COMPUTING 



• — • .-"-.» — • \VMjAZINE IMC ■.i.i.i:"i"«T.i.i.ii u.t.*.i.i.i.*.«i.iit . i. m . 1. i . h i.i i. 

r PO. Box 1448, Santa Barbara, CA 93102 805 962-6271 0]9Ql 

CIRCLE 113 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

183 



r 



Three Games for the Color Computer 



con* 




Colorful Fun 



George Blank 



Do battle with a fellow dinosaur, lose 
your sanity in a simultaneous two player 
game of breakout, or risk a broken leg 
hurtling down a ski slope in three of the 
ROM packaged games released by Radio 
Shack for the TRS-80 color computer. 
Cleverly using true joysticks as weapons 
in all three games, Radio Shack battles 
for the consumer computer market, meet- 
ing the Atari 400 and Commodore VIC 
head on. 

Drop Back 300 Million Years and Bite 

In Dino Wars, each of two players 
controls an animated tyrannosaurus rex 
in a hilarious and noisy battle. The secret 
of success is to maneuver behind the other 
dinosaur and bite it. With the joysticks, 
your dinosaur can maneuver all over the 
distance, and growing in size as it moves 
back into the foreground. Strategy can 
back into the foreground. Strategy can 
include running off screen to do battle by 
guess, dodging around a cactus that can 
throw you or your opponent for a nasty 
fall, trying to bite the other dinosaur when 



it is down, or a frenetic circling dance to 
attempt to get behind the other 
tyrannosaurus. If the players move off to 
the side of the screen, the playing field 
changes, giving a different number of cacti 
to serve as obstacles, shields, or booby 
traps. 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Dino Wars 

Type: Arcade Game 

Systam: 4K TRS-80 Color Computer 
with Joysticks 

Format: ROM Cartridge 

Language: Machine 

Summary: A roaring good time 

Price: $39.95 

Manufacturer: 

Radio Shack 

Fort Worth, TX 76102 



The sound effects are brilliant, with 
blood curdling roars as you push the trigger 
button to make your dinosaur bite, a 




crashing thud as a bitten or cactus smitten 
lizard crashes to the ground, and pathetic 
yelps as the defeated ex Rex of the 
Paleozoic flees into the sunset. Few people 
will be able to resist the temptation to 
turn the volume up to the threshold of 
pain and relive their ancestry according 
to Darwin. 

The game is a great deal of fun, and is a 
must for any owner of the Color Computer. 
It does have a few minor limitations. The 
battle of the bite is rather two dimensional, 
and frequently luck rather than skill 
separates the biter from the bitten. The 
options for strategy are limited, and while 
I was still eager to play more when other 
duties tore me away, I wonder whether it 
will have lasting challenge and appeal. 

Ninety-Nine Years on the Hard Rock Pile 

Bustout is Radio Shack's version of the 
popular arcade game Breakout, and in 
the tradition of the personal computer 
market, offers several options. You can 
choose to play with the brick wall across 
the top of the screen using gravity effects, 
or along the right side without gravity. 
You can play alone, or alternate "balls" 
with an opponent, or take a short cut to 
insanity by playing a two player version 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Bustout 

Type: Arcade 

System: 4K Radio Shack Color 
Computer, Joysticks 

Format: ROM Cartridge 

Language: Machine 

Summary: Software Breakthrough 
for the Color Computer 

Price: $39.95 

Manufacturer: 

Radio Shack 

Fort Worth. TX 76102 



J 



184 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



r 



Colorful Fun, continued... 



/^O 



TTTT 
II II 
II II 
II II 
II II 

III! 

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II II 
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II II 
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11 U. 



Two Players 
Partners 
No Gravity 



Two Players 
Opponents 
No Gravity 



Tnrmr\ 
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Two Players 
Paxuuics. 
No Gravity 



-irnr 
ii ii 
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JUL. 



ii ii 
ii ii 
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JUL 



V 



Two Players 

Partners 

Gravity 



on a split screen. You can also play a 
partnership version with another player, 
with the wall in the center of the screen 
and both of you attacking it from opposite 
sides. 

The joysticks make the TRS-80 Color 
version unique. With full joystick control 
you can move the paddles close to the 
wall or fall back, and with the ball moving 
back and forth across the playing field at 
very acute angles, you can often get a 
second chance at a ball before losing it. 
Of course, if you move the paddle closer 
to the wall, you run the risk of blocking 
the ball with the paddle and sending it 
out of play. But the cleverest touch is the 
way the game allows you to control the 
speed of the ball. If the paddle is moving 
forward when the ball is hit, the ball moves 
faster, while under opposite circumstances, 
the ball slows down. Although this is an 
excellent version of breakout, with some 
unique virtues, it is also not up to the 
standard of several other versions. The 
controls are somewhat sluggish, and the 
walls are stationary. 

Break a Leg— or a Neck! 

Our third game, while not quite as good 
as the first two, is still a good buy, 
particularly because at $29.95 it costs $10 
less than Dino Wars or Bustout. The game 
of Skiing places you in the position of a 
downhill racer, moving the joystick from 
side to side to pass through the gates or 
stay on the course and forward or back to 
speed up or slow down. In addition, the 
trigger button functions as ski poles to 
give you extra bursts of speed. 

While the instruction book talks about 
options, and it is possible to change courses 
somewhat, the play of the game is essen- 
tially the same. The most drastic difference 
is whether or not you choose to honor the 
gates or choose to go for speed alone. In 
both cases you have the same course and 
same display. In the speed version, you 



/? 



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185 



CIRCLE 214 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



r 



Colorful Fun, continued... 



simply ignore the listing of missed gates 
at the end of the course. 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Skiing 

Type: Sports Game 

System: 4K Color Computer with 

Joystick - 16K recommended 
Format: ROM cartridge 

Language: Machine language 

Summary: Challenge for fast reflexes 

Price: $29.95 

Manufacturer: 

Radio Shack 

Fort Worth, TX 76102 



The graphics are rather limited, con- 
sisting primarily of vertical lines to mark 
the sides of the course and taller lines 
with pennants at the top to mark the 
gates. At the finish line there is a red 
banner overhead, and a stationary crowd 
of onlookers that grows larger as you 
come to a stop in their midst, accompanied 
by cheering sound effects. In addition to 
the cheering crowd at the end of the 
game, other sound effects include a beep 
when you miss a gate and the snapping of 
a flag pole if you get too close. Your 
position is indicated by a single dot at the 



bottom center of the screen, with the 
course moving from side to side. 

All three games come in ROM packs, 
which plug conveniently into the side of 
the computer and eliminate the need for 
fiddling around with the frustrations and 
delay of loading programs from cassette 
tapes. All three also require the purchase 
of the optional joysticks. While each costs 
as much as a separate hand held electronic 
game, even before the cost of computer, 
television set, and joysticks, the full joystick 
control and superior graphics make them 
vastly more fun to play than a hand held 
game. 



How Does the Competition Stack Up? 

Arcade games offer the perfect oppor- 
tunity to compare the TRS-80 Color 
Computer with its primary competition, 
the Commodore VIC 20 and the Atari 
400. All three are aimed at the same 
audience; the mass home use market. In 
features, they lie in between the video 
games such as Mattel's Intellivision and 
Atari's Video Computer System and the 
general purpose color computers such as 
the Atari 800 and the Apple II. Since one 
of the most frequent uses of this type of 
computer in the home is for arcade games, 
this is a true challenge. However, since 
people buy these computers instead of 
dedicated game machines, it is also appro- 



priate to discuss programming and other 
features. 

From an arcade game standpoint, victory 
has to be awarded to the Atari 400. Despite 
the superior joysticks of the Color 
Computer, the playing smoothness and 
depth of play in Dino Wars cannot equal 
the same features in Atari's Basketball. 
Bustout also suffers by comparison with 
the moving walls and more varied options 
of the Atari Breakout. The Atari, with its 
extra microprocessor for handling displays 
and its custom chips, as well as its special 
and more expensive faster version of the 
6502, simply outclasses the graphics of 
the Color Computer and the VIC 20. The 
Atari was designed by a leading manu- 
facturer of arcade games to be a superb 
game machine. Because Atari felt that 
interaction with the computer would be 
primarily through the joysticks, light pen, 
paddles, and special function keys, the 
unit was designed with a sealed, touch 
sensitive keyboard made to withstand 
spilled drinks and the assaults of peanut 
butter and jelly. While I do not know the 
market strategy of Radio Shack, it appears 
that the Color Computer was designed to 
offer features similar to the Atari, with a 
more traditional but still non-standard 
keyboard, more memory and a better Basic, 
at a lower price. The Commodore VIC 
was clearly designed to undercut both of 
its rivals on price, even to the point of 





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Budges Space Game Album 37 

Budges 3-D Graphics 39 

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ACCESSORIES FOR 
THE APPLE II 

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L 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



187 



CIRCLE 163 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



19te4X& 




Cunard Hotel London 10-12 September 1981 




The Show which brings your market direct to you . . . 

The Personal Computer World Show is the UK exhibition exclusively for the small 
computer industry. It is your opportunity to meet, face-to-face, potential buyers who 
visit the Show specifically to see demonstrations and discuss the application of 
your products. 

This is the Show where buyers come to buy ... not just look. 

To discuss how the 4th Personal Computer World Show could form the focus of your 1981 promotional calendar contact 
Timothy Collins on 1-486 1951 or write to him at Montbuild Ltd. 11 Manchester Square. London. Wl. ENGLAND 



r 



>v 



Feature 



VIC 20 



TRS-80 Color 



Atari 400 



Price 

Recorder 

Disk 

Keyboard 

Basic 

Chip 

Memory 

Graphics 

Expansion 

Software 

Service 



$299 

$ 75 

Future? 

Standard 

Microsoft 8K 

6502 

5K 

176 x 184 

Future 

Little 

Commodore 



$399 

$ 50(or$0?) 

Percom 

Square keys 

Microsoft 4/12K 

6809 

4 to 32K 

256 x 192 

Percom 

Good 

Radio Shack 

Table 1. 



$399 

$ 75 

Atari 

Touch Sensing 

Shepherdson 10K 

6502B 

16 to 48K 

320 x 192 

Atari 800 

Excellent 

Control Data 



designing the whole computer around an 
inferior, but inexpensive 22 column video 
interface chip, by whose initials the com- 
puter was named. At the same time, 
Commodore went Radio Shack one better 
and offered a standard keyboard. 

When the VIC was announced at a 
price of $299, Atari retaliated by lowering 
its price to $399, the price of the 4K 
Radio Shack Color Computer, and increas- 
ing its standard memory to 16K. Already 
it is possible to upgrade the Atari 400 to 
48K of memory by simply opening the 
case and plugging in a memory board. At 
present this must be done using another 
manufacturer's memory board, though it 
is no secret that Atari has a 64K board 
under development, as is also obvious 
from the number of address lines built 
into the memory connector. This also 
allows the Atari 400 to use the disk drives 
and other accessories available for the 
Atari 800, and makes it much more flexible 
than the other two. 

The TRS-80 Color Computer uses the 
Motorola 6809 microprocessor, a more 
powerful new generation chip that offers 
some advantages over the 6502 of the 
VIC-20 and the 6502B of the Atari. This 
is not quite enough to catch up to the 
advantages of Atari's custom chips, and 
costs more than the Commodore approach, 
so it places the Color Computer between 
its competitors. 

As the Color Computer stands in 
between in its microprocessor and its 
keyboard, so it is in memory. It is internally 
expandable to 32K of memory, more than 
the 16K that Atari provides presently, but 
less than the 48K that can be had immedi- 
ately or the 64K promised in the future. 
This is way ahead of the VIC, which 
offers only 5K of memory and is not 
internally expandable. For those who wish 
to add disk drives and other peripherals, 
Percom Data Corporation offers an inter- 
face, although this carries the penalty of 
requiring disk operating system software 
not supported by Radio Shack and which 
may not be compatible with future pro- 
grams. 

The VIC, while limited to 5K of user 
RAM internally, does have some expand- 
ability. It is presently possible to add 3K 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



of RAM on a ROM cartridge along with a 
game in ROM, and an expansion interface 
is planned for some future date for further 
memory expansion and disk abilities. 

While the VIC is priced at $299, and 
both of the others at $399, this is misleading. 
Both the Atari and the VIC require 
expensive custom tape recorders to store 
user programs, while the Radio Shack 
computer allows a standard, inexpensive 
recorder which many people already own. 
Since one of the key reasons to buy one 
of these computers instead of a game 
computer is programmability, this effec- 
tively raises the price of both the VIC 20 
and the Atari 400. 

A further and significant difference is 
in the Basic language offered with each 
computer. Microsoft Basic, such as is 
offered with the VIC and Color Computer, 
has proven vastly more popular than other 
Basics such as Atari's Shepherdson Basic. 
The TRS-80 offers, as an extra cost but 
worthwhile option, an extended color Basic 
by Microsoft that is much better than 
VIC or Atari Basic. If I were to rate the 
four Basics for learning purposes, I would 
pick Radio Shack Extended Color Basic 
first, followed by VIC Basic, followed by 
standard Radio Shack Basic, with Atari 
Basic in last place. Atari does plan to 
offer an extended Microsoft Basic, superior 
to even Radio Shack Color Basic, on a 
16K ROM cartridge next year. I have a 
preliminary version of it already, and I 
like it. 

Of further importance for the beginner 
is the documentation that comes with the 
computer. Both the Radio Shack and 
Commodore computers come with out- 
standing documentation, including a 
thorough and well done course in Basic. 
The Atari documentation is less adequate. 
Although they also provide a Basic course, 
the book was written before the computer 
was finished or even before the Basic was 
finalized, and therefore does not cover 
the special features of the Atari well. 

The Atari enjoys an advantage in soft- 
ware availability since (particularly with 
48K of memory) any program written for 
the 800 will also work on the 400. The 
Atari has also been around longer and 
has therefore developed more support. 



189 



The VIC is partially compatible with the 
PET, so some programs may be readily 
converted, though the memory limitations, 
the narrow screen and the fact that the 
PET had three mutually incompatible 
system ROMs limits the number of pro- 
grams. The TRS-80 Color is not compatible 
with TRS-80 Basic, but some software 
houses have started to support it. We can 
expect that as time goes by the systems 
which sell well will be supported by outside 
vendors. At the moment however, Atari 
holds the advantage. 

One final category, that should not be 
minimized, is servicability. While all three 
computers are well built and should have 
few problems, Radio Shack service is 
readily available almost everywhere and 
is inexpensive. The Atari is serviced by 
Control Data Corporation, and is more 
expensive. Commodore's service policies 
for the VIC are still not known but the 
company has not in the past enjoyed a 
good reputation for customer service on 
the PET. 

In summary, there are valid reasons for 
picking any one of the three computers 
over the other two. It is simply a matter 
of how you evaluate the relative importance 
of the differences. The chart lists the 
features of the three computers. □ 



r 







PACKER: Machine language program that edits all or 
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On 2 cassettes for 16K, 32K, & 48K For TRS-80™ 

Mod I or III Level II or Disk Basic $29 95 

SYSTEM TAPE DUPLICATOR Copy your SYSTEM 
format tapes Includes verify routines The Model III 
version allows use of both 500 and 1 500 baud cassette 
speeds. 

For TRS-80™ Model I or III Level II $15.95 

CASSETTE LABEL MAKER: A mini word processor 
to print cassette labels on a line printer Includes 50 
peel-and-stick labels on tractor feed paper. 
For TRS-80™ Model I or III Level II & Printer $17.95 

PRINT TO LPRINT TO PRINT: Edits your Basic program 

in seconds to change all Prints to LPrints (except 

Print® or Print* ) or LPrints to Prints Save edited 

version. 

For TRS-80™ Model I or III Level II $12.95 

FAST SORTING ROUTINES: For use with Radio 
Shacks Accounts Receivable, Inventory Control I, 
and Disk Mailing List Systems for Model I Level II. 
Sorts in SECONDS! You II be amazed at the time they 
can save. Supplied on data diskette with complete 
instructions 

FAST SORT for Accounts Receivable $ 1 9 95 

FAST SORT for Inventory Control I $19.95 

FAST SORT for Disk Mailing List (specify data diskette 

cassette for 1 drive system) $14.95 

ALL THREE ROUTINES $44.95 

Prices subject to change without notice Call or write 
for complete catalog Dealer inquiries invited. VISA 
and MasterCard accepted Foreign orders in US 
currency only Kansas residents add 3% sales tax 
On-line catalog on Wichita FORUM-80 316-682-21 13 
Or call our 24 hour phone 316-683-481 1 or write: 

COTTAGE SOFTWARE 
614 N.Harding Wichita, KS 67208 

TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corporation 



CIRCLE 161 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



r 




Program Modules for the Tl 99/4 



Owen Linderholm 



Recently we discovered a library of 
Command Modules for the TI 99/4 lan- 
guishing on a closet shelf. The powers 
that be decreed that I was to review them, 
so, muttering imprecations under my 
breath, I reluctantly set to work. To review 
these modules adequately, I would have 
had to place myself in the positions of an 
aging chess master, a six year old child, a 
thirteen year old video game addict, a 
homeowner and an overweight, out-of- 
shape adult. Since I am none of these, I 
had to settle for the viewpoint of the 
average person; a difficult task. The 
following is the result of that endeavor. 

Let me begin by stating that all of the 
modules worked perfectly and gave me 
no trouble at all. They range in price 
from $20 to $70 and fall into three cate- 
gories, education, entertainment and home 
applications. It should also be noted that 
the graphics and sound in all of these 
programs were excellent. 

Video Chess 

As is usual with chess playing machines, 
a reasonably good player should not have 
too much trouble defeating Video Chess. 
The program does have some very nice 
features, however. The chess board and 
pieces are drawn in high-resolution color 
graphics and actually move around the 
board instead of simply disappearing and 
reappearing in their new positions. Some 
of the options available are different playing 
levels set by time, not ply search; various 
styles of play, such as aggressive or 
defensive; use of the game as a chessboard 
for two people to play each other; problem 
solving; simultaneous play by the computer 
against up to nine opponents; and the 




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Video Chess. 



ability to save and reload games on cas- 
sette. 

Video Chess is quite a good program, 
especially for the beginning player, and 
at $69.95, although the most expensive 
module, it is still a good value. 

The Attack 

We were given a very big buildup for 
this game by Texas Instruments. It came 
with a fancy poster proclaiming the excell- 
ence of the game in full color. The game 
itself was an enormous letdown. 

The object of the game is to destroy 
the alien spore infesting a certain area of 
space. Some of the spores are floating 
about, others are contained in indestructible 
incubators that release them at intervals. 
If four spores get together, they turn into 
an alien bug which chases you around 
until one of you is destroyed. 

The graphics in the game are very poor 
considering the ability of the TI 99/4. 
Morbid music is played at every oppor- 
tunity and only detracts from the game. 
The Attack quickly degenerates into a 
round of running after aliens and blasting 
them. 



Scores mount rapidly, but mean nothing 
at all, since the average player falls asleep 
before his ten ships are destroyed. At 
lower levels of play, the game is too easy 
and at higher levels it is too difficult, with 
up to twenty bugs scuttling around the 
screen after you. It costs $39.95 and is 
not worth buying. 

Football 

This game presents a reasonable simu- 
lation of football except that each play is 
predetermined by the player for each side 
and is then played out by the computer. 
This means that the plays are limited to 
those that the computer knows. Also no 
changes in plan can be made during a 
play, so that none of the players on either 
side can make independent moves. Despite 
this, the game is interesting, although a 
little slow to play. Another disadvantage 
is that it waits a predetermined length of 
time for all plays to be entered. This 
means that if both sides make up their 
minds quickly, they must still wait until 
time is up before play can begin. 

Football is more a game of strategy 
than of quick reflexes or coordination. 




Football. 



190 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



me Sinclair zx.su is innovative and powerful. 
Now there's a magazine to help you get 
the most out of it. 



Get in 

sync 




SYNC magazine is different from other 
personal computing magazines. Not just 
different because it is about a unique 
computer, the Sinclair ZX80 (and kit ver- 
sion, the MicroAce). But different be- 
cause of the creative and innovative phi- 
losophy of the editors. 

A Fascinating Computer 

The ZX80 doesn t have memory map- 
ped video. Thus the screen goes blank 
when a key is pressed. To some review- 
ers this is a disadvantage. To our editors 
this is a challenge. One suggested that 
games could be written to take advan- 
tage of the screen blanking. For exam- 
ple, how about a game where characters 
and graphic symbols move around the 
screen while it is blanked? The object 
would be to crack the secret code gov- 
erning the movements. Voila! A new 
game like Mastermind or Black Box 
uniquely for the ZX80. 

We made some interesting discoveries 
soon after setting up the machine. For 
instance, the CHR$ function is not limit- 
ed to a value between and 255, but 
cycles repeatedly through the code. 
CHR$ (9) and CHR$(265) will produce 
identical values. In other words, CHR$ 
operates in a MOD 256 fashion. We 
found that the " = " sign can be used se- 
veral times on a single line, allowing the 
logical evaluation of variables. In the 
Sinclair, LET X=Y=Z=W is a valid ex- 
pression. 

Or consider the TL$ function which 
strips a string of its initial character. At 
first, we wondered what practical value it 
had. Then someone suggested it would 
be perfect for removing the dollar sign 
from numerical inputs. 

Breakthroughs? Hardly But indicative 
of the hints and kinds you II find in every 
issue of SYNC. We intend to take the 
Sinclair to its limits and then push be- 
yond, finding new tricks and tips, new 
applications, new ways to do what 
couldn t be done before. SYNC functions 
on many levels, with tutorials for the be- 
ginner and concepts that will keep the 
pros coming back for more. We II show 
you how to duplicate commands avail- 
able in other Basics. And, perhaps, how 



to do things that can't be done on other 
machines. 

Many computer applications require 
that data be sorted. But did you realize 
there are over ten fundamentally differ- 
ent sorting algorithms? Many people 
settle for a simple bubble sort perhaps 
because it's described in so many pro- 
gramming manuals or because they ve 
seen it in another program. However, 
sort routines such as heapsort or Shell- 
Metzner are over 100 times as fast as a 
bubble sort and may actually use less 
memory. Sure, 1K of memory isn't a lot 
to work with, but it can be stretched 
much further by using innovative, clever 
coding. You'll find this type of help in 
SYNC 

Lots of Games and Applications 

Applications and software are the meat 
of SYNC. We recognize that along with 
useful, pragmatic applications, like finan- 
cial analysis and graphing, you II want 
games that are fun and challenging. In 
the charter issue of SYNC you'll find se- 
veral games. Acey Ducey is a card game 
in which the dealer (the computer) deals 
two cards face up. You then have an op- 
tion to bet depending upon whether you 
feel the next card dealt will have a value 
between the first two. 

In Hurkle, another game in the charter 
issue, you have to find a happy little 
Hurkle who is hiding on a 10 X 10 grid. In 
response to your guesses, the Hurkle 
sends our a clue telling you in which 
direction to look next. 

One of the most ancient forms of arith- 
metical puzzle is called a boomerang. ' 
The oldest recorded example is that set 
down by Nicomachus in his Arithmetica 
around 100 AD. You II find a computer 
version of this puzzle in SYNC. 

Hard-Hitting, Objective Evaluations 

By selecting the ZX80 or MicroAce as 
your personal computer you ve shown 
that you are an astute buyer looking for 
good performance, an innovative design 
and economical price. However, select- 
ing software will not be easy. That's 
where SYNC comes in. SYNC evaluates 
software packages and other peripherals 



and doesnt just publish manufacturer 
descriptions. We put each package 
through its paces and give you an in- 
depth, objective report of its strengths 
and weaknesses. 

SYNC is a Creative Computing pub- 
lication. Creative Computing is the num- 
ber 1 magazine of software and applica- 
tions with nearly 100,000 circulation. 
The two most popular computer games 
books in the world, Basic Computer 
Games and More Basic Computer 
Games (combined sales over 500,000) 
are published by Creative Computing. 
Creative Computing Software manufac- 
tures over 1 50 software packages for six 
different personal computers. 

Creative Computing, founded in 1974 
by David Ahl, is a well-established firm 
committed to the future of personal com- 
puting. We expect the Sinclair ZX80 to 
be a highly successful computer and 
correspondingly, SYNC to be a respect- 
ed and successful magazine. 

Order SYNC Today 

To order your subscription to SYNC, in 
the USA send $10 for one year (6 
issues), $18 for two years (12 issues) or 
$24 for three years (18 issues). Send 
order and payment to the address below 
or call MasterCard, Visa or American Ex- 
press orders to our toll-free number. 

Subscriptions in the UK are mailed by 
air and cost £ 10 for one year, £ 18 for 
two years or £ 25 for three years. Send 
order and payment to the UK address 
below. 

Canadian and other foreign surface 
subscriptions cost $15 per year or $27 
for two years and should be sent to the 
USA address. 

We guarantee your satisfaction or we 
will refund your entire subscription price. 

Needless to say, we can t fill up all the 
pages without your help. So send in your 
programs, articles, hints and tips. 
Remember, illustrations and screen 
photos make a piece much more inter- 
esting. Send in your reviews of peripher- 
als and software too— but be warned: re- 
views must be in-depth and objective 
We want you to respect what you read on 
the pages of SYNC so be honest and 
forthright in the material you send us. Of 
course we pay for contributions— just 
don t expect to retire on it. 

The exploration has begun. Join us. 



The magazine for Sinclair ZX80 users 




39 East Hanover Avenue 

Morris Plains, NJ 07950, USA 

Toll free 800-631 -81 12 

(In NJ 201-540-0445) 

27 Andrew Close, Stoke Golding 
Nuneaton CV13 6EL, England 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



191 



CIRCLE 215 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Tl Modules, continued... 



The graphics and sound are neat and add 
a great deal. All decisions are made with 
the clock ticking away, so slow decisions 
are penalized. Everything considered, the 
game is a good one. It costs $29.95. 

Hunt the Wumpus 

Hunt the Wumpus is loosely based on 
the Wumpus games in 101 Basic Computer 
Games and More Basic Computer Games 
from Creative Computing. The object is 
to shoot the Wumpus with your single 
arrow before he eats you or you fall into a 
pit. The game takes place in a maze. You 
find the Wumpus by observing whether 
there are blood spots on the walls of the 
room you happen to be in at the moment. 
Blood spots only appear on the walls two 
rooms or fewer removed from the Wumpus. 
Options include various difficulties of maze; 
"blindfold," where you can only see the 
room or corridor you are in; "express," 
where you go from room to room without 
seeing the corridor at all; and finally, 
"express" and "blindfold" at the same 
time. 

Perhaps the best features of the game 
are the graphics and sound. They are 
both very good and make what could be 
a boring game into one that should be 
very entertaining for young children.The 
module costs $24.95 and is quite worth- 
while. 

Household Budget Management 

This module provides a very concise, 
easy to use and convenient method of 
keeping track of a personal or household 
budget. All records can be kept on cassette 
or disk. The analysis portion of the module 
is limited, but it does show quite adequately 
where budget excesses occur and where 
a little extra money can be spent. Many 
categories can be defined and the areas 
in which money is spent can be broken 
down to individual items if desired. Records 
are displayed in either graphic or tabular 
form. 

This module provides a good start to 
mastering the intricacies of household 
budgeting, and to those of us with few 
arithmetic or accounting skills it could 
provide a very useful service. The module 
costs $39.95. 




9 7 8 



< • i . ROM NTS 



Household Budget Management. 



Physical Fitness 

Physical Fitness is a module that designs 
a course of exercises for you. First, 
however, your present degree of physical 
fitness must be ascertained. This is done 
by measuring your pulse rate (instructions 
are given) before and after exercising. All 
exercises are demonstrated by a little 
mannequin on the screen. 

Everything that is done by this module, 
except for a few little tricks, could be 
done just as easily and more cheaply with 
a book on physical fitness and pencil and 
paper. 

The module might be useful for those 
who have to be bullied or led by the hand 
in order to follow a regular exercise 
program. The other advantage of the 
module is that it does allow you to keep 
track of your progress by saving records 
on cassette. The program costs $29.95. 



Weight Control and Nutrition 

This module attempts to outline a 
personalized diet for you. The main 
drawback is that the module will only 
provide menus and lists of foods that it 
already knows. This means that a partici- 
pant following the diet has only a very 
limited list of foods from which to choose. 
The diets themselves seem well balanced 
and probably provide all the necessary 
vitamins and minerals. 

The type of diet and daily intake of 
calories are determined by the computer 
based on your present age, weight and 
height. If the computer thinks that you 
have unusual requirements, it says so and 
then goes on to outline the best diet it can 
manage for you. The module keeps records 
of changes in weight and food intake on 
cassette or disk and will change your diet 
accordingly. Several people can follow 
diets from the computer at the same 
time. 

Naturally, this program cannot match 
one provided by a nutritionist, but it does 
make up menus for each meal and provide 
recipes, so it might be useful for someone 
who does not have time to think about 
the content of his diet. The module costs 
$59.95, which seems somewhat high con- 
sidering the limited service it provides. 

Video Graphs 

Video Graphs is an unusual module in 
that it seems to be both entertaining and 
useful. On closer examination, however, 
it turns out that the serious applications 
are less useful than they appeared at first 
glance. 

The module provides two modes. One 
is a dynamic color display mode with five 
variations, some of which include sound. 
They have no practical application and 
initial interest in the displays palls after a 
very short time. 



The other mode allows you to create 
your own pictures using predefined shapes 
or by sketching high-resolution pictures. 
Some very nice pictures can be made 
with these utilities and the pictures can 
then be saved on cassette. Unfortunately, 
all you can do with these pictures is reload 
them, so they cannot be used in programs. 
Nevertheless, this is a nice application. 

Another feature of this part of the 
module, is the game of Life in full color. 
Several predefined shapes are available, 
or you can create your own. 

Despite its limitations, this module should 
be of interest to any TI 99/4 owner 
interested in computer graphics. It costs 
$19.95 and is quite a good value. 

Early Learning Fun 

This is not one of TFs better educational 
software packages. The purpose of the 
module is to teach numbers and letters of 
the alphabet and generally to improve 
correlation in the child's mind between 
shapes and letters and numbers. It can 
also serve as an introduction to the 
computer for very young children. 

Most of the ideas are sound, but since 
the instructions are far too complex for a 
child who cannot even read, it is necessary 
for an adult to help the child all the time. 
Each section of the module progresses in 
a logical order from the last one, and 
when the entire series of programs is 
finished, the child should have gained a 
few ideas about numbers, counting, shapes, 
colors, letters and the alphabet. 




Early Learning Fun. 

One of the main disadvantages is that 
all yes/no answer type questions must be 
answered by pressing the space bar for 
yes and the key for no! This is a bit 
complex for a young child and does not 
reinforce the idea of associating letters 
with words. This is not too serious a fault, 
however, since an adult must be present 
anyway. The module costs $29.95. 

Number Magic 

Number Magic is an arithmetic drill for 
children aged six or over. It consists of a 
reasonably standard type of program that 
asks the student to solve a series of 
problems using addition, multiplication, 



192 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Now NRI takes you inside the 
new TRS-80 Model III microcomputer 

to train you at home as the 

new breed of computer specialist! 



NRI teams up with Radio Shack 
advanced technology to teach 
you how to use, program and 

service state-of-the-art 
microcomputers. . . 

It's no longer enough to be just a 
programmer or a technician. With mi- 
crocomputers moving into the fabric of 
our lives (over 250,000 of the TRS-80™ 
alone have been sold), interdiscipli- 
narv skills are demanded. And NRI can 
prepare you with the first course of its 
kind, covering the complete world of 
the microcomputer. 

Learn At Home 
in Your Spare Time 

With NRI training, the programmer 
gains practical knowledge of hardware, 
enabling him to design simpler, more effec- 
tive programs. And, with advanced pro- 
gramming skills, the technician can test 
and debug systems quickly and easily. 

Only NRI gives you both kinds of 
training with the convenience of home 





Training includes new TRS-80 Model III micro- 
computer, 6-function LCD Beckman multimeter, 
and the NRI Discovery Lab with hundreds of tests 
and experiments. 

(TRS-KO is a trademark of the Radio Shack division of Tandv Corp ) 
CIRCLE 288 ON READER SERVICE 



study. No classroom pressures, no night 
school, no gasoline wasted. You learn at 
your convenience, at your own pace. Yet 
vou're alwavs backed bv the NRI staff and 

# * 4 

your instructor, answering questions, giving 
you guidance, and available for special help 
if vou need it. 

4 

You Get Your Own Computer 
to Learn On and Keep 

NRI training is hands-on training, 
with practical experiments and demonstra- 
tions as the very foundation of vour knowl- 
edge. You don't just program your computer, 
you go inside it... watch how circuits in- 
teract . . . interface with other systems . . . 
gain a real insight into 
its nature. 

You also work 
with an advanced liquid 
crystal display hand- 
held multimeter and 
the NRI Discoverv Lab, 
performing over 60 
separate experiments. 
You learn troubleshoot- 
ing procedures and gain 
greater understanding of 
the information. Both 
microcomputer and 
equipment come as part 
of your training for you 
to use and keep. 

CARD 



Send for Free Catalog. . . 
No Salesman Will Call 

Get all the details on this exciting 
course in NRI's free, 100-page catalog. It 
shows all equipment, lesson outlines, and 
facts on other electronics courses such as 
Complete Communications with CB, 
TV/ Audio and Video, Digital Electronics, 
and more. Send todav, no salesman will ever 
bother vou. Keep up with the latest technol- 
ogy as you leani on the latest model of the 
world's most popular computer. If coupon 
has been used, write to NRI Schools, 3939 
Wisconsin Ave., Washington, IXC. 20016. 




i 
i 
i 
i 
i 
i 
i 
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i 
i 



NRI Schools 
McGraw-Hill Continuing 

Education Center 
W9 Wisconsin Avenue 
Washington, DC. 20016 



NO SALESMAN WILL CALL. 

Please check for one free catalog only 

□ Computer Electronics including 
Microcomputers 

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□ Electronics Design lechnologv 

□ Digital Electronics 

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Licenses • Mobile CB • Aircraft • Marine 







All career courses 
approved under (il bill 
□ Check for details 



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□ Small Engine Servicing 

□ Appliance Servicing 

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□ Air Conditioning, Heating. 
Refrigeration. & Solar lecnnologv 

□ Building Construction 



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Tl Modules, continued... 

division or subtraction. There are various 
difficulty levels, ranging from very basic 
problems to extremely difficult ones, and 
it is possible to race the clock or solve the 
problems without a time limit. Each test 
results in a percentage score. Problems 
can be set up in advance to test a specific 
area for a particular student. 

There are also several tests that will 
help to develop quick responses to arith- 
metic questions. Problems can be set up 
to ask for missing numbers or for complete 
answers. 

Despite the extra features of this program 
it is based on a straightforward and limited 
type of program and will be of value only 
as a practice drill. The module costs 
$19.95. 

Beginning Grammar 

This module is one of the best educa- 
tional programs I have seen. It teaches 
elementary rules of grammar and to 
identification of nouns, verbs, pronouns, 
adjectives, adverbs, prepositions and 
conjunctions. The program is crammed 
with good color graphics and sound. 
Success is rewarded and failure results in 
a quick lesson review of the subject matter 
being tested. 

Tests consist of asking the student to 
identify the type of word required in a 




Beginning Grammar. 



sentence. The module does a very good 
job and should keep the student's interest 
for long periods. Suffice it to say that this 
program is all that educational software 
should be. It contains good graphics, sound 
and programming. A definite winner!! 

The module costs $29.95 and is well 
worth the price. 

Early Reading 

This is another excellent program from 
TI and should be of great interest to young 
children. It should be mentioned that it 
requires the Solid State Speech Synthesizer 
from TI to be effective. The program 
teaches children to read by showing them 
a picture, then telling them what the picture 
is by using real speech, then showing them 
the word for the picture. 




Early Reading. 



The student is then required to find the 
word in a sentence, then to find other 
simple words in the same sentence. This 
is done with several words and then as a 
reward, the student hears a short story 
using the words he has learned. 

Finally, a comprehension test is given 
to check that everything is fully understood. 
There are twelve scenarios available, each 
of which is very interesting and uses good 
graphics and sound. 

After completing the lessons, the child 
is given a chance to create his own story 
by answering simple questions put to him 
by the computer. Even at $54.95 this 
module is a good buy. 

All of these modules are manufactured 
by and available from Texas Instruments 
in Dallas, Texas. □ 



r 




Can a computer mow your lawn? Not yet. 

But a flowchart can show you how to 
make money cutting five lawns a day. The 
flowchart is easy. Mowing the lawns is still 
hard work. 

Dr. Sylvia Charpand Marion Ball wanted 
a way to introduce basic computer concepts 
to children in grades 5 to 9 of the Philadelphia 
City Schools. So they identified some tasks 
that kids understood like mowing lawns, 
issuing paychecks and controlling traffic 
lights. They showed how computers are used 
in these tasks. 



_ Computer 

Lawnmower 



> 



Flowcharts - A basic concept 

They devised flowcharts. They located 
scores of photos. And they found an artistic 
high school student to illustrate these con- 
cepts with lively full-color drawings. 

They then wrote a light-hearted but infor- 
mative text to tie it all together. It talked 
about kinds of computers, what goes on 
inside the machine, the language of the 
computer and how computers work for us. 

They took the problem of averaging class 
grades and showed how a simple yrogram 
could be written to do this job. 

Well-qualified authors 

Marion Ball has written other books on 
computer literacy. Sylvia Charp is the director 
of educational compuuting for Philadelphia 
City Schools. They pooled their talents to 
produce this book, Be A Computer Literate. 

This easy- to-read book explains how com- 
puters are used in medicine, law enforce- 
ment, art, business, transportation and ed- 
ucation. It's interesting and understand- 
able. 



Too much demand 

The Bell System distributed 50,000 copies 
to schools throughout the U.S. but they 
couldn't meet the continuing demand. So 
Creative Computing Press now distributes 
the book. It's just $3.95 plus $1 .00 shipping 
and handling. Send name and address plus 
payment or credit card number and expiration 
date to Creative Computing Press, Morris 
Plains, NJ 07950. Visa, MasterCard and 
American Express orders may also be called 
in toll-free to 800-631-81 1 2 (in NJ 201-540- 
0445). 

Order yours today. If, after reading it, you 
do not feel that you are "computer literate,'' 
return it for a full refund plus your postage 
to send it back. 

creative 
computing 

Morris Plains, NJ 07950 
Toll-free 800-631 -81 12 

(In NJ 201-540-0445) 



CIRCLE 350 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



194 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



The story behind the two best selling 
computer games books in the world. 

Computer 

Games 



by David H.Ahl 

Everybody likes games. Children like tic 
tac toe. Gamblers like blackjack. Trekkies 
like Star Trek. Almost everyone has a favor- 
ite game or two. 

It Started in 1971 

Ten years ago when I was at Digital 
Equipment Corp. (DEC), we wanted a pain- 
less way to show reluctant educators that 
computers weren't scary or difficult to use. 
Games and simulations seemed like a good 
method. 



So I put out a call to all our customers to 
send us their best computer games. The 
response was overwhelming. I got 21 ver- 
sions of blackjack, 15 of nim and 12 of 
battleship. 

From this enormous outpouring I se- 
lected the 90 best games and added 1 1 that 
I had written myself for a total of 101. I 
edited these into a book called 101 Basic 
Computer Games which was published by 
DEC. It still is. 

When I left DEC in 1974 I asked for the 
rights to print the book independently. 
They agreed as long as the name was 
changed. 



Contents of Basic Computer Games (right) 
and More Basic Computer Games (below). 



Artillery-3 

Baccarat 

Bible Quiz 

Big 6 

Binary 

Blackbox 

Bobstones 

Bocce 

Boga II 

Bumbrun 

Bridge-It 

Camel 

Chase 

Chuck-A-Luck 

Close Encounters 

Column 

Concentration 

Condot 

Convoy 

Corral 

Cup 

Dealer's Choice 

Deepspace 

Defuse 

Dodgem 

Doors 

Drag 

Dr. Z 

Eliza 

Father 

Flip 

Four In A Row 

Geo war 

Grand Prix 

Guess-It 

ICBM 

Inkblot 

Joust 

Jumping Balls 

Keno 

LGame 



Life Expectancy 

Lissajous 

Magic Square 

Man-Eating Rabbit 

Maneuvers 

Mastermind 

Masterbagels 

Matpuzzle 

Maze 

Millionaire 

Minotaur 

Motorcycle Jump 

Nomad 

Not One 

Obstacle 

Octrix 

Pasart 

Pasart 2 

Pinball 

Rabbit Chase 

Road race 

Rotate 

Safe 

Scales 

Schmoo 

Seabattle 

Sea war 

Shoot 

Smash 

Strike 9 

Tennis 

Tickertape 

TV Plot 

Twonky 

Two-to-Ten 

UFO 

Under & Over 

Van Gam 

Warfish 

Word Search Puzzle 

Wumpus 1 

Wumpus 2 



Introduction 


Hi-Lo 


The Basic Language 


High l-Q 


Conversion to Other 


Hockey 


Basics 


Horserace 


Acey Ducey 


Hurkle 


Amazing 


Kinema 


Animal 


King 


Awari 


Letter 


Bagels 


Life 


Banner 


Life For Two 


Basketball 


Literature Quiz 


Batnum 


Love 


Battle 


Lunar LEM Rocket 


Blackjack 


Master Mind 


Bombardment 


Math Dice 


Bombs Away 


Mugwump 


Bounce 


Name 


Bowling 


Nicomachus 


Boxing 


Nim 


Bug 


Number 


Bullfight 


One Check 


Bullseye 


Orbit 


Bunny 


Pizza 


Buzzword 


Poetry 


Calendar 


Poker 


Change 


Queen 


Checkers 


Reverse 


Chemist 


Rock, Scissors, Paper 


Chief 


Roulette 


Chomp 


Russian Roulette 


Civil War 


Salvo 


Combat 


Sine Wave 


Craps 


Slalom 


Cube 


Slots 


Depth Charge 


Splat 


Diamond 


Stars 


Dice 


Stock Market 


Digits 


Super Star Trek 


Even Wins 


Synonym 


Flip Flop 


Target 


Football 


3-D Plot 


Fur Trader 


3-D Tic-Tac-Toe 


Golf 


Tic Tac toe 


Gomoko 


Tower 


Guess 


Train 


Gunner 


Trap 


Hammurabi 


23 Matches 


Hangman 


War 


Hello 


Weekday 


He xa pawn 


Word 



Converted to Microsoft Basic 

The games in the original book were in 
many different dialects of Basic. So Steve 
North and I converted all the games to 
standard Microsoft Basic, expanded the 
descriptions and published the book under 
the new name Basic Computer Games. 

Over the next three years, people sent in 
improved versions of many of the games 
along with scores of new ones. So in 1979, 
we totally revised and corrected Basic 
Computer Games and published a com- 
pletely new companion volume of 84 ad- 
ditional games called More Basic Com- 
puter Games. This edition is available in 
both Microsoft Basic and TRS-80 Basic for 
owners of the TRS-80 computer. 

Today Basic Computer Games is in its 
fifth printing and More Basic Computer 
Games is in its second. Combined sales are 
over one half million copies making them 
the best selling pair of books in recrea- 
tional computing by a wide margin. There 
are many imitators, but all offer a fraction of 
the number of games and cost far more. 

The games in these books include classic 
board games like checkers. They include 
challenging simulation games like Camel 
(get across the desert on your camel) and 
Super Star Trek. There are number games 
like Guess My Number, Stars and Battle of 
Numbers. You'll find gambling games like 
blackjack, keno, and poker. All told there 
are 185 different games in these two 
books. 

Whether you're just getting started with 
computers or a proficient programmer, 
you'll find something of interest. You'll find 
15-line games and 400-line games and 
everything in between. 

The value offered by these books is out- 
standing. Every other publisher has raised 
the price of their books yet these sell for 
the same price as they did in 1974. 

Moneyback Guarantee 

Examine one or both of these books and 
key some games into your computer. If 
you're not completely satisfied we'll refund 
the full purchase price plus your return 
postage. 

Basic Computer Games costs only $7.50 
and More Basic Computer Games just 
$7.95 for either the Microsoft or TRS-80 
edition ( please specify your choice on your 
order). Both books together are $15. Send 
payment plus $2.00 shipping and handling 
to Creative Computing Press, Morris 
Plains, NJ 07950. Visa, MasterCard and 
American Express orders should include 
card number and expiration date. Charge 
card orders may also be called in toll-free to 
800-631-8112 (in NJ 201-540-0445). 

Order today to turn your computer into 
the best game player on the block. 

creative 
computing 

Morris Plains, NJ 07950 
Toll-free 800-631 -81 12 
(In NJ 201-540-0445) 
CIRCLE 350 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



A Comparison 



CP/M Database 
Management Systems 




> 10 

o| 

software 5 



Glenn A Hart 



Microcomputers have been used for a 
tremendous variety of tasks ranging from 
scientific research to environmental con- 
trol. As hardware has become increasingly 
dependable and sophisticated, two main 
areas of specialization have emerged for 
which the microcomputer is especially 
suited. 

The first applications avenue in which 
microcomputers have made major inroads 
against minicomputers and mainframes 
has been word processing, an application 
with no serious execution speed require- 
ments and with relatively limited storage 
needs. Comprehensive word processing 
software packages, including WordStar, 
Magic Wand, Spellbinder and many others, 
rival and in many aspects exceed the 
capabilities of dedicated word processors 
costing many times more than a micro- 
computer hardware /software system. The 
result has been a dramatic increase in the 
number of micros in use in business envi- 
ronments. 

Recent months have seen increased 
emphasis on the second application area: 
use of microcomputers as data base man- 
agement tools. A data base manager (DBM) 
is a program system which manipulates 
collected data, facilitating information 
entry, updating, additions, deletions and 
the generation of useful reports. 

The utility of such a tool is obviously 
based on the need to control large amounts 
of data, since there is not much rationale 
behind using sophisticated equipment to 
handle data that could be better maintained 
on a simple list or perhaps on a limited 
number of 3" by 5" cards. This fact helps 
explain the new interest in microcom- 
puter database management. While there 
have been some usable micro DBM's avail- 



Glenn A. Hart. 51 Church Road, Monsey, NY 
10952. 



able for some time (as well as some real 
clinkers), two main factors have contributed 
to the recent proliferation of first rate 
database software. 

To some degree the new DBMs are 
part of the maturation of microcomputers 
in general. As the number of advanced 
micros in use increases, software houses 
find it increasingly easy to justify the major 
investment in software development time 
and expense required to produce a com- 
petent DBM. 

The other contributing element is the 
increase in microcomputer storage capa- 
city—both volatile memory and archival 



The utility of a DBM is 

based on the need 
to control large amounts 

of data. 



storage. DBMs often require large amounts 
of core memory to handle data manipula- 
tion and arrays, and the significant reduc- 
tions in memory cost and the resultant 
expansion of common memory size have 
allowed DBM designers to use more 
sophisticated programming techniques. 

Even more important is the increasing 
use of double density formats on floppy 
disks and the common use of 8", large- 
capacity drives. Both of these techniques 
tremendously increase the amount of data 
which can be on line at reasonable cost. 
Hard disks are now beginning to be 
available for microcomputers, and new 
low-cost, compact fixed disk drives are 
on the horizon which will dramatically 
increase affordable storage capacity by 
one or two orders of magnitude. 



There is a large body of theory dealing 
with database structure and implementa- 
tion. While there sometimes is not too 
great a difference in the way databases 
with different structures can be used, each 
type has its advantages and weaknesses. 
The distinctions between relational, hier- 
archical and other database types are 
beyond the scope of this article, but since 
several types are represented in the pro- 
grams to be examined, some of the opera- 
tional and functional differences should 
surface. 

The average DBM user may be more 
concerned with other factors. Most DBMs 
have some restrictions on record and field 
size, the number of records a database 
can contain, whether database definitions 
can be changed after data has been entered, 
etc. Other major distinctions involve 
memory requirements, whether a host 
language is required, and speed of execu- 
tion (usually a function of whether the 
program has been coded in assembly 
language, a compiled high level language 
or uses an interpreter). Finally, cost may 
well be a concern, since the DBMs as a 
class are probably the most expensive 
software products available for microcom- 
puters. 

This article will examine in some detail 
several of the newest database managers 
and related software products designed 
for use with the CP/M operating system. 
While there are reasonably competent 
DBMs for other systems, the large storage 
requirements of serious DBM use pretty 
much dictate an operating system with 
the ability to control large volume core 
and disk storage. Since DBM has many 
functions to perform, these programs are 
often complex (in fact, a major evaluation 
criterion is the "human engineering" aspect 
of how easy a DBM is to use). While an 
article such as this can not examine all 
the details of each program, it is hoped 



196 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




IBM 

w 



IMP 










•:• 






HO 
CAL NASA 









EF HUTTON 
APPL 











DCASTING AT&T 
HONEYWELL 























TRW 

MERRILL LYNCH E I DU PONT NEW YORK LIFE 
ITT-CANNON PRICE WATERHOUSE US ARMY 
UNIV OF CALIFORNIA G E UNIV OF MANITOBA 
XEROX LAWRENCE LIVERMORE LAB 
OWENS CORNING SHEARSON LOEB RH 

wAoLc NcWa Nci 

















HUGHES RESEARCH 
ARTHUR YOUNG & CO MOUNTAIN COMPUT 
JOHNS HOPKINS MINOLTA SHERATON CO 
MCDONNELL DOUGLAS 















Impressed? 

Thanks to customers like these, DB MASTER is 
the second fastest selling business software package 
for the Apple II. 

Even more impressive are the comments from 
some of our customers. As Mr. M. Robert McElwain, 
Senior VP of the Bank of Louisville states, "After hav- 
ing purchased more than 400 software packages, I'm 
still trying to establish a list of top ten that I whole- 
heartedly endorse. I don't have ten, but I'M ONE 
CLOSER— DB MASTER has been added to the list. 
It's a realtreat to acquire those which are truly out- 
standing. DB MASTER is quality software which I 
highly recommend." 



Equally impressive is the range of features built 
into DB MASTER. As Mr. McElwain continues, "I 
could comment on the screen formatting, short forms, 
security, auto date . . . but where do I stop? With over 
100 Apples, we think we recognize good software 
when we use it." 

Our special thanks to Mr. McElwain. And to all our 
equally impressed customers. 

As they all know, in today's highly competitive 
marketplace, a good name is hard to come by. 



DB MASTER is a registered trademark of Barney Stone and Alpine 
Software Inc. Apple II is a registered trademark of Apple Computer 

^1981 Stoneware Microcomputer Products 



/-~ 


^ ^ ^^^ **-~*^M NC 'N^^T-v l^»-^— - ^- ^ ^~ 


^^^TM 




•ul (1*1 T ^i v 1 


I 


^._. 


3x33^^ 


^ 


50 Belvedere Street San Rafael CA 94901 (415)454 6500 



CIRCLE 307 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



DBM Systems, continued... 



that the reader will be able to evaluate 
the major functional distinctions between 
different programs and determine the most 
suitable one for his specific needs. 



ing that the various options available at 
any time are clearly displayed. Most 
commands are single keystrokes, with either 
upper or lower case accepted. Operator 



A = ADD A RECORD L = 

B = BUILD A SELECTIVE SUB-FILE M = 

C = CREATE A FILE P = 

D = DISPLAY T.I.M. DIRECTORY R = 
F = FORM LETTER GENERATION ROUTINE S 

I = INSPECT, EDIT, OR SEARCH A FILE X 



LIST FILE SPECIFICATIONS 
FILE MAINTENANCE 

■ PRINT REPORTS OR LISTS 
RETURN TO SYSTEM 

■ SORT A FILE 
= EXIT T.I.M. PROGRAM 



Table 1. Main TIM Menu. 



Total Information Management 

The first DBM we will examine is the 
Total Information Management system, 
invariably designated by its acronym TIM. 
Since many functions are common to all 
DBMs, we will examine TIM in somewhat 
more detail than the other programs 
reviewed to give a general view of what 
DBMs do. 

TIM is written in Microsoft Basic, and 
is available for either the Version 5.0 or 
later interpreter or in a completely com- 
piled version which does not require the 
Microsoft host at all. The system requires 
48K of RAM, an 80 x 24 video terminal 
with clear screen and home functions and 
a hard copy printer. These requirements 
are similar to those of the other DBMs to 
be examined later, except that most other 
programs require the video terminal to 
support cursor addressing as well. The 
program system is comprised of a dozen 
or so distinct modules, and the large 
amount of total code really makes multiple 
drives essential. As with all programs that 
use the Microsoft Basic Compiler, the 
executable files in the compiled version 
are very large. The compiled system cannot 
be used unless all the compiled files reside 
on one disk, making 8" double density 
disks absolutely mandatory. 

TIM's record and file limitations are 
less restrictive than some and not as flexible 
as others: a data file may contain up to 
32,000 records (disk space permitting), 
but each data record may contain no more 
than 24 fields. Each field can be no more 
than 40 characters long, with a total record 
limitation of 250 characters. TIM stores 
records as Microsoft strings, and there is 
no way to program around the limitations 
inherent in Microsoft's string length. These 
record limitations occur in many other 
DBMs, with a record length limitation of 
around 255 characters rather common. 
Such a record length is satisfactory for 
most normal applications, but that is a 
specification which a potential purchaser 
should consider carefully. 

Human Engineering 

One of TIM's strong points is the human 
engineering that has been incorporated 
into every aspect of its operation. The 
program is completely menu driven, mean- 



prompts are generally clear and self-explan- 
atory. Such careful design makes for simple 
user training and easy operation and greatly 
reduces the need to refer to the program 
documentation (which is excellent; clear, 
unambiguous and well organized). 

TIM allows data to be stored on disks 
other than the main program disk. Each 
disk which the progam will use must be 
initialized, since TIM maintains a special 
directory of files stored in TIM format. 
This directory is not the same as the normal 
CP/M directory, which can be lead to a 
bit of confusion if the user makes errors. 
The file name can appear in the normal 
directory but TIM may not acknowledge 
its existence. This doesn't happen unless 
something rather foolish is done. 



While there sometimes 

is not too great a 

difference in the way 

databases with different 

structures can be used, 

each type has its 

advantages and 

weaknesses. 



Once the program is started (with 
MBasic TIM for the interpreted version 
or just TIM for the compiled programs), 
an initial banner is displayed and the next 
program is loaded. Whenever TIM is 
loading another program module or is 
performing some time-consuming function, 
this information is displayed on the screen, 
which helps reduce operator anxiety when 
it appears that nothing is happening. The 
interpreted TIM can take a while to chain 
in each new program module due to the 
internal program design, which passes the 
value of all variables in the resident 
program to the next program through 
Microsoft's ALL parameter to the CHAIN 
command. Since the Microsoft compiler 
does not yet support CHAIN with COM- 
MON, the compiled version of TIM writes 
the variables necessary for the next pro- 



gram out to disk before loading the next 
module, but the load times for the compiled 
version are also long because of the large 
size of the modules themselves. 

The main TIM Menu is shown in Table 
1. Each of the main functions available 
can be reached through this menu, and 
each module returns to this menu upon 
completion of its task. 

Creating a File 

The first step is to create a file. As with 
all DBMs, the system must be told how 
the data files are organized, what each 
field's name, length and data type are, 
etc. TIM recognizes six field types: strings, 
numbers, dollar amounts, dates, inverted 
names and calculated fields. Most of these 
are standard, but the last two are not. 
Inverted names are a great convenience 
which allows entering a name in the normal 
John J. Jones order but which instructs 
the system to invert the order to Jones, 
John J. for sorting purposes. This allows 
names to be arranged in alphabetical order 
by last name without the necessity of 
entering them artificially. If this inversion 
is not needed or desired, a normal string 
field can be used instead. 

Calculated fields are the result of arith- 
metic manipulation of two other fields or 
one field and a constant. Thus a field 
could be designated TOTAL VALUE and 
be calculated by multiplying ORDER 
QUANTITY and UNIT PRICE fields. 
Calculated and number fields may have 
up to four decimal place precision. 

Access to the file can be limited by 
establishing a four position password. If a 
password is defined, no operations can be 
performed in a file without providing the 
correct input. The password can be 
changed with the File Maintenance util- 
ity. 

Records are stored on disk in the order 
in which they are entered. Any field can 
be designated a Key Field, which means 
that the individual records can be accessed 
in the sorted sequence of the key value. 
The main, or "major," key can be followed 
by any number of secondary, or "minor," 
keys to further specify the exact sorting 
order desired. TIM creates special key 
files which contain numbers which are 
pointers to the next record in the sorted 
order (either ascending or descending) of 
the chosen key. This "linked list" method 
provides fast access to any desired 
record. 

While it is tempting to define all fields 
as keys to handle any possible sorting 
contingency, a DBM user soon learns that 
increasing the number of keys results in 
much slower sorting and merging opera- 
tions. Most DBMs require that keys be 
designated only when the file is structured. 
TIM provides the unusual ability to define 
keys after the file is defined and data has 
been entered. A sort utility is provided 



198 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



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1981 by Metatronics Corp. 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



■ 



199 



CIRCLE 228 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



DBM Systems, continued... 

for this specific purpose; normally all 
sorting and merging operations are com- 
pletely automatic. 

A defined format can be stored in a 
special file called the Create Library. The 
contents of the library can be recalled at 
any time to determine the file structure 
or to use a pre-defined format to create a 
different data file. TIM maintains such 
libraries in several of its operating modules, 
which is convenient in reducing or elimi- 
nating the need to keep written records 
of file layouts. 

Once a file structure has been defined 
and an actual data file created with the 
Create module, data can be entered with 
the Add a Record module. All fields to be 
entered are displayed simultaneously on 
the screen, with the defined length of 
each field displayed as a row of dashes. 
Screen format is quite similar to that used 
in MicroPro's sophisticated key-to-disk 
utility DataStar. Entries are checked for 
appropriate data type and length. Infor- 
mation from previous records can be used 
again by entering a period, mistakes can 
be corrected before a field is completely 
entered by backing up or re-entering the 
entire record, and the record can be re- 
displayed after corrections. Null fields 
(entered with a carriage return) receive 
all 9's or the ASCII character "< M so 
they will be sorted to the end of a sort list. 
Any calculated fields are figured immedi- 
ately and displayed on the screen. When 
the record entry is complete the newly 
entered data are merged into the index 
files in their proper order. 

The merging process can be painfully 
slow if the number of records entered or 
the number of previously existing records 
is large. More time is consumed as the 
number of key fields increases. While the 
time required is much less for the compiled 
version, even the faster version is not up 
to the speeds which can be obtained with 
some DBMs coded in assembly language 
(note the "some"; writing in assembly 
language does not guarantee speed). 

Editing 

Every DBM has some provisions to 
inspect and edit individual records. The 
TIM module for this function is extremely 
flexible and powerful. A file can be 
examined either in the order in which it 
was entered or in order of any key field. 
Several commands permit jumping around 
in the file to specified records, moving 
forward or backward any number of 
records, etc. 

Any record can be located by searching 
for specific data in any of its fields. TIM 
allows both sequential and sorted searches, 
and will automatically choose the most 
efficient mode. Sub-strings can be input 
so the entire contents of a field do not 
have to be entered, but in this case only 
sequential searching is possible. TIM uses 
a binary search mode if the search string 



is complete and the field being searched 
is a key field, resulting in extremely fast 
location. Sorted searching will find only 
the first record meeting the search criterion, 
while with sequential searching the user 
has the option of continuing the search. 
In either case, the located record can be 
output to the system printer if desired. 

A record can be deleted, in which case 
it is marked as deleted but not removed 
from the file unless a File Compression 
utility in the File Maintenance program is 
used. This allows deleted records to be 
reclaimed if necessary. 



The normal tabular 

report generation 

module is very 

powerful. 



Each record is displayed with its com- 
plete field titles and the specific data for 
that record. In addition, the record 
number, status (deleted or non-deleted), 
direction (forward or backward movement) 
and the search mode (sequential or sorted) 
is displayed. The Beginning-of-File or End- 
of-File records are also so indicated. 

Updating a record is as simple as entering 
U IT and changing the data in any field. 
Fields which are to be left unchanged are 
merely skipped over with a carriage return. 
If any records are updated, TIM automa- 
tically merges the new information into 
the data file at the completion of the 
editing process. 



A DBM user soon learns 

that Increasing the 

number of keys results 

in much slower sorting 

and merging 

operations. 



An important function of a DBM is to 
selectively extract specific data from a 
large data base. TIM's Build a Selective 
Sub-File module performs this function. 
Extracted data can be displayed on the 
user terminal, printed on the system list 
device or routed to a separate file con- 
taining only the desired data. If printed 
data are requested, TIM prompts for the 
number of the fields the user wishes to 
print and outputs a nicely tabulated report. 
Search criteria can be stored in a Library 
file for reuse in performing similar extrac- 
tions in the future or on other data files. 



The search criteria can be built using 
seven types of relational statements. 
Deleted records or non-deleted records 
can be specified; these are convenient in 
determining which records have been 
marked for deletion prior to compressing 
the file or for listing only records which 
have not been so marked. The designated 
field can be compared to either a constant 
or the contents of another field using the 
relational operations GT (greater than), 
LT (less than), EQ (equal to), NE (not 
equal to), GE (greater than or equal to), 
LE (less than or equal to) and BV (between 
two values). Sub-strings, indicated by the 
starting and ending positions of a string, 
can be related to a constant and a string 
can be searched to determine if it contains 
a specified constant. These commands 
can be combined in any complexity, and 
provide a tremendously flexible searching 
and extraction facility. 

Output 

Once all the data have been entered, 
updated, extracted, etc., the output most 
often desired is either a report of some 
kind, mailing labels or form letters. TIM 
is unique in providing the ability to generate 
all three kinds of printed output. 

Mailing labels are created with the List 
Generation module (a slightly confusing 
nomenclature). Up to four labels across 
can be produced. A label is considered a 
block of text, and TIM allows defining a 
block in many useful ways. Each line of a 
block can contain any field from the data 
file, truncated to a user specified length if 
desired, or a constant string for identifi- 
cation purposes. The tabular position of 
a field or string on each line can also be 
specified to allow more than one field to 
appear on each line of a block. A list 
format can be stored in a List Library for 
future use. 

The normal tabular report generation 
module is very powerful. The user can 
specify which fields to include, constant 
or variable (entered at the time the report 
is generated) titles and several other factors. 
TIM will automatically determine the best 
tabulation and form layout. Three different 
fields may be summarized and evaluated 
using a broad spectrum of analytical tools, 
including sub-totals, grand-totals, 
minimum/maximum, record counts, mean, 
variance, standard deviation, etc. These 
summarizations can be specified for major 
and minor break points of each of the 
summarized fields. As usual, a Report 
Library stores report formats for review 
and future use. 

As if all this were not enough, TIM 
also includes a usable word processor! 
While its main purpose is to generate 
form letters with parameter substitution 
from a TIM data base, it can also be used 
for normal word processing (the TIM 
documentation was prepared completely 
with the TIM word processing module). 



200 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 







'/NO. 2 



«3B3BS» 



flWou 



Microsystems — 
the CP/M and S-100 

User s Journal 



0*f4 



"•SO* 






C-** 

'*•<*• 



Olo 



If you are a CP/M user, on any system— 3- 
1 00, Apple, TRS-80, Heath, Ohio Scientific, 
Onyx, Durango, Intel MDS, Mostek MDX, 
etc— after all CP/M is the Disk Operating 
System that has been implemented on more 
computer systems than any other DOS— then 
Microsystems magazine is the "only' maga- 
zine published specifically for you! 

Or, if you use an S-100/IEEE-696 based 
computer— and the most sophisticated 
microcomputer systems available use the 
S-100/IEEE-696 hardware bus— then Micro- 
systems magazine is the "only magazine 
published specifically for you! 

We started publishing Microsystems almost 
two years ago to fill the void in the microcom- 
puter field. There were magazines catering 
exclusively to the TRS-80, Apple, Pet, Heath, 
etc. system users. There were also broad 
based publications that cover the entire field 
but no one system in depth. But no magazine 
existed for CP/M users— nor did one exist 
for S-100 users. 

The why and what of a software bus 

First of all what is a "bus?" And why do we 
call CP/M "the software bus? 

A "bus" is a technique used to interface 
many different modules. Examples are the 
S-100/IEEE-696 Bus" and the IEEE-488 
Bus. These are hardware buses that permit 
a user to plug a bus-compatible device into 
the bus without having to make any other 
hardware modifications and expect the 
device to operate with little or no monifica- 
tion. 

CP/M is a Disk Operating System (DOS). 
It was first introduced in 1974 and is now 
the oldest and most mature DOS for micro- 
computer systems. CP/M has now been 
implemented on over 250 different computer 
systems. It has been implemented on hard 
disk systems as well as floppy disk systems. 
It is supported by two user groups (CP/M- 
UG and SIG/M-UG) that have released over 
sixty volumes containing over 1 ,600 public 
domain programs that can be loaded and 
run on systems using the CP/M DOS. Add 
to this another 1,500 commercially available 



CP/M is the software 

S-100 is the hardware bus 

for sophisticated microcomputer users! 



CP/M software packages and you have the 
largest applications software base in exis- 
tence. 

CP/M is the only DOS for micros that has 
stood the test of time (seven years) with 
the highest level of compatibility from version 
to version. And over the years this compati- 
bility has been maintained as new features 
have been added. 

This is why we say "CP/M is the software 
bus and why Microsystems magazine is 
vital to providing CP/M users with technical 
information on using CP/M, interfacing to 
CP/M, new CP/M compatible products and 
for CP/M users to exchange ideas. 

Why support the S-100 bus? 

S-100 is currently the most widely used 
microcomputer hardware bus. It offers 
advantages not available with any other 
microcomputer system. Here are a few of 
the advantages: 

S- 1 00 is processor independent. There 
are already thirty different S-1 00 CPU cards 
that can be plugged into an S-100 bus 
computer. Nine 8-bit microprocessors are 
available: 6502, 6800, 6802, 6809, 2650, 
F8, 8080, 8085 and Z80. Eight 1 6-bit micro- 
processors are available: 8086, 8088, 9900, 
Z8000, 68000, Pascal Microengine, Alpha 
Micro (similar to LSI-11) and even the 
AMD2901 bit slice processor. Take your 
pick from the incredible offerings. 

S- 1 00 has the greatest microcomputer 
power. What other microcomputer system 
has direct addressing of up to 16 megabytes 
of memory, up to 65,536 I/O ports, up to 1 
vectored interrupts, up to 16 masters on 
thebus(with priority)and upto 10Mhzdata 
transfer rate? You will have to go a long way 
to use up that computing power. 

S-100 is standardized. The S-100 bus 
has been standardized by the IEEE (Institute 
of Electrical and Electronic Engineers) 
assuring the highest degree of compatibility 
among plug-in boards from different manu- 
facturers. And, Microsystems has published 
the complete IEEE S-1 00/696 standard (all 
26 pages). 



S- 1 00 has the greatest hardware support. 
There are now over sixty different manufac- 
turers of about 400 different plug-in S-100 
boards. Far greater than any other microcom- 
puter system. 

With all these advantages is it any wonder 
that S-100 systems are so popular with 
microcomputer users who want to do more 
than just play games? 

For the serious computer user. 

Each issue of Microsystems brings you 
the latest in the CP/M and S-100 world. 
Articles on applications, tutorials, software 
development, product reviews, and lots more, 
to keep you on top of the ever changing 
microcomputer scene. 

And if you are an S-1 00 system user using 
other operating systems (e.g. North Star) 
Microsystems also supports you. 

Get your copy today 

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DBM Systems, continued... 



The word processor is a bit idiosyncratic, 
however, in that it stores text as a contin- 
uous stream of characters broken into 
arbitrary lines for disk storage. A document 
is entered without any returns and with 
embedded TIM formatting commands, 
which definitely takes some getting used 
to. Changing even one word usually results 
in all the disk records after the point of 
the change being rewritten. This can be 
slow and cumbersome. TIM's authors point 
out that the normal use of the module is 
to produce one or two page form letters, 
so the storage method and the odd syntax 
isn't too much of a handicap. 

The merging of data from a TIM data 
file into a form letter works flawlessly 
and offers good flexibility. Names are 
handled especially well using the inverted 
name field provisions. Data fields can also 
be printed in a tabular format, which can 
be useful for invoices or special letters. 
User defined strings can be entered into 
the form letter as it is printing for special 
applications. 

While the TIM form letter modules 
work quite well once they are learned, 
Innovative Software is aware of the pop- 



The "D" command allows inspection of 
the special TIM directory. The "L" com- 
mands lists specifications of a data file, 
including field definitions, date created, 
key fields, calculated fields, etc. The Sort 
module will re-sort a file, which is only 
necessary when a key field is defined after 
a file exists. Finally the File Maintenance 



One of TIM's strong 

points is the human 

engineering that has 

been incorporated into 

every aspect of 

its operation. 



module handles renaming or deletion of 
files, displaying the disk directory, changing 
or eliminating passwords, changing the 
titles of specific fields and compressing a 
file by removing records which have been 
tagged for deletion. 



ACCEPT 


APPEND 


CANCEL 


CHANGE 


CLEAR 


CONTINUE 


COPY 


COUNT 


CREATE 


DELETE 


DISPLAY 


DO 


DO WHILE 


EDIT 


EJECT 


ELSE 


ENDDO 


END IF 


ERASE 


FIND 


GOTO 


IF 


INDEX 


INPUT 


INSERT 


JOIN 


LIST 


LOCATE 


LOOP 


NOTE 


MODIFY 


PACK 


QUIT 


READ 


RECALL 


RELEASE 


REMARK 


RENAME 


REPLACE 


REPORT 


RESET 


RESTORE 


RETURN 


SAVE 


SELECT 


SET 


SKIP 


SORT 


STORE 


SUM 


TOTAL 


UPDATE 


USE 

Functions 


WAIT 


! (convert to upper 


case) 




$ (substrings) 






EOF 






INT 






LEN 






STR 






VAL 






CHR 







Table 2. dBase Commands. 



ularity of MicroPro's WordStar and Small 
Business Associates' Magic Wand word 
processors. A new module called TIM- 
MAIL is being offered at an additional 10 
percent charge which will convert TIM 
data files to a form usable by Magic Wand 
or WordStar's MailMerge utility. This 
module also works well and provides an 
added measure of flexibility for users who 
do not wish to abandon their word pro- 
cessors merely to use TIM's capabilities. 
The other modules listed on the Master 
Menu are mainly housekeeping utilities. 



Weaknesses 

Like any fine program, TIM has a few 
weaknesses as well. Only one file can be 
handled at a time, which prevents the 
information transfer between files that 
some other DBMs can manage. No pro- 
vision is made to translate files stored in 
some other data format to the format 
used by TIM. A user with files prepared 
by Basic, a word processor or some other 
application program will have to reenter 
all his data through TIM. Finally, no 
provisions for data manipulation other 



than those built into TIM are provided. 
As we will see, several other DBMs include 
sophisticated high level language type 
facilities which greatly expand the capa- 
bilities of the system. Nevertheless, TIM 
is a top-notch program which offers excell- 
ent human engineering and very complete 
data handling in an easy-to-use package 
at a reasonable price. $400. 

Innovative Software, Inc., 8176 Nieman 
Rd., Shawnee Mission, KS 66214. 

dBASE II 

dBase II takes an almost completely 
different approach to data management. 
There are absolutely no menus in dBase; 
the user's interaction with the system is 
conversational and direct. In my day-to- 
day work, I use a Microdata Reality 
minicomputer. This is a fine unit with 
many capabilities, but its main claim to 
fame is its DBM software program named 
"English" which accepts commands in a 
format approaching natural language 
("verbs" tell the system what action to 
take, followed by "nouns" and "adjectives" 
to specify the items to act upon). dBase 
is quite similar to this excellent program, 
works in a similar manner and, in fact, 
offers more functions. 

dBase consists of a large number of 
modules which perform various functions, 
but the existence of these many programs 
is transparent to the operator. All com- 
munications are through the main dBase 
program. Using the normal interactive 
mode, the user simply enters the commands 
he wants to perform and the system 
executes them directly. The full list of 
commands is shown in Table 2. 

dBase is written in 8080 assembly lan- 
guage and requires a 48K CP/M system, 
a printer and a CRT with cursor addressing. 
Record limitations are much less restrictive 
than TIM, with 32 fields and a maximum 
character count of 1000 per record per- 
mitted. dBase can also handle up to 65K 
records per data file, so much large 
databases can be managed. 

Normal database manipulation is very 
easy. The database definitions are made 
with the CREATE command, with the 
user entering field names (up to ten 
characters), type (character, numeric or 
logical) and field width and decimal 
precision. The file definitions can be 
changed later with the MODIFY command— 
an unusual and valuable feature. Various 
commands can be used to enter data. 
The most often used, APPEND, enters 
data to a newly defined file or adds data 
to the end of an existing file. dBase 
maintains files in its own special format, 
like most DBMs, but can also read or 
write CP/M files in either column aligned, 
fixed position format or the normal comma 
delimited format produced by most Basics 
and other high level languages. This is a 
powerful and convenient feature, since 



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DBM Systems, continued... 



files from other sources can be translated 
to dBase format for manipulation without 
the need for re-entering the data. 

Editing 

Once data is entered, several commands 
can be used to make changes. EDIT 
operates in two modes, depending on 
whether full screen operations are enabled. 
Both modes offer advantages in certain 
circumstances depending on the type and 
magnitude of editing operations to be 
performed, and both are very easy to use. 
Data records can be INSERTed or 
DELETEd. The DELETE command marks 
a record for removal but does not actually 
make the deletion unless the PACK 
command is executed. This allows the 
RECALL command to resurrect a deleted 
record if required. 

Other commands are available to handle 
batch upDATEs (changing specified fields 
in one database to those in another), 
CHANGE data in specified columns, 
REPLACE data fields with a specified 
value or a calculated change to the existing 
values (useful for increasing all prices by 
x%), etc. These commands are very pow- 
erful, and allow changes to large databases 
in a much easier way than laboriously 
correcting or updating each individual 
record. 

Moving around in a data file is easy 
with several commands which move to 
specific record numbers or FIND or 
LOCATE records based on user specified 
criteria of almost any complexity. Files 
can be SORTed with a dBase command. 
The sort is very fast, but will only operate 
with one key; to sort a file by multiple 
keys it is necessary to perform several 
sorts. More often, the user will elect to 
INDEX the file, which prepares a separate 
index file of pointers to records without 
changing or rearranging the data file itself. 
A record can be accessed extremely quickly 
using the index feature. 

dBase has the ability to work with two 
distinct databases more or less simultan- 
eously. While only one can be directly 
manipulated at a time, another data file 
can be accessed for data. Several powerful 
commands allow merging, joining and 
appending data files together in various 
combinations, and the combinational 
operations can be selective if desired. 

The basic command to inspect data 
visually is DISPLAY (LIST is also available 
and is similar). This command, as most 
dBase commands, can take many param- 
eters which determine the exact operation 
performed. For example, to display the 
name, balance and phone number for all 
accounts in a data file with balances over 
$1,000 the command DISPLAY ALL 
ACCT:NAME,BALANCE,PHONE FOR 
BALANCE 1000 might be given. DIS- 
PLAY can also show the structure of the 
data file, files on a disk, etc. Other 



commands can COUNT records, either 
in total or just those that meet specified 
criteria, SUM columns, etc. 

Output 

Written reports are designed by the 
REPORT command. This is one of the 
weaker parts of dBase, in that only normal 
columnar reports can be formatted and 
the user must specify column locations. 
dBase saves the report layout in a special 
file so it can be reused without the need 
to specify all the parameters again. 
REPORT will calculate sub-totals and totals 
for numeric fields but cannot perform 
any more complicated analysis on the data 
it prints. While more complex reports can 



dBase saves the report 

layout in a special file 

so it can be reused. 



be generated with the high level language 
features to be discussed next and the 
current program does what it claims, a 
more comprehensive report generator 
would be welcome. 

Language Features 

dBase includes a comprehensive group 
of commands which, in essence, implement 
a high level data manipulation language. 
The language is reasonably simple to 
comprehend and use, and is capable of 
complex data acquisition and manipulation 
programs, including mathematical and 



The newest version of 

Selector is clearly an 

evolutionary step. 



logical calculations. Facilities are included 
to format screens for data capture, and 
dBase can store screen layouts in format 
files for integration into complete programs. 
The entire language is based on structured 
programming principles and has some of 
the constructs necessary to write structured 
code. Use of the dBase language is defi- 
nitely not for beginners, but experienced 
programmers can do almost anything that 
could be done with most free standing 
high level languages. 

Programs can be stored in command 
files which dBase can execute directly 
(much like SUBMIT files in CP/M). These 
files can call other command files to a 
depth of 16, so highly complex modular 
programs can be developed for a wide 



spectrum of applications. Sample programs 
are included which implement complete 
financial accounting and mailing list 
systems 

Documentation is reasonably good. The 
first portion was written by a first time 
user and gives a good overview of the 
system from a non-technical viewpoint. 
Unfortunately, there are several errors in 
this section and many features are not 
covered. A more normal reference manual 
follows, and careful reading of this section 
is necessary to understand fully the opera- 
tion of all the commands and features. 

Using dBase is fascinating. The inter- 
active access to data is habit forming; the 
user can find out much about this data by 
examining it freely. The high level language 
features are comprehensive and powerful 
for a knowledgeable user. All in all, dBase 
is exceptionally interesting and different. 
$700. 

Ashton-Tate Inc., 3600 Wilshire Blvd., 
Suite 1510, Los Angeles, CA 90010. 

Selector IV 

The Selector series of DBMs dates back 
almost to the inception of serious use of 
microcomputers. I can remember mar- 
velling at the then new CBasic semi- 
compiler and the power and flexibility of 
a very early Selector version. It's probably 
fair to say that Selector was the first DBM 
available for micros that was capable of 
serious use. 

Both CBasic and Selector have come a 
long way since then. CBasic II added 
many features which made the language 
more flexible and suitable for business 
applications, including chaining, the lack 
of which required the user of early Selectors 
to load each program module individually. 
CBasic was widely used because programs 
could be distributed in the tokenized 
intermediate form which did not require 
software authors to reveal their source 
code, but the language has also been widely 
criticized for its relatively slow execu- 
tion. 

The newest version of Selector is clearly 
an evolutionary step. The extensive foun- 
dation provided by its ancestors lends an 
air of maturity to the new version which 
is obvious. Much of the program structure 
and command syntax is very similar to 
the earlier versions, and users of Selector 
II and III will feel immediately comfortable 
with Selector IV. The enhancements in 
the new version are extensive, however, 
and Selector IV is a far more competent 
and powerful program. 

Selector IV requires a 56K CP/M system 
with a cursor addressable video terminal 
and a printer. A simple installation dialog 
handles system configuration, with 17 
common terminals supported directly. 
Instructions for interfacing other terminals 
are somewhat confusing, but the method 
can be figured out after some study. 



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205 



DBM Systems, continued... 



Like TIM, Selector IV is completely 
menu driven. (The Master Menu is shown 
in Table 3). Modules are provided to 
perform all the standard DBM functions 
as well as some unique to Selector IV. On 
screen prompting is widely employed to 
help guide the user, but the prompts are 
not terribly self-explantory; they are more 
reminders of lessons learned only through 
careful study of the manual. 



pointer list or a group of selection criteria. 
Various complex procedures can also be 
incorporated to add flexibility to the 
command structures, which can be applied 
singly or in combination to any data file 
to prepare pointer files based on any fields, 
not just key fields. 

These procedures can also be used in 
Selector's unusually comprehensive file 
conversion and update processes. In 



Record Definition 
Select/Sort Definition 
Line Report Definition 
Page Report Definition 
III-C2 or CBASIC <-> IV 
File Conversion 



(A) Data Entry/Recall 

(C) Select/Sort Execution 

(E) Line Report Execution 

(G) Page Report Execution 

(I) Build Index File 

(K) Batch Update 
EXIT to System (X) 



(B) 
(D) 
(F) 
(H) 

(J) 
(L) 



Table 3. Selector IV Main Menu. 



File Definition 

The file definition module is straight- 
forward and reasonably easy to use. 
Selector provides three data types: alpha- 
numeric, numeric and date fields in a 
variety of formats. Any number of fields 
can be designated keys, with a subset of 
the total field as a key if desired to reduce 
key file length. Selector distinguishes 
between unique and non-unique keys (a 
unique key is a field which must contain a 
value not held by any other record in the 
file). This distinction can be quite useful, 
since Selector can be programmed to reject 
entry of data with preexisting key values. 
Unique keys also come into play in the 
multiple file access procedures we will 
examine shortly. File definitions can be 
modified, duplicated and printed if 
desired. 

Selector IV records can contain up to 
80 fields, but total record length is limited 
to 255 characters by the CBasic language. 
Selector data files are stored in fixed 
position, nondelimited ASCII, which allows 
access with word processors or external 
sort programs. A separate key file is 
maintained with pointers to the location 
of the actual data. 

Data entry is easy, with field headers 
and lengths well displayed. Extensive cursor 
addressing results in nicely formatted 
screens, and several operational conveni- 
ences make entry convenient and painless. 
New data is automatically incorporated 
into the data base with a CBasic sort, 
which rearranges the key file only, and a 
machine Janguage merge module, which 
is directly invoked by Selector IV for 
maximum speed. 

A complete update module allows 
sequential or random examination and/or 
modification of existing data. Portions of 
keys can be used to locate desired records, 
and the system again handles merging 
changed records into the data files auto- 
matically. 

As in earlier versions, Selector IV 



provides for the definition of separate 
command files to create either a sorted 
addition to direct conversions between 
Selector IV and Selector III and normal 
CBasic data files, Selector IV can com- 
pletely convert a data file in any number 
of ways, including splitting it into two 
distinct files, adding or subtracting fields, 
redefining key fields, mathematically 
manipulating fields, etc. These operations 
can be controlled by various pointer files 
to exclude records selectively or to proceed 
in any designated order. 

Interactions can be established among 
up to six distinct data files. Batch updating 
is possible, with data files accessing records 
in unrelated files easily, usually through 
unique key fields to assure that the exact 



FMS-80 is highly 

modular and is totally 

menu-driven. 



record desired is modified. This flexibility 
allows quite complex applications to be 
structured, and it is possible to envision 
complete inventory control, order pro- 
cessing and other business systems designed 
completely with Selector IV. While Selector 
does not include a separate high level 
language like dBase and FMS-80, the 
procedure syntax can perform many of 
the same functions without quite as much 
programming knowledge required. This 
is not to say that using the procedure 
system is easy; designing the applications 
is complicated and rather confusing until 
experiecne clarifies the methodology. 

Output 

Selector includes two report generating 
modules. One produces columnar reports 
or labels and the other handles page 
formatted reports and can produce cus- 
tomized invoice forms, checks, etc. The 



procedure syntax can also be used with 
these programs, allowing quite complex 
report design. The modules which handle 
report generation are very well done, and 
design of even complicated reports is quite 
easy. 

In general, Selector IV performs well 
and is a notable advance over earlier 
versions. While it is smooth and easy to 
use, execution speeds are still limited by 
the use of CBasic. It seems that the newest 
version is faster than before, but certain 
operations are noticeably slower than with 
some of the assembly language DBMs. 
Nevertheless, Selector IV does everything 
it claims, which is quite a bit. $550. 

Micro-Ap Inc., 1033 Village Parkway, 
Suite 206, Dublin, CA 94560. 

FMS-80 

FMS-80 is the most expensive of the 
four DBMs reviewed here, and perhaps 
appropriately is the most comprehensive 
as well. In many respects it is similar in 
overall structure to Selector IV, but it 
incorporates and expands upon many of 
the features of dBase as well. 

Written in 8080 assembly language, FMS- 
80 requires a cursor addressable video 
terminal and a printer. Configuring the 
program requires several steps. A param- 
eter file must be set up for the specific 
terminal to be used; the code for several 
standard units is included and a reasonably 
straightforward dialog is provided to handle 
other terminals. Three other customization 
files are available. One contains a single 
line of text which is used to title reports. 
The second can hold a ten-line block of 
text which the program displays at start 
up. The last is a special LOCATE file 
which gives the program information about 
the system environment, indicates which 
disks various types of programs will reside 
on and sets several system options to the 
user's preference. The LOCATE file might 
be a bit confusing to a first time user, but 
special programs are provided to guide 
the installer through the options. 

The FMS-80 package includes a remark- 
able program called the Shell. The Shell 
is named FMS on the distribution disk; 
when FMS-80 is invoked, the Shell actually 
gains control, replacing CP/M's standard 
Console Command Processor (CCP). The 
main difference is that the Shell will allow 
chaining and submit-type files from any 
drive, not just drive A:. This can be a 
tremendous convenience, and is used 
extensively by FMS-80 to chain programs 
and execute sequences of instructions. 
The Shell also handles redirection of input 
and output and will execute most of the 
standard CP/M functions directly; 27 Shell 
calls are available for various purposes. I 
understand that patches to allow use of 
the Shell from Microsoft Basic and other 
common high level languages will be sold 
separately soon. 



j> 



206 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



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CREATIVE COMPUTING 



207 



DBM Systems, continued... 




1. FILE DEFINITIONS MENU 

2. FILE MAINTENANCE MENU 

3. FILE REPORTS MENU 

4. UTILITY 

5. HELP 

6 . BATCH 

7. USER MENU 

8. EXIT FMS-80 



Table 4. FMS-80 Main Menu. 



1. DEFINE FD 

2. GLOSSARY 

3. DEFINE KEYS 

4. PRINT KEY DEFINITIONS 

5. SELECT 

6. PRINT SELECTION 

7. DEFINE SCREEN 

8. PRINT SCREEN DEFINITION 

9. DEFINE REPORT 

10. PRINT REPORT DEFINITION 

11. COMPILE EFM REQUEST 

12. UTILITY 

13. DEFINE MENU 

14. PRINT MENU DEFINITION 

15. FILE MAINTENANCE MENU 

16. FILE REPORTS MENU 

17. FMS-80 MAIN MENU 

18. EXIT FMS-80 



Table 5. FMS-80 File Definitions Menu. 



FMS-80 is highly modular and is totally 
menu-driven. The main master menu 
(Table 4) invokes the three main menus 
which perform most of the standard DBM 
functions as well as the Utility Menu which 
duplicates the CP/M Directory, Erase and 
Rename functions, the Help Menu which 
accesses special assistance files which the 
user can easily prepare to guide an operator 
through system operation and the Batch 
Menu which can execute prepared com- 
mand files or directly execute CP/M 
commands from within FMS-80. 

File Definition 

The File Definitions Menu (Table 5) 
handles definition of fields, keys and 
selection criteria. Most of these modules 
use the FMS-80 full screen editor. This is 
an interesting editing program which uses 
extensive cursor manipulations and very 
complete operator prompting. Single letter 
prompts are used with no need to remem- 
ber complex control key functions. While 
the basic operation of the editor is always 
similar, special versions are used for 
different purposes; in general, the only 
changes are the specific elements to be 



AUTO 

CASE 

CURSE 

EJECT 

ENDIF 

ENTERU 

FLUSH 

IF END 

KWRITE 

NWRITE 

RETURN 

SHELL 

SWITCH 



BREAK 

CLEAR 

DEFAULT 

ELSE 

ENDSWITCH 

ENTERR 

GOTO 

IF ERROR 

NOAUTO 

PRINT 

REWRITE 

SKIP 

WRITE 



CALL 

CLEARLN 

DISPLAY 

END 

ENTER 

ENTERUR 

IF 

KREAD 

NREAD 

READ 

RMOVE 

STOP 



Table 6. FMS-80 Extended File Management Language Commands. 



entered. The editor is easy to learn and 
greatly enhances interaction with FMS- 
80. 

Record length is virtually unlimited, and 
multiple keys can be defined. Numeric 
fields can be formatted with picture strings 
to enhance entry and provide some data 
validation. All FMS-80 files are stored in 
normal ASCII representation, which is 
an advantage in that editors and other 
programs can readily access data and 
control files. Data is stored in fixed position, 
non-delimited format. The Selection pro- 
cedures are similar to those in the other 
DBMs reviewed; normal comparison oper- 
ators and other selection criteria can be 
used in several ways. 

In addition to these relatively standard 
functions, FMS-80 allows designing custom 
screen layouts which can be used for data 
entry and retrieval and custom user menus 
to replace those ordinarily used by the 
system. The definition process for both 
of these unusual features is interactive 
and almost self-explanatory. By using 
custom screens and menus (as well as the 



HELP files mentioned earlier), turnkey 
application systems can be designed which 
don't look anything like a standard FMS- 
80 package and run smoothly and profes- 
sionally. 

The FMS-80 Report Generator is pow- 
erful but rather complex. The user must 
specify column locations and other infor- 
mation; the program will not automatically 
assign reasonable values. Multi-line headers 
and footers can be designed, and a very 
comprehensive set of field break, page 
break and end of report processors are 
available to handle almost any columnar 
report. While much of FMS-80 is simple 
to use, the Report Generator takes quite 
a bit of practice to master. 

The final major subprogram available 
on the File Definitions Menu is the EFM 
compiler. Like dBase, the FMS-80 package 
includes a high level file manipulation 
language called Extended File Manage- 
ment. EFM is extremely powerful, and 
allows complex file handling and data 
management well beyond the already 
comprehensive capabilities built into FMS- 



80 itself. The language contains some 
structured programming constructs (see 
Table 6), but is a bit less structural than 
dBase. The basic language unit is a field 
within a data record, and most of the 
language deals with reading, manipulating 
and writing such fields and records. Full 
random, indexed and sequential access is 
provided. Sufficient flexibility is included 
to handle many tasks which could not 
otherwise be managed, but, as with dBase 's 
high level language, only an experienced 
programmer will be able to use this power. 
Two full disks of sample programs are 
provided, many of which are quite useful 
in their own right, including conversions 
to WordStar's Mail Merge format, a rather 
nice Real Estate Management program, 
inventory control programs, etc. 

The File Maintenance Menu controls 
updating, generating subfiles according 
to Select Definitions (the system can build 
an appropriate file definition automatically 
if desired, sorting files (with multiple keys) 
and building index files according to pre- 
defined key structures. The Update process 
allows entering and/or changing data, and 
can use either the standard FMS-80 format 
or a user-defined screen. If new data is 
entered or if changes are made to existing 
data, FMS-80 executes a series of programs 
to automatically apply, sort and merge 
the data correctly. As with the other DBMs, 
it is not generally necessary to sort files 
or build indices; FMS-80 handles these 
chores itself in most circumstances. FMS- 
80 index files work just like those in the 
other DBMs; they are pointers to data 
records and can be designated when data 
files are requested to allow use of multiple 
index files sorted in different orders to 
access the same data file, eliminating the 
need for sorting the data in many applica- 
tions. 

The File Reports Menu allows a simple 
printing of a data file without a pre-defined 
Report Definition, counting data elements 
which fit a Select Definition (a more 
cumbersome way of counting items than 
dBase's direct commands, but useful 
nonetheless), executing Report Definitions 
and direct query and update of data files. 
All these modules work smoothly. 

Documentation 

The FMS-80 documentation deserves 
special mention. The normal manual 
contains a tutorial section designed for 
first time users which is good in general 
but fails to explain adequately the com- 
plicated Report Generator. A reference 
section fully details each FMS-80 command, 
and a lengthy manual is provided for the 
EFM language and the Shell. The two 
demonstration disks also include text files 
which are, in effect, extensions of the 
manual. 

More notably, the creators of FMS-80 
are the first to use new technologies to 



208 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



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209 



DBM Systems, continued... 



help train buyers. Two VHS videocassettes 
are available, one covering fundamental 
operations and the other discussing more 
advanced applications and the EFM lan- 
guage. The cassettes are basically lectures 
and demonstrations by Paul Rodman, 
author of FMS-80. He obviously knows 
his product and is an excellent teacher. 
The cassettes themselves will definitely 
not win any production awards; they are 
rather choppy and have distinctly ama- 
teurish production values. Despite their 
production flaws, the tapes are extremely 
helpful and should be purchased by any 
FMS-80 buyer. FMS-80 should be com- 
mended for this project; videotape is a 
natural training medium which should be 
used by more software houses, especially 
those selling programs as complex as FMS- 
80 (I can think of several word processors 
which are getting so complex that this 
sort of training would be immensely 
helpful). 

All in all, FMS-80 is a truly fine product. 
Its human engineering is reasonably good 
for such a complex system and it can be 
configured to handle a wide variety of 
customized applications. It operates 
smoothly and is quite fast. As with dBase, 
FMS-80 will be most appreciated by 
programmers and those adept with high 



level languages, but it can be used readily 
by those with less expertise. $995. 

Systems Plus, Inc., 3975 East Bayshore, 
Palo Alto, CA 94303. 



The creators of FMS-80 

are the first to use new 

technologies to help 

train buyers. 



Summary 

TIM, dBase, Selector IV and FMS-80 
cover a wide spectrum of price and 
complexity, but they are far from the 
complete story. Several other excellent 
DBMs are available, including Condor, 
Global, the Configurable Business System, 
the program generators like Pearl and 
Creator and many others. To choose 
among them is difficult indeed. 

As is often the case with such compari- 
sons, no clear cut "winner" emerges. Each 
of the programs has unique features which 
give it an advantage over the others in a 



given area. Any one might be the program 
of choice in specific circumstances, and I 
have recommended each to clients and 
associates. 

In general, however, certain trends do 
emerge. The DBMs written in high level 
languages have record size limitations, 
offer somewhat less ultimate flexibility 
and execute somewhat slower, but seem 
to have some advantage in human engi- 
neering and ease of use. The DBMs which 
include their own high level data manipu- 
lation languages can handle almost any 
conceivable application but require pro- 
gramming expertise to extract maximum 
benefit. 

These programs are far too complex 
for this review to be anything more than a 
brief overview of each product, but hope- 
fully I have pointed out some productive 
avenues to explore further. Since a good 
DBM can be the cornerstone of so many 
applications and can often be used more 
than any other single piece of software, a 
potential user is urged to evaluate these 
programs in far more depth before making 
his purchase. It is comforting to realize 
that all four of the programs examined 
here are very good, and any of them will 
perform well in a wide spectrum of circum- 
stances. □ 




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WIN AT THE RACES is a new thoroughbred handicapping system that emplovs the for 
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210 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



The Best is even Better... 



Mb 






THE 

MINI 

FACTORY 




THT 

DATA 

FACTORY 



by William Passauer 



You Can't Work Harder, 
So Work Smarter 

This program is important to you. 
We at Micro Lab have tested them all. 
"The Data Factory" is the most versa- 
tile data base system yet developed for 
the micro computer. This system was 
nationally rated as the best selling data 
base on the market, by a leading micro 
computer magazine. We have now ex- 
panded the original Data Factory with 
40 new features on 3.3 DOS to make it 
even more powerful. The Mini Factory 
is almost identical to the original Data 
Factory program, and is a good intro- 
duction to the system at a very reason- 
able price. The Data/Mini Factory 
provides instant accessibility to your 
records and files which you can then, 
rearrange into new combinations to 
have vital information in seconds. 

Get The Best 

The Data/Mini Factory will solve 
your problems. Thousands of people 
have chosen it since we introduced it 
nationally last June. Major corporations 
have used it to handle jobs that they did 
not want to put on their large com- 
puters or that would be too time con- 
suming or costly to program. Small 
businesses have used it to control their 
accounts receivable and accounts pay- 
able. Their mailing lists and sales records 
were easily maintained with the system. 
Churches, hospitals, and schools have 
kept their financial, inventory, and in- 
dividual records up to date. Organiza- 
tions, home users, and hobbyists recon- 
ciled check books, made library or 
collection lists, playing schedules, date 
reminders, and more. 

Our Guarantee 

This program will work. Micro Lab 
chooses to represent a very select group 
of professional programmers that meet 
our high standards for quality. Count- 
less hours have been spent in our labs to 
insure these claims to you, and we back 
them with a contract with our dealers. 



Your Data Factory can always be up- 
dated when new versions of this 
program are released. The Mini Factory 
can be upgraded to The Data Factory 
when the users needs expand. 

Most Advanced System 

The latest breakthroughs in a data 
base system have been incorporated into 
this program. It was designed for con- 
stant use to input and manipulate data 
efficiently. The unique new feature that 
sets it apart from all others is its 
complete modifiability. Data may be 
rearranged, removing part of it from the 
original disk, to add to another or to 
form a new data base, without reentering 
the information again. Add, change, 
transfer, delete, replace, index, recon- 
struct, compute, and compare data at 
any time. Do an incredible 20 level 
search or sort and much more. The Data 
Factory is by far the best for perform- 
ing the work that you must do from day 
to day. 

Easily Learned 

Any one can use it. The program 
prompts you as it runs. The easy to 
follow manual leads you through the set 
up of your data base. Data is stored on 
separate data disks, apart from the 
program. Only the data disks are 
copiable, allowing you to back up your 
data. The data file information is avail- 
able for you to use with other programs. 

Your Insurance 

You can feel secure. Two identical 
programs are included with the original 
purchaser's package. If you make a 
mistake and accidentally blow a disk, 
there is no time or money lost. The 
Extended Warranty Policy is a revolu- 
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tection. For a reasonable annual fee it 
covers all renewals needed on either The 
Data/Mini Factory and all updates add- 
ing new features to The Data Factory. 

Requirements 

The Data/Mini Factory is presently 



being offered for the Apple computer. 
You will need 48K and Applesoft in 
Rom. The system is as powerful with 
one disk drive as with two. It is slower 
but you do not lose any of its capa- 
bilities using only one disk drive. A 
printer or modem is an option with The 
Data/Mini Factory, but a 80 column 
board can be used only with The Data 
Factory. Micro Lab has developed 
another business system, "The Invoice 
Factory." It can work independently 
but is also compatible with the data on 
your Data/Mini Factory disks. 

From A Dealer 

"I have received The Data Factory' 
and I am pleased. It is everything that 
you represented and more. First, the 
packaging is impressive . . . Second, the 
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Third, 'The Data Factory' does 
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Available Now 

The Data Factory has a nationwide 
reputation as a reliable and easy to use 
data base. See a demonstration at your 
local Apple dealer. The price of The 
Data Factory is $150 and the Mini 
Factory is $75. 

There are many reasons why you 
should buy the system— the ease of use, 
the features, the updates, Micro Lab's 
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investment in The Mini/Data Factory 
pays off in time savings every day. But 
you will find the best reasons when you 
ask someone who already has one. We 
are proud of our reputation and will 
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systems that work 

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Announcing 
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Software Systems 
For TRS-80 Users 

The Personal Accounting software package is especially 
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• maintains, updates and sorts personal transaction file 
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• writes and addresses checks and posts transactions— 
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• allocates individual transactions up to 3 ways for tax 
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Written in Basic for easy user modification, the Personal 
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Equipment and 
Software Evaluations 

Looking to buy a computer, peripheral, software package or 
electronic game? Creative's in-depth evaluations can probably 
help you make a better decision. Presented here is a list of the 
products reviewed by Creative Computing over the last several 
years. Back issues, when available ("Yes" in last column), cost 
$2.50 each for one or two issues, $2.00 each for three to nine 
or $1 .50 each for ten or more. Add $2.00 shipping and handling 
per order. Send to Creative Computing, 39 E. Hanover Ave 
Morris Plains, NJ 07950. 

Product and Manufacturer Type Review Vol: No./Page Available 
COMPUTER SYSTEMS 



26 Single Board Computers 
6 Personal Computers 

10 Personal Computers 

11 Small Business Computers 

Altai r 8800 
ii 

APF Imagination Machine 

APF PeCos One 

Apple II 
■I 

Atari 800 

n 

Bally Home Computer 
Compucolor II 

Heathkit H-8 

Heath WH-89 

Heath (New products) 

Hewlett Packard 9815A 

IMSAI 8080 

Interact Model One 
ii 

Monroe Classmate 88 

North Star Horizon 

Ohio Scientific C2P 

Ohio Scientific C2-4P 

Ohio Scientific C4P MF 

Ohio Scientific Superboard 

Pet 2001 (Commodore) 
ii 

ii 

PolyMorphic 8813 

Sinclair ZX80 

Sol -20 (Processor Technology) 

Sorcerer (Exidy) 

Southwest Technical Prod 6800 
Radio Shack TRS-80, Level I 

Radio Shack TRS-80, Level II 



Radio Shack TRS-80, Model 
TRS-80 Color Computer 
TRS-80 Pocket Computer 

Tektronix 4051 
ii 

Texas Instruments 99/4 
ii 

Video Brain (Umtech) 
ii 

Wave Mate Jupiter II 
Xitan Alpha 2 (TDL) 



II 



Comp. Chart 

Comp. Chart 

Comp. Chart 

Comp. Chart 

Feature 

Follow up 

Feature 

Feature 

Feature 

Feature 

Comparison 

Feature 

Feature 

Feature 

Feature 

Feature 

Feature 

Building 

Feature 

Short 

Feature 

Feature 

Short 

Feature 

Feature 

Feature 

Feature 

Feature 

Short 

Feature 

Feature 

Comparison 

Feature 

Feature 

Feature 

Feature 

c eature 

Feature 

Feature 

Feature 

Manuals, Softwa 

Feature 

Feature 

Feature 

Feature 

Feature 

Feature 

Feature 

Manuals 

Feature 

Feature 

Feature 

Software 

Feature 

Feature 



5:11/24 

5:11/30 

6:12/26 

7:5/26 

2:1/13 

2:6/25 

6:5/22 

5:7/26 

4:4/28 

6:12/54 

6:4/22 
6:6/34 
6:12/56 
4:5/56 
5:9/28 
5:10/30 
4:1/38 
5:2/17 
6:4/18 
5:12/26 
2:5/18 
3:1/30 
5:8/24 
5:11/36 
5:9/32 
4:6/54 
4:3/42 
6:10/17 
5:8/22 
5:1/120 
4:4/?4 
6:4/22 
6:12/60 
4:5/44 
6:12/28 
3:3/32 
4:5/33 
5:1/88 
3:1/33 
4:1/35 
re 4:3/22 
4:5/48 
6:12/58 
5:8/30 
7:1/16 
6:12/49 
7:6/196 
2:6/20 
3:2/103 
5:8/28 
6:3/17 
4:3/52 
5:3/84 
3:3/30 
3:6/46 



TERMINALS, PRINTERS AND I/O 



Group Review - 5 Printers 

9 Printers 
7 Printers 
Anadex DP9501 Line Printer 
Apple 80-column Boards 
Apple Silentype 
Base 2 Model 800 Line Printer 
Centronics 737 Line Printer 
Commodore 2022 Line Printer 

Comprint 912 Line Printer 
Dynatyper (Rochester Data) 



Comparison 

Comparison 

Comparison 

Feature 

Comparison 

Feature 

Feature 

Feature 

Feature 

Feature 

Feature 

Feature 



5:12/28 
6:6/20 
Chart 7:7/130 
7:6/22 
7:4/18 
7:8/17 
7:2/30 
7:4/11 
6:5/14 
6:12/64 
6:6/90 
7:7/70 



Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
No 
No 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
No 
No 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
No 
No 
Yes 
Yes 
No 
Yes 
No 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
No 
Yes 
Yes 
Mo 
Yes 
No 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Mo 
No 
Yes 
Yes 
No 
Yes 
No 
Yes 



Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

No 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 



CIRCLE 230 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



212 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Product and Manufacturer Type Review Vol: No. /Page Available 



Epson MX-BO Line Printer 
Heath H-14 Line Printer 
IMSAI Vin Video Board 
Inteqral Data Briqhter Writer 
Malibu 160 Line Printer 
Merlin Video Interface 
Microline 8? Line Printer 
MP I P8G Line Printer 
Progranuna 80-Grafix Roard 
Radio Shack Line Printer VI 
SWTPC CT-R? Graphics Terminal 
SVITPC PR-40 Printer 
Teletype 43 Terminal 
Texas Instruments 810 Line Pri 
TRS-80 Quick Printer II 



Feature 
Feature 
Feature 
Feature 
Feature 
feature 
Feature 
Feature 
Feature 
Feature 
Feature 
Feature 
Feature 
nter Feature 
Feature 



7:7/66 

5: 10/34 

5:8/38 

5:7/17 

5:5/52 

4:5/52 

7:7/74 

7:4/14 

7:6/17 

7:2/26 

5:7/20 

5:8/32 

3:1/29 

5:9/38 

5:11/32 



COMMUNICATIONS PERIPHERALS, MODEMS, ETC. 



Microconnection 
Micromodem 100 (DC Hayes) 
MicroNet (CompuServe) 
Potomac Micro-Maqic MM- 103 
The Source 



Feature 
feature 
Feature 
Feature 
Feature 



TNW 2000 IEEE 48P/RS232C Interface Feature 



7:4/42 
6:3/46 
6:3/56 
6:3/48 
6:3/50 
7:6/26 



MASS STORAGE SYSTEMS - DISK, TAPE, INTERFACES 



Anple Disk II 
Peta-80 (Meca) 

Data Dubber (Peripheral People) 
Fxatron Stringy Floppy 
Heath H-17 Disk System 
Midwest Scientific Floppy Disk 
Sel-Tronics Cassette Interface 
TC-8 Cassette Storage System 
Thinker Toys Floppy Disk 
TRS-80 Floppy Disk 



Feature 

Feature 

Feature 

Feature 

Feature 

feature 

Short 

Feature 

Feature 

Comparative 



5:3/124 

6:8/24 

6:2/32 

6:9/60 

5:9/42 

4:3/44 

5:6/124 

7:6/28 

5:2/24 

5:3/22 



GRAPHICS ENTRY DEVICES AND PLOTTERS 



Apple Graphics Tablet Feature 

Bit Pad (Summagraphics) Feature 

Peri phi con 511 Image Digitizer Feature 

HiPlot Plotter (Houston Inst) Feature 

VersaWriter Feature 

MUSIC, SPEECH AND SOUND SYSTEMS 



7:1/28 

4:4/43 

5:10/25 

5:6/28 

6:6/92 



Group Review - 4 Music Systems 

10 Music Systems 
Ai 1000 Speech Synthesizer 
ALF 10-5-9 Music Roard 
ALF Apple Music Board 
Atari Music Composer 



Comparison 6:10/26 

Comparison 7:2/18 

Feature 4:3/36 

Comparative 4:3/28 

Feature 5:6/102 

Feature 7:1/26 

Feature 7:4/28 

Casheab Music Synthesizer Feature 7:1/30 

Computalker Speech Synthesizer Feature 4:5/62 

Heathk it/Thomas Electronic Organ Feature 6:6/54 

Heuristics Sneechlab Feature 5:7/30 

Micro Composer (Micro Music) Feature 6:2/30 

Micro Music (for TRS-80) Feature 6:1/34 

Musicraft Devel . System (Mewtech) Feature 6:10/49 

Newtech 6/68 Music Roard Comparative 4:3/28 

Orchestra-80 (Software Affair) Feature 7:2/162 

Pet Music Box (Meelco) Feature 6:6/52 

Software Technology Music System Feature 3:5/96 

Solid State Nusic SR-1 Comparative 4:2/28 

Supertalker (Mt. Hardware) Feature 5:10/42 

TI 99/4 Music Maker Feature 7:8/26 

TRS-80 Speech Synthesizer Feature 6:6/96 

TRS-80 Voxbox Feature 6:10/38 

OTHER PERIPHERALS 

BSR/Sears Home Controller Feature 
Chatsworth Mark Sense Card Reader Feature 
Introl/X-10 Home Controller Feature 
R0MPLUS+ (Mountain Computer) Feature 
Terrapin Turtle Feature 

SOFTWARE - LANGUAGES AND SYSTEMS 



5:11/60 

6:4/32 

5:11/54 

6:7/22 

5:3/105 



Comparison of Basics 
ii 

Basic Etc 

Basex 

CBasic (Software Systems, 

Cobol : Microsoft vs Micro 

CP/M Operating System 

Cromemco 3K Control Basic 

Dynamic Debugger (CMNJ) 



Comparative 
Comparative 
Comparative 
Feature 
Inc) Feature 
Focus Comparative 
Feature 
Short Comp 
Feature 



6:7/28 

6:12/70 

3:6/50 

6:10/46 

5:9/48 

6:3/20 

4:6/52 

3:5/83 

3:5/26 



Yes 

No 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Mo 

Yes 



Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 



Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Mo 

No 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 



Yes 

Yes 

No 

Yes 

Yes 



Yes 

Yes 

No 

No 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

No 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

No 

Mo 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 



Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 



Yes 

Yes 

No 

Yes 

No 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



213 




and so are we 

The ATARI® 800™ Computer is getting rave reviews. High 
resolution color graphics and English characters; high quality 
sound; and sleek, modular appearance have made the 800 a 
"must have" for many computer users. Expandable memory, 
advanced peripheral components, and comprehensive 
software library make ATARI a really hot deal, whether your 
application is business, professional or personal. 

SPECIAL OFFER — ASAP makes the ATARI® 800™ the hottest 
deal in town by offering 16K bytes of additional RAM . . . FREE! 
You get 32K for the price of 16K at ASAP's special price of 
only $799.00 

So don't get caught out in the cold. Call ASAP today. 

OPTIONAL ACCESSORIES PRICE 

ATARI® 410™ Program Recorder $ 60.00 

ATARI® 810™ Disk Drive $ 475.00 

ATARI® 815™ Dual Disk Drive $1195.00 

ATARI® 820™ 40-column Dot Matrix Impact Printer. . . $ 279.00 

ATARI® 822™ Thermal Printer $ 349.00 

ATARI® 825™ 80-column Dot Matrix Impact Printer. . . $ 625.00 

ATARI® 830™ Acoustic Modem $ 159.00 

ATARI® 850™ Interface Module $ 139.00 

ATARI® Paddle (CX30-04) and Joystick (CX40-04) .... $ 17.95 
Light Pen (CX-70) $ 64.95 

Complete Software Library includes these popular units: 

Star Raiders $ 34.00 

Space Invaders $ 15.95 

Assembler Editor $ 45.00 

Missile Command Call for price 

Asteroids Call for price 

ASAP offers a 120-day buyer protection policy: full money- 
back guarantee if not totally satisfied. 

Ordering information: name, address, phone; ship by: UPS or Mail. 
Shipping charge: add $2.50 up to 1 lb. (UPS blue); U.S. Mail add 
$1.50 (U.S. Only) ($25.00 minimum order). 

Terms: We accept cash, check, money orders, Visa and Master Charge 
(U.S. funds only). Tax: 6% Calif. Res. COD's and terms available on 
approval (school PO's accepted). 



computer ■ 
products, inc. 

1198 E. Willow St., Signal Hill, CA 90806 



Toll free outside California: 

(800)421-7701 

Inside California: 

(213)595-6431 
(714)891-2663 



CIRCLE 184 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



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Stock Market 



TO«P FlREO SCORE TORPEDO COURSE 



Sea Wolf 



NEW! ASCII 

for the TRS-80* 
Every month you receive a certified ASCII C-20 cassette 
containing: a cover page with a directory of programs 
4 original programs 
an information packed newsletter 
and information on ASCII funded contests 
Rates: 1 year [12 issues] $40.00 
6 months [6 issues] $25.00 
Sample issue $ 5.00 

Write For Overseas Rates 
To subscribe, write to: ASCII 
P.O. Box 516, Valley Stream, N.Y. 11582 
Or call: 516-791-4890 




CIRCLE 116 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



AUTHORIZED TRS 80® DEALER #R491 



$670.00 



MODEL I 

1 6K Level II with Keypad 
26 - 1 056 



$3500.00 MODEL II 



MODEL II, 64K 
26 - 4002 



$875.00 

MODEL III 

MODEL III 16K RAM, 

MODEL III BASIC 

26-1 062 




WE ACCEPT CHECK, MONEY ORDER, OR 
PHONE ORDERS WITH VISA OR MASTER 
CHARGE. SHIPPING COSTS WILL BE ADDED 
TO CHARGE ORDERS. DISK DRIVES, PRINT- 
ERS, PERIPHERALS, AND SOFTWARE - 
YOU NAME, WE'VE GOT IT. 
WRITE OR CALL FOR OUR COMPLETE 
PRICE LIST. 

CAS ELECTRONICS, LTD. 32 EAST MAIN ST. MILAN, MICH. 48160 
(313)439-1508 (313)439-1400 



FULL FACTORY WARRANTY 
ON ALL ITEMS SOLD. 



C & S ELECTRONICS MART IS AN AUTHORIZED TRS 80 SALES CENTER STORE # R491 



CIRCLE 119QN READER SERVICE CARD 



Product and Manufacturer Type Review Vol: No./Page Available 



EMPL (Micro APL) Feature 

Financial Programming Language Feature 

IMSAI 8K Basic 1.4 Comparative 

Infinite Basic (Racet Computes) Feature 



The Last One 
Microdos (Percom) 
Microsoft Basic 4.0 
Microsoft Basic 4.0 Extended 
Microsoft Basic 5.0 
Microsoft Fortran 80 
NEWDOS vs TRSOOS 
Palo Alto Tiny Basic 
Pascal (Apple) 
Pascal (TRS-80 from FMG) 



Short 

Feature 

Comparative 

Comparative 

Short 

Feature 

Comparative 

Short Comp 

Feature 

Feature 



Pet Monitor (Home Computer Center) Feature 



Pilot (for Pet, 4 compared) 

Processor Tech 5K Basic 

SAM76 - TRS-80 Version 

SMAL/80 

SWTPC 8K Basic 2.0 

Syskit (for the 8080) 

Tarbell Basic 

TI Extended Basic 

Tiny C 
it 

TRS-80 Level III Basic 
6800 Basic's (five) 



Comparative 

Short Comp 

Short 

Short 

Comparative 

Feature 

Feature 

Feature 

Feature 

Short 

Feature 

Comparative 



SOFTWARE - APPLICATIONS 

Annie Graphics Utilities Comparative 

Basic Programmer's Toolkit (for Pet) Feature 

Channel Data Book (for Pet) Feature 

Checkbook Maintenance (Computerware) Feature 

CLOAD Magazine Feature 

Data Base Management (Cromemco) Feature 

Data Management (CCA) Feature 

Desktop/Plan 

Electric Paintbrush - TRS-80 

-i le Handling - TRS-80 (Circle) 

File-It - TRS-80 (Practical 

Instant Software (for Pet) 

Interactive Microware 

Investment Analysis Packages 

Library 100 (The Bottom Shelf) 

Mailbag (Systems Design Lab) 

Mail room (Software Works, for MorthStar) Featu 

Mailroom Plus (Peripheral People) Feature 

Micro Pro Super Sort Feature 

MUSE Software (for Apple) Comparative 

Name & Address System (Structured) Feature 



Feature 
Short 
Short 
Appl ) Feature 
Comparative 
Short 

Comparative 
Feature 
Feature 



Pearl 

Personal Filing System 
Pet Diagnostics (Commodore) 
Register (Christianson & Assoc) 
Satellite Tracking (SatTrak) 
Softside Software (for TRS-80) 
Speakeasy Software (for Apple) 
Statistics (TRS-80 Creative 
TR Copy (Data/Print) 
TRS-80 In-Memory Info System 
TRS-80 Personal Finance 
Universal Data Entry System 
User-Defined Character 

Generators (for Apple) 
VisiCalc 
WHATSIT Data Base System 



Feature 
Feature 
Feature 
Feature 
Feature 
Short 

Comparative 
Comp) Feature 
Feature 
Feature 
Short 
Feature 
Comparative 

Feature 
Feature 



4:2/88 
7:5/30 
3:6/49 
7:4/26 
7:8/24 

6:6/26 

3:6/48 

4:2/84 

6:3/40 

5:1/62 

6:1/18 

3:5/83 

6:12/43 

6:2/24 

5:3/49 

7:2/158 

3:5/83 

5:7/114 

3:5/118 

4:2/87 

5:12/34 

6:1/20 

7:5/17 

5:1/68 

6:3/40 

5:11/42 

6:1/26 



7:6/42 
6:7/24 
5:3/26 
5:4/135 
1:6/36 
5:3/128 
5:3/82 
6:5/17 
6:9/188 
5:7/114 
5:3/148 
5:1/105 
5:4/25 
7:5/76 
5:4/24 
7:7/80 
re 7:5/28 
6:3/36 
5:7/34 
5:1/104 
6:6/76 
6:12/68 
7:7/78 
5:7/32 
6:1/36 
5:12/32 
5:1/28 
5:1/105 
5:12/46 
6:11/144 
5:3/107 
5:2/103 
6:5/102 
5:11/38 

6:8/26 
5:4/122 



WORD PROCESSING SYSTEMS AND SOFTWARE 



How to select a word processor 

Apple Writer 

Auto Scribe 

Digital Research ED, TEX 

Easy Writer 

Electric Pencil 



Electric Pencil vs Scripsit 

Executive Secretary 

IDSWord 

Lazy Writer 

Lower Case Plus (Lazer) 

Magic Wand 

Magic Window (Artsci) 

Ohio Scientific WP-1 

Paper Mate (AB Computers) 

Peachtree Software 

Pencil Sharpener, Replacemen 

Peripherals Unlimited 

Scripsit 

Scripsit, Scripmod, SuperScr 



Feature 

Feature 

Feature 

Comparative 

Feature 

feature 

Comparative 

Comparative 

Feature 

Feature 

Feature 

Feature 

Feature 

Feature 

Feature 

Feature 

Feature 
t Taker Feature 

Feature 

Feature 
ipt Feature 



7:7/84 
7:7/54 
6:1/24 

5:10/50, 5:11/48 

6:10/34 

5:2/30 
5:10/50, 5:11/48 

7:7/17 

7:7/44 

5:6/^3 

7:7/34 

7:7/48 

6:8/3* 

7:7/59 

4:4/131 

7:7/50 

4:4/133 

6:3/30 

5^5/46 

6:6/166 

7:7/26 



No 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

No 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

No 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 



Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

No 

Mo 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

No 

Yes 

Yes 
Yes 



Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
No 

Yes 

Yes 

Mo 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 



214 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Product and Manufacturer Type Review Vol: No/Page Available 



Smoke Signal TP-1 
Sorcerer Word Processing Pac 
Spell quard (Innovative Software) 
Super-Text vs Easy Writer 
Technical Systems Consultants 

Edit, PR 
Text 2000 (Info 2000 Corp) 
Wordmaster (Micro Pro) 
Word Master (PolyMorphic R«13) 
Wordpro 1 vs CMC 
Word Processinq Printers 
Word Star vs Electric Pencil 
WP Daisy (TSA) 
'•'P6R0? (for Ohio Scientific) 

EDUCATIONAL SOFTWARE 

Group Review - 14 Packages 

12 Packaqes 
11 Packaqes 
3 Packages 

Bi -lingual Original Adventure 



Feature 
Feature 

Feature 
Comparative 
Feature 
Comparative 
Feature 
Feature 
Feature 
Comparative 
Comparative 
Comparative 
Feature 
feature 



5:1/76 
6:2/34 
7:7/64 
6:7/16 
4:4/123 
5:10/50, 5:11/48 
4:4/128 
5:5/50 
5:5/34 
7:3/26 
5:12/28 
6:2/17 
5:5/36 
6:10/54 



Short 
Short 
Short 
Short 
Feature 



Chem Lab Simulations (Hioh Technology) Feature 



Ecology Simulations - 1 

- 2 
Little Computers, See How They 
Mi Hi ken Math Sequences 
Mind-Memory Improvement Course 
PHI 10 Builder 
Pet Educational Cassettes 

(Peninsula School ) 
Show and Spell (Radio Shack) 
TRS-80 Math h Algebra Packages 



feature 
Feature 
Run Feature 
Feature 
Feature 
Feature 
Feature 

Feature 
Feature 



RECREATIONAL SOFTWARE 



A2-FS1 Flight Simulator 
ABM 

Adventures 1-9 
Android M«a 
Appelodian II 
Apple Bowl 
Apple Talker 
Asteroids in Space 
Astrology (Tandy) 

Astro-scope 

Back-40 

Basketball (Atari) 

Beneath Apple Manor 

Bilingual Original Adventure 

Bridge Challenger 

Bulls and Bears 

Bulls/Hits 

Casino I * II 

Chess Tournament (8 systems) 

CLOAO Maqazine 



(for PET) 
(for TRS-80 



Computer Ambush 
Computer Bismarck 
Conflict 

Creative Software 
Creative Software 
Creature Venture 
Cubes 

Dancinq nemon 
Death Preadnaught 
Oeathmaze 5000 
Dr. Chips 
Doqfinht 
Duel in' Droids 
nunqeon Explorer 
Encounter (for B080 Systems) 
Fracas 

Galactic Attack 
Galactic Sana 
Gal a xv Space War 1 
Hayden Software (for TRS-80) 
Hellfire Warrior 
Hi -Pes Football 
Imaqe Computer Products (for 
Interactive Fiction 
Jaqdstaffel 
The Library 100 



Lifetwo 
Lords of 
The Maze 

The Mean 



Karma 

Game 

Checkers Machine 



Feature 

Feature 

Short 

Short 

Short 

Short 

Short 

Short 

Short 

Short 

Short 

Short 

Short 

Short 

Feature 

Comparative 

Short 

Short 

Short 

Comparative 

Feature 

Feature 

Feature 

Feature 

Feature 

Short 

Feature 
) Feature 

Short 

Short 

Feature 

Short 

Short 

Short 

Short 

Short 

Short 

Feature 

Short 

Short 

Feature 

Feature 

Feature 

Feature 

Short 
Atari) Short 

Feature 

Short 

Short 

Feature 

Short 

Short 

Short 

Feature 



6:0/64 
6:10/56 
7:1/36 
7:3/20 
6:4/80 
6:9/58 



7 
6 
6 

5 
4 



: 5/218 

: 10/42 

:9/78 

9/56 

6/23 

5/70 

:5/68 



7:3/22 
5:3/58 



7:3/28 

7:4/30 

7:5/20 

5:6/124 

5:2/100 

6:0/54 

4:6/46 

6:8/26 

6:12/22 

7:1/168 

7:4/36 

6:8/160 

6:8/156 

7:6/30 

6:4/80 

6:12/36 

5:1/104 

6:6/170 

5:1/104 

7:8/38 

4:6/36 

6:7/156 

6:8/160 

6:11/28 

6:8/31 

6:12/22 

5:11/46 

6:1/140 

7:6/34 

6:8/162 

6:10/178 

7:6/32 

7:1/14 

6:B/162 

7:2/40 

7:3/40 

6:7/162 

4:3/56 

7:6/30 

7:3/42 

7:4/37 



4/37 

4/180 

3/36 

3/42 

9/182 

7:2/42 

6:12/22 

5:1/29 

S:4/24 

6:8/162 

7:3/34 

5:1/104 

6:7/160 



Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

No 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 



Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 

Yes 
Yes 



Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

No 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 



3D EXCITING MUS 
TO YOUR APPLE®! 




REST O 



JJAMtf. .UN 



MEASURE 
END 

SAU 



SUB 







' INS DEI TIE -* 

■ 

9474 FREE 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



215 



A L Fs 9-voice Music Card MCI 

is only $195. 

Here's what our customers have said: 

(Excerpts from unsolicited letters. Copies of original letters available on request.) 

About the A L F system: 

It's a rare enough occurrence when hardware/software lives up to one's 
expectations. For something to exceed one's wildest hopes — as the ALF 
synthesizer certainly does — is a real treat. My congratulations to all 
concerned. 

— Dhahran, Saudi Arabia 

I myself have told several people that next to a disk, I consider the [ALF] 
synthesizer to be the most important peripheral they could purchase for their 
system. Very excellent job! Keep up the good work. 
— Oak Ridge, Tennessee 

I recently purchased 2 of your Apple music boards. Out of the peripherals I 
have for my Apple, I enjoy them the most. It has to be the most enjoyable 
thing that has ever been invented. I hope you continue to develop products as 
clever and enjoyable as this one. The Entry program has to be one of the most 
sophisticated programs I have ever seen. It proves that a hardware manufac- 
turer DOES have the ability to also produce quality software. It is almost 
worth the price of the boards just for the Entry program. 
— Burbank, California 

About ease of use: 

I have had my Music Card MC1 for a little more than a week now and I have 
almost completed entering "The Maple Leaf Rag". I found it to be a lot 
simpler than I thought and so I am very, very pleased. My family isn't because 
I sit up to all ends of the night playing with the blasted thing! 

— Cypress, Texas 
ALF has opened up my head and ears and enabled me to do things musically 
which I would like to be able to do on [conventional] instruments. As much as 
I love the instruments I try to play, I just don't have the talent and technique to 
play what is in my head. By golly, the ALF board doesn't know about my 
limitations, though. I can play hell out of that thing, playing notes and tempos 
which previously have existed only in my head. Many thanks from a frustrated 
musician and satisfied ALF "player". 

— Demopolis, Alabama 

About documentation: 

I don't know much about hardware, but I have been a programmer for 15 
years and I have never seen a better piece of software documentation than 
your user manual. It is a joy to study! 
— Lancaster, California 

About the competition: 

Recently, I purchased an [ALF] 9-voice board and a couple of music al- 
bums .... all I can say is that I wish I had listened and played with it before I 
purchased the Mtn. Hardware board. It sounds about the same and is vastly 
superior in software, ease of use, and price. The Entry program is a joy to use 
and it's easier than Mtn. Hardware's, but then, I guess you guys know that 
already. (Oh yes, you wouldn't happen to know of anyone that wants to buy a 
Mtn. Hardware system? $450 or best offer?) 
— Kirkland, Washington 

I would like to tell you that after having used the system ONLY ONE DAY, that 
I am absolutely delighted with it. In addition, I purchased the three boards 
although I ALREADY own Mountain Hardware's music system. Now that I 
have seen and own your system, I am putting my "old" one up for sale. I think 
that your software makes it far easier to enter music, and that the software 
routines allow for far greater flexibility. Again, I extend my compliments to 
you. As I said, I have owned another music system, and consider myself 
therefore, qualified to make a judgement between the use of the two. Yours is 
the clear choice! 

— Levittown, New York 

See your local Apple® dealer 
or write: 

ALF Products Inc. 

1448 Estes Denver, CO 80215 

Apple is a trademark of Apple Computer Inc 




TRS-80 ADVENTURES FOR 16K COLOR 80 

Extended color or Level II BASIC 

ESCAPE FROM MARS — You are stranded on Mars and some- 
where in the Martian city are the parts you need to repair your 
ship. Our best adventure for new adventurers. 
TREK ADVENTURE — You will recognize the spaceship this 
takes place on. The crew has left— for good reason— but they 
forgot you-and the "Orbit is Decaying." Almost as good as 
being there. 

PYRAMID — Our most advanced and challenging adventure, this 
takes place in our own special ancient pyramid. The builders 
were as nasty as pyramid builders usually are, and ransacking 
this one is a dangerous job. 

ADVENTURES are all written in BASIC, all come with listings, 
and each sells for $14.95. 

ARCADE AND THINKING GAMES 

16K and extended or level II BASIC 

TIME TREK, REAL TIME REAL GRAPHICS TREK. See the 

torpedoes fly and the Klinsons explode. No more scolling dis- 
plays, no more turn taking. — This one has real time and real 
displays. In BASIC - for 16K level II or extended color BASIC. 
$14.95. 

STAR FIGHTER — This one man space war game pits you against 
spacecruisers, battlewagons, and one man fighters. You have 
the view from your cockpit window, a working instrument 
panel, and your wits. Another real time goody. 
BATTLEFLEET — This grown-up version of Battleship is the 
toughest thinking game available on 80 computers. There is no 
luck involved as you seek out the 80's hidden fleet. This is a 
topographical toughie. $9.95. 

SLASHBALL - A two player game of strategy and skill, this is 
like nothing you have ever seen before. This takes fast fingers, 
quick wits and concentration. Playable from age 6 to 65, it is a 
good family game. $9.95. 

FREE CATALOG 

AARDVARK-80 
2352 S. Commerce, Walled Lake, Ml 48088 

(313)669-3110 

CIRCLE 1120N READER SERVICE CARD 



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MARKET 
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Programs for your personal computer. 

STOCK TRACKER uses our technical 
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the Dow turns bullish and bearish. Its j 
four-year track record is available. 

WIPING CQMc&lNY 

Post Office Box 549 
j Clayton, CA 94517 

j 415/672-3233 

C I R CLE 257 ON "eaTe^SERvTce'cARD """—■* 



Product and Manufacturer Type Review Vol: No./Page Available 



Micro Movie 


Short 


6:10/180 


Yes 


Micro Music 


Short. 


fi:10/lP0 


Yes 


Microchess 1.5 


Feature 


5:1/78 


Yes 


H 


Short 


5:2/102 


Yes 


M 


Comparative 


5:10/68 


No 


Microsail 


Short 


6:12/22 


Yes 


Microtrivia 


Short 


5:1/104 


Yes 


Mission Asteroid 


Short 


7:5/22 


Yes 


Mvstery Mansion 


Short 


7:5/22 


Yes 


Oldorf s Revenge 


Short 


7:6/34 


Yes 


Olympic Decathlon 


Short 


7:4/32 


Yes 


Organ 


Feature 


6:9/188 


Yes 


Original Adventure (Microsoft) 


Feature 


6:5/20 


No 


Othello Tournament (4 packages 


) Comparative 


7:7/94 


Yes 


Peninsula Software (for PET) 


Short 


4:5/68 


Yes 


The Prisoner 


Short 


7:3/34 


Yes 


Programma Games (for TRS-80) 


Feature 


6:11/186 


Yes 


Quick, Watson 


Short 


5:5/129 


Yes 


Rocket Pilot 


Short 


6:9/54 


Yes 


Santa Paravia and Fiumaccio 


Short 


7:4/222 


Yes 


Sargon 


Comparative 


5:10/68 


No 


Sargon II 


Short 


6:3/152 


Yes 


Scrambled Eggs 


Short 


5:7/117 


Yes 


Snake Eggs 


Short 


6:8/162 


Yes 


Sorcerer Games (Ouality Softwai 


*e) Feature 


7:2/36 


Yes 


Soundware 


Short 


5:12/154 


Yes 


Space Invaders (Atari) 


Short 


7:4/32 


Yes 


Star Raiders 


Feature 


6:6/162 


Yes 


A Stellar Trek 


Short 


6:10/32 


Yes 


Stimulating Simulations 


Short 


5:2/103 


Yes 


Super Invader (Creative Computi 


ng) Short 


6:4/126 


Yes 


Super Pro Football 


Short 


6:9/54 


Yes 


Super Star Wars 


Short 


6:9/54 


Yes 


Sideshow 


Short 


5:1/104 


Yes 


Sword of Zedek 


Short 


7:6/32 


Yes 


Tankwar (MUSE) 


Short 


5:1/104 


Yes 


The Tartaurian 


Short 


7:6/34 


Yes 


Temple of Aoshai 


Feature 


6:3/140 


Yes 


II 


Short 


7:3/32 


Yes 


Three Mile Island 


Feature 


6:3/38 


Yes 


Time Traveler 


Short 


7:6/32 


Yes 


Tuesday Might Football 


Short 


6:10/32 


Yes 


Video Checkers (Compu-Quote) 


Feature 


5:4/137 


Yes 


The Voice 


Short 


6:12/22 


Yes 


The Wizard and the Princess 


Short 


7:5/22 


Yes 


War Games (Aval on Hill) 


Feature 


7:6/36 


Yes 


The Warp Factor 


Feature 


7:6/40 


Yes 


Z-Chess 


Short 


6:8/160 


Yes 


ELECTRONIC AND VIDEO GAMES 






Group Review - Christmas 1977 


Short 


3:6/34 


Yes 


- Christmas 1978 


Short 


4:6/70 


Yes 


- Toy Fair 1979 


Short 


5:5/16 


Yes 


- Christmas 1979 


Short 


5:11/12 


Yes 


- Xmas 1979 (Pt 2) 


Short 


5:12/17 


' .s 


- Xmas 1980 (Pt 1) 


Short 


6:11/24 


<es 


- Xmas 1980 (Pt 2) 


Short 


6:12/17 


Yes 


Anaze-A-Tron (Coleco) 


Short 


4:6/71 


Yes 


APF MP1000 Video Game System 


Feature 


5:12/24 


Yes 


Atari Video Pinball 


Feature 


4:4/35 


Yes 


Atari Video Computer System 


Feature 


4:4/37 


Yes 


1979 Cartridges 


Feature 


5:10/33 


No 


Boris Chess 


Comparative 


5:10/68 


No 


Checker Challenger 


Feature 


5:4/120 


Yes 


Chess Challenger 


Short 


3:6/35 


Yes 


Model X 


Short 


4:6/72 


Yes 


Level 7 


Comparative 


5:10/68 


No 


Code Name: Sector (Parker Bros) 


Short 


3:6/35 


Yes 


Comp IV (Milton Bradley) 


Feature 


3:6/36 


Yes 


Computer Backgammon 


Comparative 


4:6/83 


Yes 


Electronic Battleship (M-B) 


Feature 


4:3/47 


No 


Gammonmaster II 


Comparative 


4:6/83 


Yes 


Mathemagician (APF) 


Feature 


4:2/92 


No 


Mattel Auto Race, Football, 


Feature 


4:1/27 


Yes 


Missile Attack 








Odyssey 200, 300, 400 


Feature 


2:6/24 


Yes 


Simon (Milton Bradley) 


Short 


4:6/71 


Yes 


Speak St Spell, Spelling Bee (TT 


1 Comparative 


4:5/60 


Yes 


TEAMMATE Computer (Logix) 


Short 


4:6/73 


Yes 


Ouiz Ml z (Coleco) 


Short 


4:6/71 


Yes 



MISCELLANEOUS 

Broder Logic Trainer 
Conpic Computer Portrait System 
r.ornpuCruise Auto Control 
Grain M100 Lanquage Translator 
Nixdorf Lanquage Translator 



Feature 


5:3/66 


Yes 


Feature 


5:8/86 


Yes 


Feature 


5:4/132 


Yes 


Comparative 


5:12/20 


Yes 


Comparative 


5:12/20 


Yes 



216 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



r 



Worth A 
Fortune 



Past issues of Creative Computing. What 
are they worth today? It varies. To a collec- 
tor, Vol. 1, No. 1 is worth $7 or $8. To a 
scrap dealer, less than two cents. 

But were not selling old back issues. 
We re all out. 

On the other hand, you know that much 
of the content of Creative Computing is 
timeless. The Depth Charge program in 
Vol. 1, No. 1 is just as challenging today as 
the day it was written. Walter Koetkes 
series of five articles on using computers in 
the classrom are as valid today as the day 
they first ppeared in print. And scores of 
people have written about obtaining re- 
prints of Don Piele's classic problem- 
solving series. 

Our Mistake 

In our early growth years when we had 
5,000 and then 10,000 subscribers we 
couldn't imagine we would ever need more 
than 1 000 extra copies for back issue sales. 
That s about what we printed extra. How- 
ever, by the time we were going into Vol- 
ume 3, we found our stocks of Volume 1 
issues virtually depleted. 

Our Solution 

So we selected the best material from 
Volume 1 , edited it, put it together in book 
form and sold it for $8.95, about the same 




as the six individual issues. Nine months 
later, we did the same with Volume 2. Then 
a year and a half later we did it again with 
Volume 3. 

Most other magazines in a high tech- 
nology field like small computers find their 
contents are quickly out of date. However, 
because we ve concentrated on applica- 
tions and software, our content retains its 
value for a much longer time. Our sub- 
scribers know this and retain their copies of 
Creative Computing long after they ve dis- 
posed of the more hardware-oriented 
magazines. 

Now you can obtain the best material 
from the first three years of Creative Com- 
puting in book form and the next three 
years (minus four issues) in the original 
magazine form. 



Our Offer 

We have a unique special offer, so pay 
close attention to this paragraph. (Compu- 
ter types ought to be able to understand 
this). If you order any one item below, you 
pay the full price. If you order any two 
items, take a 5% discount from the total; any 
three, take a 1 0% discount; any four, take a 
15% discount, any five, take a 20% dis- 
count, and on all six take a whopping 25% 
discount from the total price. 



Best of Creative Computing-Vol 1 $8.95 

Best of Creative Computing-Vol 2 8.95 

Best of Creative Computing-Vol 3 8.95 

Volume 4 (Four issues) 6.00 

Volume 5 (Ten issues) 15.00 

Volume 6 (Twelve issues) 18.00 

Less discount (5% for two items, 10% for 
three, 1 5% for four, 20% for five, 25% for all 
six) Shipping ($2.00 USA, $5.00 foreign) 



We guarantee you II never find a better 
value in computer applications reading 
matter. On average you re getting 128 
pages of solid information for each $ 1 .00. If 
you re not completely satisfied after you ve 
read them, send the books or magazines 
back to us and we'll refund your full pur- 
chase price plus the return postage. 

creative 
GorapatiRg 

Morris Plains, NJ 07950 
Toll-free 800-631 -81 12 

(In NJ 201-540-0445) 



ARTICLES AND COMMENTARY 

• Editorials 

Birth of a M.i^.i/me Ahl 

A Compote! in the Classroom' 

Is Breaking Into A Timesharing 

System A Crime' 1<'yg 
Where Arc We Going' Ahl 

• Computers in Education 
What's Wrong With the Little 

Red Schoolhouse' Ahl 
How to Cope With Your Computer 
Recent Trends in Mathem •• 

Curriculum Re*-* 
CITALA C' 



Ind" 




comP» ttow 



How. 
f XPER Slf 
Monty Pytl 
IFIP Confer 
Transportai 
The Parable 
Technical Tr 
CONDUIT Do 
Statewide Po 
Expected B« 
Hard Core C/ 
PLATO IV Syst 
TICCIT System 
PLANIT The Po 
Careers 

A Computer Car 
Career Educatior 
Key to Your Futui 
Profile of an Indu 



Applications 

Computers and the 
Computer Simulatic 
Weather Forecashn e ^ncattons 
Relativity for Computers All Arithmetic 
Mr Spock s 7th Sense Kibler 
Programming and Languages 
Structured Programming Hoogendyk 
On Computer Languages Ahl 
Toward A Human Computer 
Language Cannara 




Learning About Smalltalk Goldeen 
Eclectic Programming Languages 
A New Approach to Testing — 
Computer Impact on Society 
The Computer Threat to Society Ahl 
Digital Calculators Then and Now 
The Computer Threat to Society' — 
Putting Teeth Into Privacy 
Legislation Hastings 
eaders at Privacy 

Hastings 
ung in the Space Age — 
irer Looks at Data 
Fntze 

■>lic Attitudes Toward 
— Ahl 
'onference 

vacy Should You Have — 
Ex-Social Security 
r — Campbell 
mputers — Malcolm 
igement Information 

Criminal Justice 
.el man 
i to the Computer 

?at Computer 

gs 

Snyder 

AND THINGS 



,jii Exchange — 
oushnell - - Todd 
Playing PONG to Win — Ahl 
Your Own Computer' — Ahl 
Introducing Computer Recreations 

Corp — Todd. Guthrey 
Creative Computing Compendium 
Flying Buffalo — Loomis 
Compleat Computer Catalogue 
National Computers in Education 

Conference' 




'»-> -inn 



ARTICLES AND COMMENTARY 

• Technology — Present and Future 

The Future of Computer Technology - 
Computing Power to the People 
Videodiscs The Ultimate Computer 

Input Device 9 - Bork 
Round and Round They Go 
The $2 98 Computer Library - 
Personal Computers 
Russian Computing - Ahl 
Desk Calculator from Chi 
Microprocessors & Micrc 

The State of the Art - C 
•Languages and Prograrr 
The Reactive Engine Pa 
About Computing - Chi 
David vs 12 Goliaths - 
Sixth Chess Champior 
Beating the Game - Tt 
Simulated Strategies i 

Reisman 
Beyond BASIC Sah 
The Computer Glas 

Teaching with AP' 
Creative Chess - Ko 
SNOBOL - Touretz 
A Smalltalk Airplar 

• Artificial and Extra 
Non-Human Intell 
An Esoteric Ethic. 
The Thinking Cor 
Pnmer on Artif id 
Can Computers 
An Ear on the Ur 
Communicatior 
The Cosmic Su- 

• Literacy. Philosophy. Opinion 

What is Computer Literacy - Moursund 

Computer Literacy Quiz - Moursund 

A Fable - Spero 

Let Us First Make It - Taylor 

Some Thoughts - Lees 

Information Anyone 9 - Griffith 

The Government Dinosaur - Winn 

The Magic of EFTS- Ahl 



• Computers in Education 

Instructional Computing in Schools - Ahl 
Should the Computer Teach the 

Student or Vice-versa 9 - Luehrmann 
The Art of Education Blueprint for a 

Renaissance Dwyer 
Computing at the University of Texas 
Computers in Secondary Schools - 1975 
Compyouter Fair - Thorn, «s 
The Madness known as 

•Every Person and the Computer 

Amateur Computing Libes 

' ^tore 9 You Gotta Be 
berts 



£2***v e 



ssesfi* 




a Computer on 

of 

\hl 
ner 



nbol - Mueller 
oetry - Chisman 
/cCauley 
ar 

y 

IS. AND PROGRAMS 

ns 

j/zles - Ahl 
Recreations 
nto A Lesson - Homer 



me - Yarbrough 
ior Games - Rogers 



1 Geometry 

•n - Dickens 
Magic Squares on the Computer - Piele 
Non-Usual Mathematics - Reagan 
The World of Series - Reagan 
Change For A Dollar - Hess 
Sequences - Jessen 
Progression Problems - Reeves 



The Mysuc ^. 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



217 



CIRCLE 350 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



TRS-80 sensational 

software 



creative 

computing 

software 




CS-3207 TRS-80 Cassette (32K) 49 A QI - 
CS-3703 TRS-80 Disk (32K) * yD 

Trucker 

This program simulates coast-to-coast 
trips by an independent trucker hauling 
various cargos. The user may haul 
oranges, freight or U.S. mail. All have dif- 
ferent risks and rewards. Maximum profit 
comes from prudent risk-taking. 

If all goes well, you can obey the speed 
limits, stop for eight hours of sleep each 
night and still meet the schedule. Bad 
weather, road construction or flat tires 
may put you behind schedule. You may try 
to increase your profit by skimping on 
sleep, driving fast or carrying an over- 
weight load. 

Other factors are choice of routes, truck 
payments, fuel, food, tolls and fines. The 
simulation is engrossing and informative. 



Trucker 

and 

Streets 



of the City 



Streets of the City 

This simulation is modeled on Grand 
Rapids, Michigan, a metropolitan area with 
a population of 550,000. The budgeting, 
cost and work standard bases are derived 
from actual experiences of the city over 
the past five years. The objective of the 
simulation is to complete a ten-year plan 
of street and transit improvements while 
retaining the support of a majority of the 
City Commission. 

During your tenure, you must construct 
streets and Interstate highways, repair 
existing streets, and improve traffic safety. 
For the Transit Authority you have to up- 
grade and replace a delapidated bus fleet, 
increase ridership, reduce maintenance 
downtime and improve on-shedule perfor- 
mance 

Other factors to be considered are oper- 
ating tax levies, construction bonding and 
labor negotiations. The simulation pro- 
vides a substantial challenge and it is both 
educational and entertaining. 



Hail to the Chief 




by 
Phillip W. Brashear 

and 
Richard G. Vance 



CS-3701 TRS-80 Disk. 48K 



$2495 



Your object in this simulation is to be 
elected president. In your campaign you 
set your strategy and carry it out week by 
week. You may run TV or magazine ads, 
travel to different states, hold news con- 
ferences and participate in a debate. 

You must take a position on ten campaign 
issues such as Energy Policy. Unemploy- 
ment, Taxes, Mid-East Policy and Strategic 
Arms Limitations. You must manage your 
fund raising efforts to business, labor and 
mass direct mail solicitations. 

The package includes four models of 
varying complexity; each can be used at 
ten levels of difficulty. The more complex 
models introduce the influences of incum- 
bancy. campaign finance and spending 
limits. 

Hail to the Chief has been used as a 
teaching aid in Political Science, Voting 
Behavior and Computer Science at the 
University level since 1976. It is a well 
proven package which includes a compre- 
hensive manual. 



3 Adventures 



Disk CS-35 16 $39.95 
Requires 32K 




Adventureland (by Scott Adams) 
You II encounter wild animals, 
dwarfs and many other puzzles 
and perils as you wander through 
an enchanted world, trying to res- 
cue the 13 lost treasures Can 
you rescue the Blue Ox from the 
quicksand 9 Or find your way out 
of the maze of pits 9 Happy 
Adventuring! 

Pirate Adventure (by Scott 
Adams)— Yo Ho Ho and a bottle 
of rum You II meet up with 

the pirate and his daffy bird along 
with many strange sights as you 
attempt to go from your London 
flat to Treasure Island Can you 
recover Long John Silver s lost 
treasures 9 Happy sailing matey 

Mission Impossible Adventure (by 

Scott Adams)— Good Morning. 
Your mission is to and so it 
starts Will you be able to complete 
your mission in time 9 Or is the 
world s first automated nuclear 
reactor doomed 9 This one s well 
named, its hard, there is no magic 
but plenty of suspense 

Good Luck 



Voodoo Castle 
The Count and Ghost Town 



Voodoo Castle (by Scott Adams). Count 
Cristo has had a fiendish curse put on him 
by his enemies. There he lies, you are his 
only hope . . . will you be able to rescue 
him— or is he forever doomed? Beware 
the Voodoo man. 

The Count (by Scott Adams). You wake up 
in a large brass bed somewhere in Tran- 
sylvania. Who are you, what are you doing 
here, and why did the postman deliver a 
bottle of blood? You II love this Adventure. 
In fact, you might say it's Love at First 
Byte... / 

Ghost Town (by Scott Adams) Explore a 
deserted western mining town in search of 
1 3 treasures. From rattlesnakes to runaway 
horses, this Adventure has them all! Just 
remember, pardner, they don t call them 
Ghost Towns for nothin! (Also includes a 
new bonus scoring system.) 



Disk CS-35 17 $39 95 
Requires 32K 



f 




Original Adventure 

Disk CS-3518 (48K) $19.95 

This is the original adventure game complete 
with a colossal cave populated with nasty 
little dwarves, a giant clam, trools and much, 
much more. Includes the SAM 76 language 
in which the game runs. 



Adventures on Cassette 

Five adventures are available separately 

on cassette Each requires 16K and costs 

$14.95. 

CS-3007 Adventureland 

CS-3008 Pirate Adventure 

CS-3009 Mission Impossible 

CS-3010 Voodoo Castle 

CS-3011 The Count 



Order Today 



To order any of these software packages 
send payment plus $2 00 postage and 
handling per order to Creative Computing 
Morris Plains. NJ 07950 Visa. MasterCard 
and American Express orders may be called 
in toll-free 



Order today at no risk If you are not 
completely satisfied your money will be 
promptly and courteously refunded 

Creative Computing Software 
Morris Plains NJ 07950 
Toll-free 800-631 -81 12 

In NJ. 201-540-0445 



creative computing software 



TRS-80 is the registered trademark of Tandy Corp 



TRS-80 sensational 

software 



creative 

GompntiR^ 
software 



Air Traffic Controller 





•^ 



S11 95 

Requires 16K 
Cassette CS-3006 



V 



This fast-moving, real time pro- 
gram puts you in the chair of an air traffic 
controller You control 27 prop planes and |ets 
as they land, takeoff and fly over your air space 
You give orders to change altitude, turn, maintain a 
holding pattern, approach and land at two airports 
Written by an air traffic controller, this realistic machine 
language simulation includes navigational beacons and 
reguires planes to take off and land into the wind With its 
continuously variable skill level, you won't easily tire of this 
absorbing and instructive simulation 



Battle Games 



Cassette CS-301 2 $1 1 .95 



4 Programs 



Requires 16K 





GUNNER . Destroy enemy aircraft with your 
anti-aircraft gun. 



SUB HUNT. Pursue and destroy a computer- 
controlled submarine. 





TANK BATTLE. Two players battle it out in GET ACROSS. Evade the enemy in this real- 
this real-time graphic game. time, sound game. 



Advanced 
Air Traffic Controller 

Disk CS-3519 (16K) $19 95 

This is an advanced version of Air Traffic 
Controller (Cassette CS-3006) offering 
additional features and challenge Available 
June 1981. 



Z-Chess on Disk 

Disk CS-351 3 (32K) $24.95 
This is a disk version of cassette CS-301 7. 



Z-Chess II 



Cassette CS-301 7 $19.95 



Requires 16K 



z-oos 



n n ::fl : ::: D D Oil ™»- * 

•» 2?:::23 24::::l TO I a 



::::» 27::::28 » :» H>tttl 
::Q: 
*::::» 3fc:::P #:"39 «:::! 

l::::42 43i_:44 G::::*l <7.:::48 I n» : 

_■ »■* ■ »l 



This is one of the most sophisticated computer chess playing 
programs available today. Seven different skill levels provide 
practice for the beginner as well as challenge the more experi- 
enced players. The speed of Z-Chess will also surprise you. 
Even at the highest skill level it is one of the fastest chess pro- 
grams available. 



Deep Space Games 



Cassette CS-301 3 $19.95 



v muz tw, 
i 

MIMHMIHHHtOltMtmHmmmiMIIMMI 



3 Programs 



Requires 16K 



• IIIIMIIIMIIMMMMMIMIHIIII 



(G) if 

(6> 



SPACE LIFEBOAT. Can you find a suitable 
planet for the survivors of a space 
accident? 




ASTEROID. Escape from enemy space in 
a small but powerful ship in this machine 
language game. 



p»e'9< - wm c 



•*»n * *. 



ft r.TJTJfK ■ ii . mt\- ■ 

i /it I ( g>tn 

e.n m.~ 

■ 
n 



GALAXY 1 . Secure your solar system before 
the enemy threat arrives. 



Order Today 



To order any of these software packages, 
send payment plus $2.00 postage and 
handling per order to Creative Computing 
Morris Plains. NJ 07950 Visa. MasterCard 
and American Express orders may be called 
in toll-free 



Order today at no risk If you are not 
completely satisfied, your money will be 
promptly and courteously refunded 

Creative Computing Software 

Morris Plains. NJ 07950 

Toll-free 800-63 1-81 12 

In NJ. 201-540-0445 



creative computing software 



TRS-80 is the registered trademark of Tandy Corp 




Having trouble 

learning to use 

your computer? 



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The Top Ten 



Good Books for Giving or Getting 



Stephen B. Gray 



We asked Book Review Editor Steve Gray to compile a 
shopping list of the best books he has reviewed in the past 
year. So if you are looking to expand your own library or 
shopping for a gift for your favorite computerists, this is 
the place to look. The following are reviews of the books 
recommended by the well-read Mr. Gray. 



The first book is mainly for math teachers, but is also of 
interest to computerniks. The Dilithium book contains many 
Basic programs covering a wide variety of tastes. 

If you write many programs, the Book of Rules is guaranteed 
to contain much of value, and it also contains a variety of 
programs written according to those rules. For a look at the 
future of all areas of computing, from personal computers to 
modelling, The Computer Age is the book to read. 

For those who want a good background in information 
processing, from I/O devices to security, Marilyn Bohl's textbook 
is excellent. One of the very best books on TRS-80 Level-II 
Basic, with built-in progress-checking, is by Michael 
Zabinski. 

If you're still looking around for a computer, the Leventhal 
book gives excellent advice on what you can do with one, 
how to program one, and what to buy. Heiserman's book on 
Basic is excellent, using the slow-and-easy approach and full 
of excellent exercises. 

Bob Perry's volume is one of the most helpful and complete 
on the subject of selecting a home computer, and also helps 
you understand networking, videotext, and other such areas. 
The tenth book is highly recommended if you're thinking of 
buying a small-business computer; it's a practical guide crammed 
with helpful details. 



CIRCLE 160 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



220 



Computers in Mathematics: A Sourcebook of Ideas, edited 
by David H. Ahl. Creative Computing Press, Morristown, NJ. 
222 pages, paperback $15.95. 1979. 

According to the back cover, this collection of 77 articles 
from Creative Computing is a sourcebook of ideas for using 
computers to learn about mathematics. 

CREATIVE COMPUTING 



The ten sections are on Introducing the Computer and 
How to Buy a Microcomputer System; Thinking Strategies 
and How To Solve Problems; Computer Simulations; Proba- 
bility; Mathematical Miscellany (progressions, sports predictions, 
double precision, circular functions, etc.); Art, Graphics and 
Mathematics; Computer Assisted Instruction; Programming 
Style; Short Programs; Puzzles, Problems and Programming 
Ideas. 

The book has over 200 problems for assignment, and nearly 
100 programs, nearly all in Basic. 

My favorite articles are on computing factorials, solving 
alphametric puzzles (SEND + MORE = MONEY), multiprecision 
multiplication, double precision, circular functions, trig patterns 
on printers, "How to Hide Your Basic Program," and several 
of the short programs. 

This book can be recommended, not only for teachers of 
computer science and mathematics, but for anyone interested 
in computer math. The reprinted articles are the best to have 
appeared in this magazine, from the beginnings in 1974 up to 
1979. 



32 Basic Programs for TRS-80 (Level II) Computer, by Tom 

Rugg and Phil Feldman. Dilithium Press, Box 92, Forest 
Grove, OR 97116. 282 pages, paperback $15.95. 1980. 

Whether or not you like the mix of programs, this book is a 
model of how such a book should be written and published, 
and as such is one of Dilithium's best. 

For each of the 32 programs, the authors provide sections 
on Purpose, How to Use it, Sample Run (photographs of the 
screen, usually), Program Listing, Easy Changes, Main Routines 
(what the various parts of the program do), Main Variables, 
and Suggested Projects. The listings and runs are all printed 
quite clearly. 

As for the programs themselves, they are in six groups: 
applications (biorhythm, checkbook balancing, loan payments, 
etc.), educational (math drills, metric conversion, vocabulary 
expansion, etc.), games (a Mastermind lookalike, obstacle 
race, Wari, etc.), graphics (kaleidoscope and three others), 
mathematics (least-square curve-fitting, integration, simultaneous 
equations, etc.), and miscellaneous (approximation of pi, powers 
of integers, etc.). 

The mix is about as good as can be expected, intended to 
appeal to the widest number of prospective readers, and is 
much better than several other mixes available in similar 
books. 

What may be unique to this book are the "Easy Changes," 
which show how to make the program work differently. "You 
do not have to understand how to program to make these 
changes," the introduction says. The biorhythm program, for 
instance, can display the number of days between any two 
dates if a new line is inserted, and the number of days of the 
chart shown on the screen can be changed by changing the 
number in line 360. 



The Programmer's Book of Rules, by George Ledin Jr. and 
Victor Ledin. Lifetime Learning Publications, div. of Wadsworth 
Publishing Co., 10 Davis Dr., Belmont, CA 94002. 256 pages, 
paperback $7.95. 1979. 

PBR, as the back cover nicknames this book, is a digest of 
272 "essential" rules, grouped into 15 chapters. According to 
the publisher, it covers: knowing the client's needs and solving 
their problems, choosing the right language for their job, 
program layout and displaying program output, step-by-step 

SEPTEMBER 1981 



221 



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Book Reviews, continued... 




program procedures, encoding and debugging procedures, 
evaluating the program's performance, and references to 
latest literature by leading authorities. 

The 15 chapters are grouped into three parts. Part I, Do It 
For Your Client, consists of one chapter, on know your 
clients' needs, and includes rules such as "aim your program 
at the widest circle of users," sub-rules such as "write as 
general a program as possible," and sub-sub-rules such as 
"avoid writing programs that serve only single needs or solve 
single problems." 

Part II, Do It With Style, has four chapters, on Solve the 
problem, Know your programming language, Make your 
program layout readable, and Make your output meaningful 
and useful. 

Part III, Do It With Substance, has ten chapters, on Proceed 
step by step, Use decision and repetition structures, Split 
your program into subprograms, Be careful with variables 
and expressions, Avoid indiscriminate jumps, Code and debug 
your program. Test and edit your program, Utilize software 
tools. Evaluate your program's performance, and Annotate 
and document your program. 

Examples of programming in Basic, Fortran and Cobol, 
plus many references and a lengthy bibliography make this a 
highly useful text for any programmer, even if he remembers 
only a tenth of the rules. 



The Computer Age: A Twenty-Year View, edited by Michael 
L. Dertouzos and Joel Moses. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. 
507 pages, hardcover $25. 1979. 

This look into the next 20 years of computer development 
and the potential impact consists of contributions by 20 
computer authorities such as Terry Winograd, who wrote 
about "convivial computing," Seymour Papert (computers 
and learning), J.C.R. Licklider (computers and government), 
Daniel Bell (the social framework of the information society), 
Roger Noll (regulation and computer services), Robert Noyce 
(hardware prospects and limitations), Alan Pedis (current 
research frontiers in computer science), Joseph Weizenbaum 
(the computer revolution), etc. 

"Written for the serious layperson as well as for the 
professional," the book is divided into five parts: Prospects 
for the Individual (Winograd, Papert, Licklider, etc.), Trends 
in Traditional Computer Uses (business and scientific), 
Socioeconomic Effects and Expectations (Bell, Noll, et al.). 
Trends in the Underlying Technologies (Noyce, Pedis, et al.), 
and Critiques (Weizenbaum and two replies to his piece). 

The book starts with The Computer in The Home, by one 
of the editors, Moses, who presents current and future glimpses 
of home computing, and discusses the issues of privacy and 
government regulation. Computer art is discussed in The 
Return of the Sunday Painter. 

Authors discuss automation, conferencing, learning, infor- 
mation services, modelling, economics, sophisticated software, 
and a dozen other subjects in a language easily understood by 
anybody interested in getting a wide perspective on the world 
of computing. This is the best general book I've seen so far on 
the subject. 



222 



Information Processing, by Marilyn Bohl. Science Research 
Associates Inc., Chicago, IL. 507 pages, paperback $12.95. 
Third edition, 1980. 

CREATIVE COMPUTING 



This third edition of a book first published in 1971 by SRA, 
a subsidiary of IBM, is used by "several hundred colleges and 
universities," according to the preface. 

It is one of the most handsomely produced books on the 
subject of information processing in recent years. The many 
well-chosen photographs, flowcharts, drawings and other forms 
of artwork are all carefully integrated with the text. 

The \1 chapters are on An Introduction to Data Processing, 
An Electronic DP system, Data Representation, Data-Recording 
Media, I/O Devices, Storage Devices, The CPU, Computer 
Operations, EDP Systems, Developing a Program, Programming 
Techniques, Programming Languages, Operating Systems, 
Files and Data Bases, Advanced Systems Concepts, Data 
Communications, and Computer Security and Controls. 

As the chapter titles indicate, the book covers a wide range 
of topics. Each chapter ends with discussion topics and 
references for further reading. 

The text, although detailed and well done, is written in a 
style that is workmanlike rather than conversational. 

It can also be recommended to anyone who wishes to learn 
a great deal about information processing, from WATFIV to 
flowcharting, from virtual storage to modems. 



Introduction to TRS-80 Level II Basic and Computer Pro- 
gramming, by Michael P. Zabinski. Prentice-Hall Inc., 
Englewood Cliffs, NJ. 198 pages, hardcover $14.95, paperback 
$10.95. 1980. 

If you were to pick up this book in a computer store, you 
might put it down after looking at the first couple of pages. 
The preface and introduction are solid masses of type, as is 
most of Chapter 1, the beginning of which sounds as though 
written by a computer. 

But hold on! Starting with page 6, it suddenly blossoms into 
a fine book on Basic, with many examples accompanied by 
highly useful line-by-line comments, excellent flowcharts 
accompanied by line numbers, and over 200 end-of-chapter 
exercises with back-of-the-book solutions to the even-numbered 
ones. 

Before long, you realize that Dr. Zabinski has had a great 
deal of teaching experience. According to the back cover of 
this book, which is indeed "ideal for the beginner who wants 
to learn about computers without wishing to become an 
expert." 

The ten chapters are: Your TRS-80 Computer. Specifying 
Information, Computer Programs, Decisions, Looping, Input- 
Output, Library Functions, Subroutines, Graphics and Strings. 
Three appendices provide Error Messages, Reserved Words, 
and a Basic Glossary. 

A feature of this book that may be unique is the presentation, 
here and there, of lines to be entered into the TRS-80, with 
space for the reader to fill in both the "anticipated display" 
and the actual "display." This is a fine progress check. 

This could well be the best book on TRS-80 Level II Basic. 



Why Do You Need A Personal Computer?, by Lance A. 
Leventhal and Irvin Stafford. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 
287 pages, paperback $8.95. 1981. 

This is another in the growing list of fine microcomputer 
paperbacks from Wiley, and is one of the best on what you 
can do with a computer, how to program it, and what to buy. 

The eight chapters are: Your Own Computer, Components 
of a Computer, Introduction to Basic Programming, How to 
Write a Program, Peripherals, Interfacing, Computer Operation 
and Maintenance, and Selecting a Computer. 



SEPTEMBER 1981 223 





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Book Reviews, continued... 



Seven appendices include a glossary, codes, electrical 
components (for the kit-builder), interface standards, magnetic- 
recording techniques, TV-signal standards, and standard 
flowchart symbols. 

The first chapter provides dozens of uses for a computer, 
from games to music, and looks at the basics of hardware and 
software, which are amplified by the second chapter, in great 
detail and with many photographs. 

The Basic chapter provides a fine explanation of the language 
and gives three program examples: arithmetic quiz, inventory 
control, and Monopoly. 

The chapter on writing programs can be recommended to 
those who have been writing them a while, because of the 
excellent material about flowcharts, top-down design, and 
especially the long and valuable section on debugging, which 
includes dozens of suggestions on where to look for errors. 

The remaining chapters are equally detailed, especially the 
last one, which goes into areas that few, if any, other authors 
have covered, including Buying For Your Background, and 
Planning For The Long Term. 

This is one of Wiley's best, and is a great improvement over 
the original manuscript I was privileged to review for the 
publisher last year. 



Programming in Basic for Personal Computers, by David L. 
Heiserman. Prentice-Hall Inc., New Jersey. 344 pages, hardcover 
$17.95, paperback $7.95. 1981. 

The first four chapters present one of the slowest and most 
careful introductions to the basics of Basic available, with 96 
pages devoted to PRINT, LET, RUN, END, INPUT, GOTO, 
and looping with IF/THEN and FOR/TO/NEXT. 

Example after example is given, and discussed at great 
length. If you can't get past Chapter 1, forget it, you'll never 
learn to program. 

The remaining ten chapters get into formatting hints, 
programming shortcuts, ON/GOTO, RND, GOSUB/RETURN, 
subroutines, functions, logic operators, strings, READ/DATA, 
and arrays. 

Even when discussing multidimensional arrays in the last 
chapter, the author explains everything in such detail that 
this is an ideal text for learning Basic by yourself. 

Microsoft Basic is the "brand of Basic used throughout this 
book," as the author puts it, and follows that with a curious 
statement, "Radio Shack's TRS-80 uses Microsoft Basic, so 
that will be the convention established in this book." 

Each chapter ends with exercises; answers to selected ones 
are at the back of the book. Many of the early exercises ask 
the reader to "describe how the computer will respond to the 
following statements" or "describe what the following program 
will do," excellent progress checks. 

Meant to be used hands-on with a personal computer, this 
is the book Radio Shack should have provided with the Level 
II TRS-80, instead of that all-too-brief reference manual. 



Owning Your Home Computer, by Robert L. Perry. Everest 
House, New York. 224 pages, paperback $10.95. 1980. 

Owning Your Home Computer is one of the most helpful, 
complete and well-written books available, not only as a 
guide for selecting a home computer, but for understanding 
companion areas such as networking, videotext, and help for 
the handicapped. 



224 CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Fifteen chapters cover The Home Information Explosion 
(mainly videotext), home computers, The First Generation 
(early machines), How to Buy a Home Computer, recent 
computers, The Handiest Home Computers (TRS-80, PET, 
Apple, OSI, Compucolor, Sorcerer, Atari, etc.), networks, 
The Mind Appliance, Ninety-Nine Common Things to Do 
with a Home Computer, educational uses, Home Computers 
in Your Work, programming, Help for the Handicapped, 
home control, and The Thinking Computer of the Future. 

As for those 99 Common Things, they include: play games, 
hold game tournaments, create stories, compose and play 
music, learn computer languages, learn advanced math, manage 
family diets, analyze private portfolios, do word processing/text 
editing, and many more. 

Perry has obviously taken a great deal of time to make this 
a fine book with a wide coverage of home computers and 
adjacent areas. The book uses many pictures, chosen for 
illustrative purposes and not just to pad out the book. The 
descriptions of the Handiest Home Computers include lengthy 
paragraphs on system description, memory, peripherals, disk 
drives, printers, software, and system prices. 

The appendix lists 1,050 home computer programs, by 
supplier and by category. A 4 1/2-page glossary is followed by 
a page listing 20 helpful books and six magazines. 

Although there are a couple of pages on computers that 
haven't become popular, or which dropped quickly out of 
sight, such as the Texas Instruments 99/4 and the Bally 
Arcade, this happens with every such book, which begins to 
be out of date as soon as the writer finishes. 



So You Are Thinking About a Small Business Computer, by 

the staff of Computing in Your Business. Canning Publications 
Inc., 925 Anza Ave., Vista, CA 92083. 104 pages, paperback 
$12.50. 1980. 

This book is "especially suitable," according to the letter 
accompanying it, for "(1) small business owners and managers 
with limited or no previous experience who are in the process 
of selecting their first computer; and (2) computer professionals 
whose friends are asking them for help in selecting a small 
computer/' 

Although the book has only 96 pages of text, it is large, 8 
1/2" by 11" in size, and it's from the company that has been 
publishing since 1963 the well-known and authoritative EDP 
Analyzer from which many pointed examples have been taken 
and placed amid the wealth of advice and common sense 
presented here. 

The ten chapters cover How a Computer Can Help You, 
How Computers Work, Hardware, Software, Vendors, The 
First Step— Familiarization, Selecting a Complete System, If 
Custom Programming is Needed, Using a Consultant, and 
What the Future Holds. 

The first appendix provides six pages of computer terms; 
the second, Some Leading Suppliers: major manufacturers 
(Burroughs, Honeywell, IBM, NCR, Sperry Univac), mini 
manufactuers (AM Jacquard, Basic Four, Data General, DEC, 
Hewlett-Packard, Microdata, TI, Wang), micro manufacturers 
(Apple, Cromemco, North Star, Ohio Scientific, Radio Shack, 
Vector Graphics), turnkey system suppliers (Cado Systems, 
Qantel), remote computing services (ADP, Boeing, GE, etc.). 

This may well be the most practical of such guides, with 
much guidance in areas such as what can be expected (in 
customer support, marketing, peripherals, etc.) from manu- 
facturers in the three groups, where to find software packages, 
vendor characteristics, "what NOT to do" if customer 
programming is needed, precautions regarding consultants, 
etc. The photos are few but good; the book is thin but 
crammed with help. □ 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 225 



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A truly challenging game of mental powers* So 
simple you can learn to play it in less than a minute 
- but it may take you a lifetime to master* 

TANJALI is played in three categories - Novice* 
Expert, and Genius* There are a total of 
twenty-eight different levels of play, from Novice 
10 to Genius 1. Every player can find his own level 
of competition, across town or across the country* 

TANJALI is the ultimate test of your ability to 
perceive things as they really are* and to register 
the impressions accurately in your mind* 

But we make it easy on you* We give you the 
Answer first* a simple combination of colored 
circles* triangles and squares* in a 3 x 3 frame* 
Tou are free to choose the length of time you wish 
to look at them* Then the screen will present the 
Question - a similar frame* You just answer Tes for 
each figure that is identical to the original frame* 
and No for each one that is different* 

Simple? Sure it is* (Well* maybe* . ») 

TANJALI calls extensively on right-hemisphere 
functions of the brain? intuitive* spatial* wholistic. 
You'll find it both fascinating and pleasurable to 
explore right-brain cognition* 

If you're tired of blasting harmless aliens out of 
space* give your trigger finger a rest and exercise 
your mind* It's a pleasure* 

Color Computer 1 6 tC(txttndecL basic only) tl9-95 



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CIRCLE 308 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




David Mannering 

Diagrams by John Sankey. 



Like a lot of eager but impoverished 
computer devotees, I was looking for an 
inexpensive way to obtain my own home 
computer. I had scoured the ads in the 
back pages of the computer magazines 
where they advertise slightly used 
vacuum tube computers for $19.95 plus 
postage, but I never found anything that 
was within my means that I felt I could use 
without a Ph.D. in physics or a private 
transmission line to the Grand Coulee 
hydroelectric plant. Things looked pretty 
bleak until I placed an ad in the local 
paper. The next day a small man dressed 
in a dark suit showed up at my door. I was 
immediately impressed by his lively eyes. 
(They were lively mainly in the horizontal 
plane.) He said that he had an inexpensive 
home computer kit and proceeded to give 
me a sales pitch. I don't remember much 
about his presentation since his voice was 
so soothing and rhythmical, and because 
he mentioned the price right up front. 
Now, I'm prevented by an oath of secrecy 
from revealing the exact price of the kit, 
but suffice it to say that between my wallet 
and some loose change I was able to come 



up with the cash on the spot. The man left 
with some mumbling about the warranty 
being voided if the box was opened, and I 
became the proud owner of a home com- 
puter kit. Now that my computer